Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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ẓāʾ

(29 words)

ẓāʾ (A) : the seventeenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 900. Its transliteration reflects…

zabād

(18 words)

zabād (A), or sinnawr al-zabād : in zoology, the civet cat ( Viverra civetta). Sinnawr zabādī Yog̲h̲urt

zabāniyya

(28 words)

zabāniyya (A) : Qurʾānic term usually interpreted as the guardians of Hell or else the angels who ca…

zabard̲j̲ad

(11 words)

zabard̲j̲ad : in mineralogy, the chrysolith. al-Dahnad̲j̲; and Zamurrud

zabbāl

(24 words)

zabbāl (A, Tun g̲h̲abbār) : ‘superintendent of the supply of dung-fuel for the furnace’ of a ḥammām ‘steam bath’. Ḥa…

zabīb

(45 words)

zabīb (A) : dried grapes, raisins or currents. al-Zabbāʾ; or zbīb, a non-alcoholic drink made from dried grape…

zabr

(27 words)

zabr (A) : the act of pruning, practised in Andalusia on the grapevine to increase the vine’s produc…

zabūr

(73 words)

zabūr (A) : term found in pre-Islamic poetry for a written text, and in the Qurʾān referring to a di…

zaʿbūt

(9 words)

zaʿbūt (A) : a woollen garment. Ṣūf

zabzab

(10 words)

zabzab (A) : in zoology, the badger. Fahd

zād̲j̲

(9 words)

zād̲j̲ (A) : in metallurgy, vitriol. Nuḥām

zad̲j̲ad̲j̲

(13 words)

zad̲j̲ad̲j̲ (A) : in zoology, the flight of the ostrich. Mzāb

zad̲j̲al

(80 words)

zad̲j̲al (A) : in its non-technical meaning, ‘voice, sound or cry, trilling or quavering of the voice’ (Lane). Zabūr In…

zad̲j̲d̲j̲āl

(40 words)

zad̲j̲d̲j̲āl (Leb) : in Lebanese colloquial poetry, a composer of Zad̲j̲al vernacular poetry. When contrasted to a ḳa…

zad̲j̲l

(30 words)

zad̲j̲l (A), or zid̲j̲āl : the sport of pigeon-flying, popular from the 2nd-7th/8th-13th centuries. The…

zad̲j̲r

(44 words)

zad̲j̲r (A) : often used as the equivalent of Ṭīra, ~ originally consisted of the deliberate instiga…

zaʿfarān

(40 words)

zaʿfarān (A) : in botany, saffron, Crocus sativus L. or Crocus officinalis Pers. Hindustānī; Ẓafār; and Māʾ zaʿfarān I…

zaffa

(16 words)

zaffa (A) : the procession of bride or bridegroom to their wedding. ʿUrs ff.

zag̲h̲al

(11 words)

zag̲h̲al (A) : in numismatics, a counterfeit coin. Tazwīr

zag̲h̲ar

(85 words)

zag̲h̲ar (T), zag̲h̲ārī (A) : a hunting dog, hound. Ḳaṭā; Zag̲h̲anos Pas̲h̲a zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊ …

zag̲h̲rada

(15 words)

zag̲h̲rada (A, pl. zag̲h̲radāt) : a trilling ululation, as uttered in joy. Makka

zaḥḥāfa

(14 words)

zaḥḥāfa Mālaḳ zaḥḥāfāt (A) : in zoology, the class of reptiles. Timbuktu

zāhid

(20 words)

zāhid (A, pl. zuhhād) : an ascetic, pious person who has given up all worldly goods. Madrasa; Ribāṭ

ẓāhir

(183 words)

ẓāhir (A, pl. ẓawāhir) : lit. the outward meaning of a word, language or event; in legal theory, the me…

ẓahīr

(74 words)

ẓahīr (A) : lit. help, support; in the administration of the Muslim West, a royal decree issued by t…

zahr

(79 words)

zahr (A) : flower, blossom, more precisely, yellow flower, yellow blossom. al-Zahrāwī In prosody, in particular …

ẓahr

(17 words)

ẓahr (A), or ẓahriyya : in manuscript production, the recto of the first folio. ʿUnṣurī

zahw

(15 words)

zahw (A) : a kind of date, from which wine was made. K̲h̲amr

zāʾid

(41 words)

zāʾid (A, pl. zawāʾid) : in grammar, an auxiliary consonant. Wazn; in Persian lexicography, ~ came to b…

zaʿīm

(90 words)

zaʿīm (A, pl. zuʿamāʾ) : chief, leader; a tribal chief. Sayyid; Zahriyyāt In the Ottoman empire, a person in cha…

zāʾird̲j̲a

(48 words)

zāʾird̲j̲a (A), or zāʾirad̲j̲a : in divination, a technique that involved a mechanical means of calcula…

zakāt

(135 words)

zakāt (A) : obligatory payment by Muslims of a determinate portion of specified categories of their …

zak̲h̲rafa

(10 words)

zak̲h̲rafa (A) : in art, ornament, ornamentation. al-Zaḳāzīḳ

zaḳḳūm

(29 words)

zaḳḳūm (A) : in eschatology, a tree growing in Hell with bitter fruit which the damned are condemned…

zakūrī

(19 words)

zakūrī (A) : in mediaeval ʿIrāḳ, bread collected as alms and intended for prisoners and beggars. Mukaddī

zaḳzaḳa

(15 words)

zaḳzaḳa (A) : the twittering of large numbers of birds in trees. al-Zaḳāzīḳ

zaḳzūḳ

(12 words)

zaḳzūḳ (A, pl. zaḳāzīḳ) : in zoology, the carp. al-Zaḳāzīḳ

zalīd̲j̲

(41 words)

zalīd̲j̲ (A, pl. zalāʾid̲j̲), also zallīd̲j̲ : in art, a mosaic composed of fragments of pottery squares …

ẓalīm

(48 words)

ẓalīm (A) : in astronomy, two constellations ( al-ẓalīmānsup:i ), one al- ~ al-s̲h̲imālī ‘the northern male’ or μ…

zallād̲j̲

(13 words)

zallād̲j̲ (A) : a term used for a Nile boat. al-Nīl

zalzala

(11 words)

zalzala (A, pl. zalāzil), also zilzāl : earthquake. Zalzal

zalzūm, zalẓūm

(18 words)

zalzūm, zalẓūm (A) : in zoology, the tusks of the wild boar (syn. k̲h̲and̲j̲al). K̲h̲inzīr

zām

(15 words)

zām : a unit of measurement, equal to three Farsak̲h̲s. K̲h̲arīṭa (or K̲h̲āriṭa)

zamān

(13 words)

zamān (A) : time. al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī zamāniyya (A) : mean time. al-Tasyīr

zamāzima

(34 words)

zamāzima (A) : according to al-ʿAynī, precious ‘bridles’ that the eponymous ancestor of the Sāsānids…

zamīn-būs

(17 words)

zamīn-būs (P) : in Čis̲h̲tī mystical practice, the practice of prostration before the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲. Suhrawardiyya

zamīndār

(51 words)

zamīndār (P) : lit. land-holder, master of the land; under the Mug̲h̲als, a class of holders of rights over land (syn. bū…

zammāra

(53 words)

zammāra (A) : ‘joined’; the name in the mediaeval period for a double reed-pipe. Since the 18th cent…

zamzam

(145 words)

zamzam (A) : an onomatopoeic qualifier, with zumāzim, denoting an ‘abundant supply of water’; the name of t…

zanbaḳ

(9 words)

zanbaḳ (A) : in botany, lilac. Waṭṭāsids

zand̲j̲

(53 words)

zand̲j̲ (A) : term for the peoples of Black Africa, especially those whom the Arabs came into contac…

zang

(9 words)

zang : in music, the sonette. Ṭabl-K̲h̲āna

zānī

(18 words)

zānī (A) : a male fornicator, with zāniya (pl. zawānī), his female counterpart. Ziḥāf; and Bag̲h̲iyy

zār

(64 words)

zār (A, Somali saar) : name for a popular cult of spirits found in northeastern Africa and such adjacen…

zaradkās̲h̲iyya

(21 words)

zaradkās̲h̲iyya (A) : under the Mamlūks, the Amīrs of the arsenal, whose duty was to guard the arsenal. Silāḥdār

zarāfa

(42 words)

zarāfa (A, pl. zarāfāt, zarāfī, zarāʾif, zurāfa; P us̲h̲tur-gāw-palang ‘camel-cow-leopard’) : in zoology, th…

zarbiyya

(17 words)

zarbiyya (A, pl. zarābī), or zirbiyya, zurbiyya : a carpet decorated with multicoloured bands. Binn

zard̲j̲ūn

(17 words)

zard̲j̲ūn (P ?) : a loan-word in Arabic for the colours red and gilt. Lawn

ẓarf

(45 words)

ẓarf (A, pl. zurūf) : lit. vessel, container; courtesy, elegance. Ada Pāzāri̊̊; refinement. al-Was̲h̲m In grammar,…

zarī

(23 words)

zarī (P), or zar baft : a gold brocade, for which e.g. Kās̲h̲ān was well known during the Ṣafawid period. Kās̲h̲ān

ẓarībān

(12 words)

ẓarībān (A), or ẓarbān : in zoology, the zoril. Ḳunduz

ẓarīf

(38 words)

ẓarīf (A, pl. ẓurafāʾ) : in mediaeval Islamic social and literary life, a person endowed with elegance,…

zar-i maḥbūb

(27 words)

zar-i maḥbūb : in numismatics, a three-quarter’s weight Ottoman gold coin, 2.64 g, introduced in the…

zarnīk̲h̲

(9 words)

zarnīk̲h̲ (A) : in mineralogy, orpiment. al-ʿUtbī

zâviyeli

(31 words)

zâviyeli (T) : a term used by Turkish scholars to refer to a type of ‘Convent Mosque’ with a domed o…

zawāḳīl

(43 words)

zawāḳīl (A) : a shadowy group of Arab brigands and mercenaries active during the ʿAbbāsid period. Th…

zawāl

(38 words)

zawāl (A) : ‘midday’, marked for the astronomers by the sun crossing the meridian, and for the simpl…

zawd̲j̲

(56 words)

zawd̲j̲ (A, < Gk zeugos; pl. azwād̲j̲) : basically ‘two draught animals yoked together’, ~ has come to mea…

zawīla

(21 words)

zawīla (A) : a special leather produced in Zawīla, the mediaeval Islamic capital of the Fazzān. Zāwī b. Zīrī

zāwiya

(168 words)

zāwiya (A, pl. zawāyā) : lit. corner, nook; a religious foundation of a quasi-monastic type. In Mamlūk …

zawrāʾ

(27 words)

zawrāʾ (A) : in archery, probably a bow with a strong bend made from nas̲h̲am wood ( Chadara velutina). It was also ca…

zawraḳ

(30 words)

zawraḳ (A, pl. zawāriḳ, < ? P) : in mediaeval Mesopotamia, a skiff or dinghy used for local traffic; larger, sea-going za…

zaww

(40 words)

zaww (A, < ? P zūd) : in mediaeval Mesopotamia, a swift type of vessel, often mentioned as used by caliph…

zāy

(33 words)

zāy (A), also, more rarely, zāʾ : the eleventh letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed z, with numerical value 8…

zayt

(79 words)

zayt (A) : the oil or expressed juice of the olive, although it could be applied today to any oil. The term ~ mag̲h̲sūl |‘w…

zaytūn

(26 words)

zaytūn (A) : in botany, the olive and olive tree ( Olea europaea L is the cultivated olive; Olea oleaster, the wild one…
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