Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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yāʾ

(31 words)

yāʾ (A) : the twenty-eighth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 10. It stands for the semivowel y an…

yābānī

(14 words)

yābānī (A) : in modern Arabic, a person of Japanese descent. Yāʾ

yabg̲h̲u

(43 words)

yabg̲h̲u (T) : an ancient Turkish title, found in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions to denote an office or r…

yabrūḥ

(74 words)

yabrūḥ (A) : in botany, the Mandragora or mandrake ( Mandragora officinarum, Solanaceae, also called Atropa mandrag…

yad

(46 words)

yad (A) : lit. hand, ~ covers a vast semantic range: power, help, strength, sufficiency, ability to …

yada tas̲h̲

(85 words)

yada tas̲h̲ (T) : lit. rain stone, appearing in Arabic texts as ḥad̲j̲ar al-maṭar, a magical stone by means of wh…

yādgār

(23 words)

yādgār (P) : lit. souvenir, keepsake; in numismatics, any special issue of coins struck for a variet…

yāfiʿ

(21 words)

yāfiʿ (A) : in the terminology of childhood, ‘a boy grown up . . . grown tall’ (Lane). Ṣag̲h̲īr

yag̲h̲mā

(7 words)

yag̲h̲mā (P) : plunder. Yag̲h̲ma

yahūd

(24 words)

yahūd (A, < Ar, s. yahūdī) : the common collective singular for ‘Jews’. A less common plural hūd is also used. Yag̲h̲…

yak̲h̲čāl

(19 words)

yak̲h̲čāl (P) : in architecture, a mud-brick structure built in Iran to make and store ice. Iran

yak̲h̲s̲h̲a

(10 words)

yak̲h̲s̲h̲a (Pah) : a pearl. Ṣīr Banī Yās

yaḳīn

(10 words)

yaḳīn (A) : in law, a certainty. Wuḍūʾ

yaḳṭīn

(19 words)

yaḳṭīn (A) : a plant mentioned in the Qurʾān, probably a kind of Cucurbitacea. Masd̲j̲id; al-Mawṣil; Naʿām

yaʿḳūbī

(53 words)

yaʿḳūbī (A, pl. yaʿḳūbiyyūn, yaʿāḳiba, yaʿḳūbiyya) : a Jacobite Christian, the designation for a member o…

yāḳūt

(119 words)

yāḳūt (A, < Gk) : in mineralogy, corundum, a crystallised form of alumina [A1sub:2Osub:3] which occurs in many co…

yali̊

(27 words)

yali̊ (T, < Gk) : lit. bank, shore; in Ottoman times, a residence, villa built on the edge of the wa…

yaltuma

(39 words)

yaltuma (T) : a musical instrument of the pandore type, but smaller with three strings and a waisted…

yām

(101 words)

yām (A, P; < Mon ḳam) : the effective network of communications established by the Mongols to control the…

yamaḳ

(36 words)

yamaḳ (T) : ‘adjunct’; in the Ottoman army, an assistant to an auxiliary soldier, Es̲h̲kind̲j̲i. Esʿ…

yamāma

(17 words)

yamāma (A) : in zoology, wild pigeon, as opposed to the domesticated pigeon, Ḥamām. Yām

yamīn

(152 words)

yamīn (A, pl. aymān, aymun) : lit. the right hand, but often used in Arabic with the transferred sense o…

yamk̲h̲ūr

(13 words)

yamk̲h̲ūr (A, pl. yamāk̲h̲īr) : in zoology, the drone bee. Naḥl

yanbūʿ

(9 words)

yanbūʿ (A) : well. Yamūt b. al-Muzarraʿ

yār

(15 words)

yār (T) : eroded, vertical bank or gorge of a river, cliff. Yārkand

yarāʿ

(26 words)

yarāʿ (A) : in music, a flute, blown into from a hole as distinct from the Mizmār, a reed pipe. Malā…

yarbūʿ

(67 words)

yarbūʿ (A, < Ar) : in zoology, the jerboa. jumping mouse or jumping hare ( Jaculus) of the class of rodents and fam…

yarg̲h̲u

(39 words)

yarg̲h̲u (T) : trial, interrogation, the Mongolian tribunal or court of justice, hence yarg̲h̲uči, a judge. Accor…

yarıcılık

(32 words)

yarıcılık (T) : a land-leasing system in Turkey, in which the peasant uses his own tools, plough and…

yarli̊g̲h̲

(37 words)

yarli̊g̲h̲ (T), or yarli̊ḳ : under the Mongols and their successor states, a decree, edict, command, co…

yāsā

(31 words)

yāsā (Mon) : law, decree, order; in the phrase ‘the Great ~ of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān’, a comprehensive legal …

yasaḳ

(103 words)

yasaḳ : a tribute. Temes̲h̲wār yasaḳ-ḳulu (T) : under the Ottomans, a special …

yāsamīn

(58 words)

yāsamīn (A), yāsimīn, yāsamūn : in botany, the jasmine shrub. Several sub-species are found in the Arab…

yasar

(24 words)

yasar (A, pl. aysār) : a player of Maysir; those who presided over the division of the parts were called al-yāsirūn. al-…

yas̲h̲m

(22 words)

yas̲h̲m (P) : in mineralogy, jade, known to Eastern Turkic peoples as kas̲h̲ and to the Mongols as k̲h̲as. Yasawiyya

yāsid̲j̲

(19 words)

yāsid̲j̲ (T ?) : an arrow with a flat-edged head, recommended for hunting the wild boar. K̲h̲inzīr

yatīm

(62 words)

yatīm (A, yatāmā) : a child, below the age of puberty, who has lost his father (after puberty ~ is not…

yatīma

(31 words)

yatīma (A) : known as al-yatīma, a large white gem, weighing seven dirhams, one of the many gems in the t…

yattūʿ

(19 words)

yattūʿ (A) : in botany, wolfs’ milk, of the class of Euphorbia, a gum resin. Sambas; Summ

yawa

(26 words)

yawa (T), or ḳačḳun : one of the occasional (Bād-I Hawā) taxes paid in the Ottoman empire while recover…

yawm

(352 words)

yawm (A, pl. ayyām) : day, the whole 24-hour cycle making up a day, with Nahār meaning ‘the daylight pe…

yaya

(45 words)

yaya (T) : lit. pedestrian; in the Ottoman military of the 14th-16th centuries, infantryman. Sand̲j̲…
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