Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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(79 words)

ʿibādāt (A, s. ʿibāda) : submissive obedience to a master, and therefore religious practice, correspond…


(9 words)

ʿibādī (A) : Christian. ʿAdī b. Musāfir


(103 words)

ibāḥa (A) : originally, ‘making a thing apparent or manifest’, hence ‘making a thing allowable or fr…


(25 words)

ʿibāra (A) : in mysticism, the ‘literal language’, which is unsuitable for exoteric topics, in contr…


(29 words)

ibdāʿ (A) : absolute creation; primordial innovation; the bringing into existence with nothing prece…


(44 words)

ibdāl (A) : replacement, mutation; in grammar, a term indicating both morphological features involvi…


(10 words)

ibhām (A) : in literary theory, amphibology. Tawriya


(25 words)

ibil (A) : in zoology, the collective noun for the dromedary ( camelus dromedarius) and the camel proper ( camelus bact…


(107 words)

ibn (A, pl. Abnāʾ) : son. Iblīs; descendant. Ögedey ibn adīmayn Dalw ibn awbar (A) : in botany, the sand truffle. Ibn ibn …


(59 words)

ibra (A) : a term used in navigation denoting the needle of a compass, ḥuḳḳa. The rose of the compass was known as bayt al-…


(126 words)

ʿibra (A) : the assessed value of the revenue on an estate. Iḳṭāʿ; Ḳānūn; ~ may have originated simp…


(53 words)

ibrīḳ (A) : in art, a term used for any kind of ewer, irrespective of function or material, but gene…


(42 words)

ibrīz (A) : in numismatics, purified gold. Other laudatory terms for coins are d̲j̲ayyid ‘good, excellent’, k̲h̲āliṣ…


(12 words)

ibrīzim (P) : a type of silk from Ḵh̲urāsān. al-Ḳuds


(71 words)

ibtidāʾ (A) : introduction, prologue; in rhetoric, the ~ is one of the three sections of the poem or…

ič og̲h̲lāni̊

(75 words)

ič og̲h̲lāni̊ (T), or ič ag̲h̲a : lit. lad of the interior; the name given to the ʿAd̲j̲amī Og̲h̲lān afte…


(86 words)

ʿīd (A, < Ar) : festival. Ičil ʿīd al-aḍḥā (A), and ʿīd al-ḳurbān, ʿīd al-naḥr : the ‘sacrificial festival’ during…


(21 words)

iʿdādī (T) : ‘military preparatory’ schools, founded by the Ottoman sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd I in 184…


(47 words)

iḍāfa (A, P ezāfe, T izâfet) : in grammar, the uniting of one term with another, the determinative comple…


(25 words)

idāra (A) : common name in the modern Islamic languages for administration, acquiring its technical …


(45 words)

ʿidda (A) : in law, the duration of widowhood, or the legal period of abstention from sexual relatio…


(24 words)

idg̲h̲ām (A), or iddig̲h̲ām : in grammar, the contraction of two similar consonants in a geminate. ʿIdd…


(20 words)

id̲h̲āʿa (A) : broadcasting ( mud̲h̲īʿ ‘broadcaster’, mid̲h̲yāʿ ‘microphone’), inaugurated in the Islamic w…


(14 words)

ʿid̲h̲ār (A), or k̲h̲aṭṭ : the down of a young man. S̲h̲aʿr


(24 words)

id̲h̲k̲h̲ir (A) : in botany, a fragrant plant used to decorate houses and tombs, but also used by bl…


(59 words)

id̲h̲n (A) : authorisation, in particular, in law, the authorisation necessary to enable certain typ…


(18 words)

id̲j̲āba (A) : ‘answer-poem’, a genre of Arabic poetry. Ṣafī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Sarāyā al-Ḥillī


(40 words)

īd̲j̲ār (A), and id̲j̲āra : in law, a contract to hire, in particular the hiring out of a service and o…


(121 words)

id̲j̲āra (A) : the granting of protection to a stranger according to ancient Arab practice; to ask for protection is ist…


(10 words)

īd̲j̲āz (A) : in rhetoric, terseness. al-Rummānī; Taḍmīn


(36 words)

iʿd̲j̲āz (A) : lit. the rendering incapable, powerless; since the second half of the 3rd/9th century…


(203 words)

id̲j̲āza (A) : authorisation, licence; and Riḳāʿ In the science of Tradition, ~ means, in the strict sense,…


(25 words)

id̲j̲hāb (A) : abortion, which is prohibited after quickening ( nafk̲h̲ al-rūḥ), usually at the end of the four…


(58 words)

id̲j̲māʿ (A) : in law, the third, and in practice the most important, of the sources of legal knowle…


(10 words)

id̲j̲māl (A) : a summary register. Selānīk f.


(109 words)

id̲j̲tihād (A) : lit. effort; in law, the use of individual reasoning; exerting oneself to form an o…


(89 words)

id̲j̲timāʿ (A) : in astronomy, the conjunction (mean or ‘true’) of the sun and moon. In astrology, ~…


(12 words)

id̲j̲tizāʾ (A) : in metrics, the shortening of vowels. Zad̲j̲al
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