Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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ḥāʾ

(29 words)

ḥāʾ (A) : the sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed , with numerical value 8. It is an unvoiced pha…

hāʾ

(29 words)

hāʾ (A) : the twenty-sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed h, with numerical value 5. It is an unvoi…

ḥababawar

(5 words)

ḥababawar S̲h̲aḳīḳat Al-Nuʿmān

ḥabara

(19 words)

ḥabara (A) : a dark, silky enveloping outer wrap for women, worn in the Arab East. Libās

ḥabas̲h̲

(113 words)

ḥabas̲h̲ (A), or ḥabas̲h̲a : a name said to be of south Arabian origin, applied in Arabic usage to the …

ḥabb

(35 words)

ḥabb (A) : grains, seeds. ḥabb al-naʿām (A) : in botany, ‘ostrich berries’, the…

ḥabba

(50 words)

ḥabba (A) : lit. grain or kernel; as a unit of weight, a ~ was a fraction in the Troy weight system …

ḥabīb

(18 words)

ḥabīb (A) : lit. beloved; al-Ḥabīb is the usual Ḥaḍramī title of a Sayyid. Sayrām; S̲h̲arīf

ḥabīs

(9 words)

ḥabīs (A) : an anchorite, recluse. Siʿird

habiz

(48 words)

habiz (SpA) : assumed to have been derived from aḥbās pronounced with a variation in timbre, i.e. aḥbīs, a term denot…

ḥabs

(41 words)

ḥabs Mawḳūf; Sid̲j̲n; ʿUrwa; Waḳf ḥabsiyya (P, < A) : in Persian literature, a…

ḥabs̲h̲ī

(96 words)

ḥabs̲h̲ī : a term applied in India for those African communities whose ancestors originally came to …

hād

(25 words)

hād (A) : in botany, cornucala monacantha, which grows in dried-out basins in the Libyan Desert and provid…

ḥadaba

(18 words)

ḥadaba (A) : on the Arabian peninsula, a plain with a mantle of gravel. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab

ḥadaḳ

(30 words)

ḥadaḳ (A) : the black pupil (of the oryx and addax), which in contrast to the white of the eye was a…

ḥaḍāna

(20 words)

ḥaḍāna (A), or ḥiḍāna : in law, ~ is the right to custody of the child. ʿAbd; Ḥabs̲h̲ī

ḥadat̲h̲

(62 words)

ḥadat̲h̲ (A) : in law, minor ritual impurity, as opposed to major impurity, D̲j̲anāba. A person who …

ḥadd

(257 words)

ḥadd (A, pl. ḥudūd) : hindrance, impediment, limit, boundary, frontier; in the Qurʾān, ~ is used (alway…

ḥaddād

(11 words)

ḥaddād (A, pl. ḥaddādīn) : a blacksmith. Ḳayl; Sūḳ

ḥad̲h̲ad̲h̲

(26 words)

ḥad̲h̲ad̲h̲ (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the suppression of a whole watid mad̲j̲mūʿ (Awtād), …

ḥad̲h̲af

(49 words)

ḥad̲h̲af (A) : a strain of sheep in the time of al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, with a black fleece and almost without a…

ḥad̲h̲āfa

(27 words)

ḥad̲h̲āfa (A) : a missile, recommended to throw between the legs of the galloping animal in hunting …

ḥad̲h̲d̲h̲āʾ

(26 words)

ḥad̲h̲d̲h̲āʾ (A) : a sandal-maker, whose profession in pre-modern times had a low social status beca…

ḥad̲h̲f

(39 words)

ḥad̲h̲f (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the suppression of a moving and a quiescent consonant, a sab…

ḥad̲h̲w

(14 words)

ḥad̲h̲w (A) : in prosody, the vowel immediately before the Ridf. Ḳāfiya

hadī

(24 words)

hadī (A) : the name for the animal sacrificed in order to make atonement for certain transgressions …

hādī

(29 words)

hādī (A, pl. huddāʾ) : the sporting pigeon; the sport of pigeon-flying ( zad̲j̲l, zid̲j̲āl) was very popular from …

hadia langgar

(34 words)

hadia langgar (Ind, < A Hadiyya) : a gift for the permission to cast the anchor, one of the tolls an…

ḥadīd

(54 words)

ḥadīd (A) : in metallurgy, iron; three kinds of iron were distinguished: natural iron, al-sābūrḳān, and artificial…

ḥāḍira

(11 words)

ḥāḍira (A) : in administrative geography, ‘regional capital’. Saraḳusṭa

ḥadīt̲h̲

(119 words)

ḥadīt̲h̲ (A) : narrative, talk; al-ḥadīt̲h̲ is used for Tradition, being an account of what the Prophet s…

hadiyya

(122 words)

hadiyya (A) : a gift which in the Muslim East frequently implied an effort on the part of a person o…

ḥad̲j̲al

(10 words)

ḥad̲j̲al (A) : in zoology, the partridge. Sayābid̲j̲a

had̲j̲ar

(35 words)

had̲j̲ar (A, Eth hagar ‘town’) : the normal word for ‘town’ in the epigraphic dialects of pre-Islamic S…

ḥad̲j̲ar

(58 words)

ḥad̲j̲ar (A) : stone; also applied to any solid inorganic body occurring anywhere in Nature. Ḥadīt̲h…

ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲

(65 words)

ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ (A) : the pilgrimage to Mecca, ʿArafāt and Minā, one of the five pillars of Islam. It is …

ḥād̲j̲ib

(136 words)

ḥād̲j̲ib (A) : the person responsible for guarding the door of access to the ruler, hence ‘chamberla…

had̲j̲īn

(26 words)

had̲j̲īn (A), or s̲h̲ihrī : the ‘mixed breed’, whose sire is better bred than the dam, one of four clas…

hād̲j̲is

(12 words)

hād̲j̲is (A) : in Yemen, term for poetic inspiration. S̲h̲āʿir

ḥad̲j̲m

(17 words)

ḥad̲j̲m (A) : in medicine, cupping without or after the scarification, S̲h̲arṭ. D̲j̲āriya b. Ḳudāma

ḥad̲j̲r

(77 words)

ḥad̲j̲r (A) : prevention, inhibition; in law, the interdiction, the restriction of the capacity to d…

ḥaḍra

(49 words)

ḥaḍra (A) : presence; a title of respect; in mysticism, ~ is a synonym of ḥuḍūr ‘being in the presence of God’. al-…

hady

(19 words)

hady (A) : oblation; a pre-Islamic sacrificial offering which survived in Islam under the name Ḍaḥiyya. Ḥaḍūr

ḥaffāra

(31 words)

ḥaffāra (A) : in zoology, the wrasse, whose Arabic term is found again in the Latinised nomenclature…

ḥaffī

(12 words)

ḥaffī (A) : a cotton material stemming from Nīs̲h̲āpūr. Ḳuṭn

ḥāfir

(43 words)

ḥāfir (A) : a horse, as used in Tradition prohibiting competitions of animals. Ḳimār; ‘horseshoe’, a…

ḥāfiẓ

(22 words)

ḥāfiẓ (A) : a designation for one who knows the Qurʾān by heart. Omdurman; a great traditionist. al-Silafī; and Ḥirz

ḥafr

(9 words)

ḥafr (A) : a dried-up well. al-Uḳays̲h̲ir

haft-band

(26 words)

haft-band (P) : in literature, a variety of Tard̲j̲īʿ- or Tarḳīb-band, particularly common in Mart̲h…

haft-rangī

(31 words)

haft-rangī (P) : in art, a glazed tile technique similar to cuerda seca in which the design is incised and/or dr…

ḥāgūza

(25 words)

ḥāgūza (Mor) : the name of a festival celebrated in Morocco, especially in the country, at the begin…

ḥāʾik

(33 words)

ḥāʾik (A, pl. ḥāka), or ḥayyāk : weaver (syn. nassād̲j̲). Ḥāfiẓ Tani̊s̲h̲ In North Africa, ~, or ḥayk, taḥaykt, is a l…

ḥāʾir

(13 words)

ḥāʾir (A) : a park or pleasure-garden, or zoological garden. al-Ḥāʾik

ḥakam

(18 words)

ḥakam (A) : in law, an arbitrator who settles a dispute (syn. muḥakkam). Ḥaḳāʾiḳ ḥakama Sarafsār

ḥakawātī

(11 words)

ḥakawātī (A) : the professional storyteller of folktales. Taḳālīd

hāk̲h̲ām-bas̲h̲i̊

(23 words)

hāk̲h̲ām-bas̲h̲i̊ (T) : in the Ottoman period, a chief rabbi, sent from Istanbul and having access t…

ḥaḳīḳa

(148 words)

ḥaḳīḳa (A, pl. Ḥaḳāʾiḳ) : reality; essence, truth; in rhetoric and exegesis, al-ḥaḳīḳa is the basic meaning of a…

ḥakīm

(54 words)

ḥakīm (A, pl. ḥukamāʾ; T ḥekīm) : sage; physician. al-ḥukamāʾ (A) : the ninth degr…

ḥaḳḳ

(250 words)

ḥaḳḳ (A, pl. ḥuḳūḳ) : something right, true, just, real; established fact; reality. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal; al…

ḥakma

(27 words)

ḥakma (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, the curb-chain of the bit, which is also composed of branches, s̲h̲ākim…

ḥākūra

(25 words)

ḥākūra (A) : a type of garden. Waḳf; in Sahelian Africa, an estate granted by the sultan to religiou…

ḥakw

(22 words)

ḥakw (A) : a binding for a waist wrapper, worn by both sexes on the Arabian peninsula (syn. brīm). Libās

ḥāl

(152 words)

ḥāl (A, pl. aḥwāl) : state, condition; in mysticism, a spiritual state; the actualisation of a divine ‘…

ḥāla

(27 words)

ḥāla (A, pl. ḥuwal) : a term in the Persian Gulf for a low sandy islet which may be covered at high tid…

ḥalaḳ

(5 words)

ḥalaḳ D̲h̲āt Al-Ḥalaḳ

ḥalāl

(27 words)

ḥalāl (A) : in law, everything that is not forbidden. al-Ibāḍiyya ḥalāl al-dam (A) : …

ḥalāwī

(32 words)

ḥalāwī (A) : in zoology, the guitar fish, whose Arabic term is found again in the Latinised nomencla…

ḥalazūn

(13 words)

ḥalazūn (A) : in zoology, the general term for snail. Ṣadā

ḥalf

(6 words)

ḥalf Ḳasam; Musalsal Al-Ḥalf

ḥalfāʾ

(54 words)

ḥalfāʾ (A) : in botany, alfa-grass ( Stipa tenacissima) and esparto-grass ( Lygoeum spartum), two similar plants …

ḥalīb

(12 words)

ḥalīb (A) : fresh milk, straight from the animal. G̲h̲anam

halīlad̲j̲

(51 words)

halīlad̲j̲ (P, San), or ahlīlad̲j̲, ihlīlad̲j̲ : in botany, myrobalanus, the plum-like fruit of the Terminalia cheb…

ḥālim

(15 words)

ḥālim (A) : a boy who has attained to puberty, or virility. Ṣag̲h̲īr

ḥalḳa

(168 words)

ḥalḳa (A) : a circle; gathering of people seated in a circle; gathering of students around a teacher…

ḥalḳiyya

(18 words)

ḥalḳiyya (A) : in grammar, a term used by al-K̲h̲alīl to denote the laryngeals. Ḥurūf al-Hid̲j̲āʾ

ḥallād̲j̲

(44 words)

ḥallād̲j̲ (A) : cotton carder; the carder separated the fibre from the seed by beating the cotton wi…

ḥallāḳ

(11 words)

ḥallāḳ (A) : a barber, hairdresser (syn. muzayyin). Halīlad̲j̲

ḥallām

(42 words)

ḥallām (A) : a mediaeval dish made from kid or calf, boiled in vinegar until cooked, then soused ove…

ḥall al-manẓūm

(18 words)

ḥall al-manẓūm (A) : lit. dissolving the versified; in literature, turning poetry into prose. Naḳd

hamada

(8 words)

hamada (Alg) : silicified limestone. Gilgit
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