Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(111 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t., yog̲h̲ur-, to “knead”), a preparation of soured milk made by heating. After putting into the heated milk a certain quantity of a yog̲h̲urt already made, which curdles it, it is left to cool slowly until it is solid. This is called māst in Persian and laban in Syrian Arabic. Various dishes are prepared by mixing it with vegetables, e. g. with cucumber: māst-k̲h̲iyār is much esteemed by the Persians (E. G. Browne, A Year amongst the Persians, London 1893, p. 175—178). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Polak, Persien, Leipzig 1865, i. 118 Radlof, Opyt, iii. 412 Aḥmad Wafīḳ Pas̲h̲a, Lehd̲j̲e, Consta…

Yūnus b. Mattai

(865 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, the prophet Jonah, son of Amittai (II Kings xiv. 25). In the Ḳurʾān he is four times mentioned as Yūnus, without his father’s name being given, once as Ḏh̲u ’l-Nūn (xxi. 87), once (lxviii. 48) as ṣāḥib al-ḥūt, “he of the fish”. This epithet explains also why Yūnus is the only one of the major and minor prophets who is mentioned in the Ḳurʾān; a prophet who is swallowed by a fish naturally attracts attention. Muḥammad numbers Yūnus among the apostles of God (iv. 161; vi. 86). Sūra x. is called after Yūnus, and tells of the town whi…

Yūnus al-Kātib or al-Mug̲h̲annī

(632 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, whose full name was Yūnus b. Sulaimān b. Kurd b. S̲h̲ahriyār Abū Sulaimān, was a well known musician and writer on music in the iind (viiith) century. He was the first to make a collection of Arabic songs ( g̲h̲inaʾ). He was a mawlā of al-Zubair b. al-ʿAwwām or of ʿAmr b. al-Zubair, his father being a lawyer ( faḳīh) of Persian origin. Settling in Madīna, Yūnus entered the municipal administration as a scribe, hence his surname al-Kātib. Early in life however, he was attracted by music, and took lessons from the “four great singers”, Maʿbad [q. v.], Ib…


(797 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, the general term for the wandering Turkish tribes in Asia Minor, also found sporadically on the Balkan peninsula. The name in Turkish means “wanderers”, i.e. nomads in general, and some scholars (first v. Strahlenberg [1730], then J. v. Hammer and H. Kiepert) held the view that the Same word was contained in the name of the Iyrkes (’Ιῦρχαι), a people described by Herodotos (iv. 22), who lived ¶ by hunting, roughly in the southern Ural. J. H. Mordtmann has similarly referred the account by Kinnamos of the nomads driven by the Emperor Manuel I in 1175 from the r…

Yūs̲h̲aʿ b. Nūn

(450 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, the Joshua of the Bible. The Ḳurʾān does not mention him by name but alludes to him. When Moses wished to lead his people into the holy land and Israel was afraid to fight with the giants, they were encouraged by two God-fearing men (v. 23—29), who may be recognised as Joshua and Caleb. Neither can it be doubted that the young man ( fatā = naʿar, Exod. xxxiii. 11) who accompanies Moses on a journey to Ḵh̲aḍir (not named) (Sūra xviii. 59—64) is no other than Joshua. Muslim legend has supplied the figure of Yūs̲h̲aʿ with features not found in the Bible. Yūs̲h̲aʿ is given the task of…

Yūsuf b. ʿOmar

(589 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammad al-Ḥakam b. Abī ʿAḳīl b. Masʿūd al-T̲h̲aḳafī, governor of the ʿIrāḳ. Yūsuf was a parent of the famous al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf [q. v.] and governed the province of the Yaman for many years before he was transferred to the ʿIrāḳ by the caliph al-His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik. On Ramaḍān 27, 106 (Feb. 15, 725) he arrived as governor in the Yaman and in Ḏj̲umāda I, 120 (April—May 738) he was appointed governor of the ʿIrāḳ, and took up his quarters in al-Ḥīra while his son al-Ṣalt remained as hi…

Yūsuf b. Yaʿḳūb

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernard
, the joseph ofthe Bible, is a favourite subject of Muslim legend. In Sūra xii. Muḥammad deals with the whole story of Yūsuf, claiming that it is the most beautiful of stories. It is the most beautiful, says T̲h̲aʿlabī, because of the lesson concealed in it, on account of Yūsuf’s generosity and its wealth of matter, in which prophets, angels, devils, d̲j̲inn, men, animals, birds, rulers and subjects play a part. Yūsuf in the Ḳurʾān. Yūsuf is mentioned twice outside of Sūra xii. Once (vi. 84) as one of the pious ancestors; further in Sūra xl. 36: Yūsuf came with cle…

Yūsuf K̲h̲āṣṣ Ḥād̲j̲ib

(577 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
of Balāsag̲h̲ūn, a Turkish author, who wrote the mirror of princes, Kutad̲h̲g̲h̲ū-Bilig in 462 (1069—1070) for the sulṭān of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, Ṭawg̲h̲ač Ḳara Ḵh̲ān Abū ʿAlī Ḥasan b. Sulaimān Arslān [see bug̲h̲rā-khān] and was given the title of chamberlain as a reward. This, the first classic of the Turkish poetry of Central Asia, is completely under the influence of Persian literature. The author no longer uses the syllabic measure of Turkish popular poetry but experiments with a new and somewhat clumsy imitation of the mutaḳārib and says in his preface ¶ that the Iranians would call h…