Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(6,307 words)

Author(s): Haq, Abdul
, an Indian language. The Urdū language, which as the result of a series of causes has now come to occupy the position of a lingua franca for India, is of mixed origin. Neither Indo-Aryan nor Persian can claim a monopoly in its creation and formation; it has, lexically and grammatically, thrived upon the linguistic and cultural stocks borrowed from both. It is the ineffaceable monument of the mingling of two peoples and their cultures — the Hindū and the Muslim. With the advent of the Muḥammadan conquerors from the North-West the first foundations of this language were laid …


(2,015 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the Jordan, Hebrew (ha) Yardēn, but in LXX, Josephus, Pliny and others ó ¶ ΙορδάνηΣ. The etymology of the word is obscure and it is even thought by some to be a loanword (cf. the river name ΙαρδανοΣ in Crete). After the Crusades the name al-S̲h̲arīʿa (al-kabīra), the “(great) watering-place” came into use and is still the most usual name among the Beduins. 1. The Jordan is formed by the combination of three streams: al-Ḥasbānī, Nahr Leddān and Nahr Bānyās. Shortly after their junction, the Jordan reaches the Ḥūle district and here flows through the lake of…


(529 words)

Author(s): Levy, R.
(a.), defined by Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī ( Taʿrīfāt, ed. Flügel, p. 154) as “[Action or belief] in which persons persist with the concurrence of the reasoning powers and which their natural dispositions agree to accept [as right]”. It stands therefore to represent unwritten custom as opposed to established law, s̲h̲arʿ (cf. Māwardī, ed. Enger, p. 5; Bābur-nāma, ed. Beveridge, f. 124b, line 7; transl., p. 194) though attempts have not been lacking to regard it as one of the uṣūl (cf. Goldziher, Ẓāhiriten, p. 204 sq). It is sometimes held to be equivalent to case law or common law. This ma…


(1,063 words)

Author(s): Shafi, Mohammad
, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn, of S̲h̲īrāz, a Persian poet. His personal name is variously given: al-Saiyidī ( ʿArafāt), Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Saiyidī Muḥammad ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir-i Raḥīmī), and Muḥammad Ḥusain ( Mayk̲h̲āna). He was known in his younger days as Ṣaidī ( Mayk̲h̲āna, cf. Oude Cat., p. 126). His father’s name was Zain al-Dīn Balawī (?) and his grandfather’s Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Saiyidī, but the latter was more commonly known as Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a-i Čādar Bāf. ʿUrfī was born in S̲h̲īrāz, where his father held a post in a Government Office. According to the author of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir, the post was that of the vizier of the Dārog…


(4 words)

[See Ḵh̲wārizm.]


(1,534 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, Urg̲h̲anūn, the artificially wind-blown musical instrument known as the organ. It also stood for a certain stringed instrument of the Greeks like the ὄργανον of Plato ( Republ., 399c); see Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ al-Ḏh̲ahab (viii. 91) where the urg̲h̲an is a stringed instrument, and the urg̲h̲anūn is an artificially wind-blown instrument. The word was used by the Persians, it would seem ( Burhān-i ḳāṭiʿ), to denote a species of vocal composition somewhat similar to the mediæval European organum. Of the artificially wind-fed musical instrument the Muslims were acquainted with…


(5,805 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district and town in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. The name. The Syrians write Urmiyā, the Armenians Ormi, the Arabs Urmiya, the Persians Urūmī, the Turks Urūmīye or Rūmīye (through a fanciful derivation from Rūm “Byzantium, Turkey”). The name is of uncertain, non-Iranian origin. Assyrian sources mention a place called Urmeiate in the land of Mann in the vicinity of the Lake of Urmiya (cf. Streck, in Z.A., xiv. 140; Belck, Das Reich der Mannäer, in Verhandl. d. Berl. Gesell. f. Anthrop., 1894, and Minorsky, Kelas̲h̲in etc., in Zap., xxiv. [1917], 170). On the other ha…


(202 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. According to Balād̲h̲urī, p. 328, Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ, sent to conquer Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, attacked the people of Mūḳān and Gīlān. A number of inhabitants of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān and Armenians who had gathered in the nāhiya of Urm and at *Balwānkarad̲j̲ were defeated by one of Saʿīd’s captains. The leader of the rebels was hanged on the walls of the fortress of Bād̲j̲arwān ( Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, G.M.S., p. 181: Bād̲j̲arwān was 20 farsak̲h̲s north of Ardabīl). Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 119, mentions the citadel of Urm between al-Bad̲h̲d̲h̲ (a town of Bābak…


(10,235 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, ʿUrus (a., Pl. aʿrās and ʿurusāt), originally the leading of the bride to her bridegroom, marriage, also the wedding feast simply; whence a denominal verb iv. Aʿrasa “to celebrate a marriage”. ʿArūs means both bridegroom and bride; in modern linguistic usage this term has however been supplanted by ʿarīs “bridegroom” and ʿarūsa “bride” (as early as the 1001 Nights, cf. Dozy, Supplément), Two kinds of weddings have to be distinguished: ʿurs is the wedding performed in the tribe or the house of the man, and ʿumra is the wedding performed in the house or tribe of the woman (this d…


(288 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an early Ottoman historian, was the son of a silk merchant named ʿĀdil and was born probably in Adrianople in the middle of the xvth century. Of his career so far we only know that he was employed as a kātib probably in his native town. Where and when he died, is not recorded. Urud̲j̲ b. ʿĀdil is the author of the oldest so far known prose history of the Ottoman empire. His work called the Tawārīk̲h̲-i Āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān deals with Ottoman history from the beginning down to the reign of Muḥammad II the Conqueror. When he is not describing events within his own experience he …


(258 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
b. al-Ward b. Ḥābis of the tribe of ʿAbs, an old Arab poet. His father, whose fame was sung by ʿAntara, played a part in the Dāḥis war. His mother belonged to the less esteemed Banū Nahd, a branch of the Ḳuḍā’a (cf. Wüstenfeld, Tab., i. 17; allusions to them in poems ix., xix., xx.). He lived, as is expressly stated, in the Ḏj̲āhilīya. But his allusions to individuals who survived into the time of Muḥammad, like ʿĀmir b. Ṭufail (schol. on i. 1) show that he must have flourished just before the coming of the Prophet. His poems and the anec…

ʿUrwa b. al-Zubair

(393 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. ʿAwwām, al-Asadī al-Madanī, one of the earliest and foremost authorities on tradition in Madīna, born between 23 and 29 a. h., died between 91 and 99. His mother was the celebrated Asmāʾ bint Abī Bakr, his father al-Zubair b. al-ʿAwwām b. Ḵh̲uwailid was a nephew of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a. Some thirty years younger than his brother ʿAbd Allāh, ʿUrwa did not take part in politics or in the civil wars, but gave himself up entirely to study. When his brother, in 73, was vanquished by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, ʿUrwa abandoned him, lik…


(959 words)

Author(s): Kratschkovsky, Ign.
b. Murs̲h̲id b. ʿAlī b. Muḳallad b. Naṣr b. Munḳid̲h̲ al-S̲h̲aizarī al-kinānī, an Arab knight ( fāris), courtier and man of letters, born in 488 (1095) in S̲h̲aizar (the Sizara of the Crusaders, north of Ḥamā in Syria) which was the seat of his princely family, the Munḳid̲h̲īs, and died in 584 (1188) in Damascus. Four years after his birth, Jerusalem was taken by the Crusaders and a year Wore his death it was retaken by Saladin. Throughout his life he was in constant relations with the Franks, sometimes hostile…


(579 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Zaid b. Ḥārit̲h̲a al-Kalbī al-Hās̲h̲imī, Abū Muḥammad, son of the Abyssinian freedwoman Baraka Umm Aiman and reckoned among the Prophet’s freedmen, was born in Mecca in the fourth year of the mission. Tradition records many instances of the Prophet’s fondness for him as a child, and gives him the surname of Ḥibb b. Ḥibb Rasūl Allāh. He joined the fighters on the way to Uhud, but was sent back before battle on account of his tender age. Questioned by Muḥammad in the case of slander against ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, he spoke in her favour. After Ḵh̲aibar he received a pension, and in a. h. 8 rode behind the P…


(163 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Asia Minor, capital of a ḳaḍā in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Kūtāhiya in the province of Ḵh̲udāwendigār, on the edge of a cultivated plain at the foot of the mountains; it had 15,000 inhabitants of whom a third were Armenians and Greeks; the houses are built of brick, with gardens, and the streets are broad. It was rebuilt after a fire in the xixth century. It is celebrated for its manufacture of carpets known as Smyrna carpets because they are exported through this port (150,000 yards per annum). There is a fortress on the site of the ancient acropolis (Eucarpia). Towards the end of the xviiith cent…


(374 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
ʿAlī b. ʿOt̲h̲mān Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Farg̲h̲ānī al-Ḥanafī, of whose life nothing is recorded (ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Abi ’l-Wafāʾ al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, al-Ḏj̲awāhir al-muḍīʾa fī Ṭabaḳāt al-Ḥanafīya, Ḥaidarābād 1332, i. 367 does not even give a date), wrote about the year 569 = 1173 (s. Z. D. M. G., xvi. 685) a confession of faith in rhyme entitled al-Ḳaṣīda al-Lāmīya fi ’l-Tawḥīd, also called Badʾ al-Amālī or from the opening words Ḳaṣīda yaḳūlu ’l-ʿAbd (Carmen arabicum Amālī dictum, ed. P. v. Bohlen, Regensburg 1825; also in Mad̲j̲mūʿ Muhimmāt al-Mutūn, Cairo 1273, 1281, 1295. 1323; on the m…


(831 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Us̲h̲nuh, Us̲h̲nūya), a district and town in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Us̲h̲nū lies to the south of Urmiya [q. v.] from which it has usually been administered. The district is watered by the upper course of the river Gādir (Gader) which, after traversing the district of Sulduz [q. v.], flows into Lake Urmiya on the S. W. To the south of Us̲h̲nū is the district of Lāhid̲j̲ān which is administered from Sawd̲j̲-Būlāḳ [q. v.]. The town of Us̲h̲nū (710 houses) is situated on the left bank of the Gādir (Čom…


(2,335 words)

Author(s): Grohmann
, the tenth or tithe levied for public assistance, is frequently used in the sense of ṣadaḳa and zakāt (Abu Yūsuf, p. 31; Yaḥyā b. Ādam, p. 79, 83, 121, 123) and indeed there is no very strict line drawn in the S̲h̲arīʿat books between zakāt and ʿus̲h̲r dues (cf. Tornauw, p. 318). The term ʿus̲h̲r is not found in the Ḳurʾān but Sūra vi. 142 is taken to refer to the tithe or half tithe (Abū Yūsuf, p. 32; Yaḥyā b. Ādam, p. 88 sq.). Etymologically ʿus̲h̲r is the same as the Assyrian is̲h̲-ru-u (E. Schrader, Keilinschriftl. Bibliothek, iv. 192, 205) which means tribute paid in kind (corn, dates)…


(534 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
, a Turkish patronymic borrowed from the Persian, meaning strictly son or descendant of ʿUs̲h̲s̲h̲āḳī, the latter word being the ethnic from Us̲h̲aḳ (arabicised into ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āḳ, plur. of ʿās̲h̲iḳ), a town in Asia Minor. ʿUs̲h̲s̲h̲āḳīzāde therefore means a descendant of a man from Us̲h̲aḳ. Two families in Turkey have borne or bear this name: 1. The descendants of ʿUs̲h̲s̲h̲āḳīzāde ʿAbd al-Bāḳī, Ḳāḍī of Mecca and son-in-law of the naḳīb ül-es̲h̲rāf Seirekzāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Efendi. He was the third son of the saint S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥasan Ḥusām al-Dīn said to have come …
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