Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Tobna

(532 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town of Central Morocco, which no longer exists. The few traces of it, that survive, lie 3 miles south of Barika (department of Constantine) between the Wādī Barika in the north and the Wādī Bit̲h̲am in the south. The advantages of this position, which commands the passage between the Sahara and the plateaus of the Tell, the S̲h̲oṭṭ Hodna. and the mountains bordering the east of this depression, had been recognised by the Romans. They built here on this site the town of Tubuna, which became a municipium in the time of Septimius Severus, and after a fortress had been built there …

Todmīr

(238 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given to the province ( kūra) of al-Andalus, of which Murcia was the capital down to the time of the breaking up of the Omaiyad caliphate. If we may believe the Arab authors, the word is an Arabic transcription of the name of the Visigoth governor Theodomir, who, at the time of the conquest of Spain by the Arabs, was the representative in Murcia of Roderick, king of Toledo. He is particularly known for the treaty which he made with Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.], the Arabic text of which has been preserved by al-Ḍabbī and Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī. It was first published by Castri, Bibliotheca H…

Ṭog̲h̲a Timur

(6 words)

[See Ṭug̲h̲a Timur.]

Ṭog̲h̲rul

(4 words)

[See Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l.]

Tog̲h̲uzg̲h̲uz

(949 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish people. The name was variously written and pronounced. The Arabic notices of the settlements of the Tog̲h̲nzg̲h̲nz correspond to the Chinese and later Muslim accounts of those of the Uig̲h̲ur; according to Chinese sources, the Uig̲h̲ur were divided into nine tribes; according to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (text in Trudi̊ Vost. Old. Ark̲h̲ Obs̲h̲č; vii. 161), the Uig̲h̲ur were divided into two main groups, the On-Uig̲h̲ur (ten-Uig̲h̲ur) and the Tokuz-Uig̲h̲ur (nine-Uig̲h̲ur). It was on these facts that Grigoryew based his formerly generally accepted view ( Vostočni̊y Turkestan, vi…

Toḳat

(619 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Asia Minor, situated in the northern part of Cappadocia, to the south of the middle course of the Tozanli̊ Ṣu, the ancient Iris. The town is situated on both sides of a mountain valley opening to the north and between the town and the river there is a beautiful plain. In a northeastern direction, facing the river, lay in ancient times the well-known town of Comana Pontica, the name of which still survives in the village of Gümenek; the site of Toḳat was occupied by a fortress called Dazimon (on this identification cf. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, London 1890, p. 329 sqq.…

Ṭok̲h̲āristān

(785 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Tok̲h̲āristān and Ṭok̲h̲airistān, a district on the upper course of the Āmū-Daryā [q.v.]. It is the name of a district formed from that of its inhabitants (like Afg̲h̲ānistān, Balōčistān etc.), but the question of the nationality and language of the Tok̲h̲ārians was of no significance in the Muslim period. With the exception perhaps of the mention of Balk̲h̲ as Madīnat Ṭok̲h̲ārā in Balād̲h̲urī, p. 408 there is nothing to show that anything was known in the Muslim period of the Tok̲h̲ārians as a people, although as late as 630 a. d. the Chinese pilgrim Hüan-Čuang (or Yüan-…

Toḳtami̊s̲h̲

(1,878 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Tok̲h̲tami̊s̲h̲ (e. g. regularly in Russian annals), Ḵh̲ān of the Golden Horde. The reading Tuḳātmīs̲h̲ described as correct by E. G. Browne ( Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion, Cambridge 1920, p. 583 ¶ probably on the authority of the lines quoted on p. 328) is contradicted by the reading in many manuscripts and on the Uig̲h̲ur coins and documents; for example Ibn ʿArabs̲h̲āh (Egypt. ed., p. 14 and pass.) regularly writes Toḳtāmīs̲h̲-Ḵh̲ān. The accounts of his origin vary a good deal. The name of his father…

Toledo

(2,875 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Ṭulaiṭula), atown in Spain in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula 60 miles S. S. W. of Madrid. Built 2,000 feet above sea-level on a granite hill and surrounded on three sides by a bend in the Tagus, which has dug out its bed along the bottom of a deep fault, it commands in its immediate vicinity a fertile vega which runs to N. E. and N. W. along the river and beyond it is the plain of denudation of the Castilian plateau. Toledo has at the present day only some 25,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of the province of the same name and the see of the…

Ṭopal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a

(460 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, an Ottoman grand vizier. Ṭopal i.e. “limping” ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a was born in the Morea in 1104 (1692), entered the palace service in Stambul at an early age, where he ñlled a number of offices until he was promoted to the rank of beylerbeyi at the age of barely 24, soon afterwards he became serʿasker in the Morea and finally vizier with two tails ( tug̲h̲, q.v.). He then held governorships repeatedly, e. g. twice in Bosnia, Naupactos and Widin, next went as commander-in-chief to Persia and finally received the grand vizierate on 19th Rabīʿ I, 1344 (Sept. 21, 1731) when Dāmād Ibrāhīm Pa…

Ṭopal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a

(900 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, Ottoman governor of Bosnia, S̲h̲arīf, but usually called Ṭopal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a because he was lame from a bullet-wound, belonged to the vicinity of Smyrna where he was born in 1219 (beg. Apr. 12, 1804), as the son of a peasant named Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī S̲h̲arīf ¶ Ag̲h̲a. He first entered the navy and in 1839 as Rear-Admiral, along with the Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a [q.v.] Aḥmed Fewṣī Pas̲h̲a surrendered the Ottoman fleet in the Dardanelles to Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a of Egypt, on hearing that Ḵh̲usraw Pas̲h̲a [q. v., ii., p. 978] had been appointed grand …

Ṭorg̲h̲ud

(139 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, a general and companionin-arms of ʿOt̲h̲mān I. Ṭorg̲h̲ud, usually Ṭorg̲h̲ud-alp ( alp as a personal name, is Turkish = “brave, fearless, warrior”; cf. Alp-Tekin, Alp-Arslān, and Aig̲h̲ud-alp, Ḳonur-alp etc.), is mentioned among the companions of ʿOt̲h̲mān I and connected with the earliest Ottoman conquests. He is said, for example, to have surprised Angelokoma, the modern Ainegöl, in 699 (1299) with only seventy men and taken it (according to Nes̲h̲rī, Idrīs Bitlīsī in J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., ¶ i. 53 sq.). He remained the councillor of ʿOt̲h̲mān’s son Urk̲h̲ān. On the latte…

Ṭorg̲h̲ud

(190 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, a Turkish tribe in Asia Minor. The Ṭorg̲h̲ud tribe appears alongside of the Warsaḳ (the ΒαρσάκιδεΣ; of the Byzantine historians, cf. the important passage in Chalkondyles, p. 243, 4), quite early in Ottoman history. Its origin is wrapped in obscurity; it is mentioned for the first time in history at the end of the eighth century a. h. when ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn of the Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu included the Ṭorg̲h̲ud among the tribes who joined his colours. A century later they appear in the army of Ḏj̲am Sulṭān in his Anatolian campaign against Sulṭān Bāyazīd (cf. J. von Hammer, G. O. R., ii. 256; 886 = 1481).…

Ṭorg̲h̲ud-eli

(101 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, literally “the land of Ṭorg̲h̲ud”, is the district around Ainegöl in Asia Minor, which Ṭorg̲h̲ud-alp [q. v.] conquered and received as a fief. According to Leonclavius (cf. Hist. Musulm. Turc., p. 154, 25, 853 infra; cf. on this Isl., xii. 102), the Arabic form Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳadr is a corruption of this, which is very probable, as it is almost certainly derived from some Turkish proper name. The royal family of the Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳadr-og̲h̲lu [q. v.] would thus have to be connected with the Turkoman tribe of Ṭorg̲h̲ud [q. v.]. (F. Babinger) Bibliography cf. F. Babinger in Isl., xii. 102.

Tortosa

(825 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arabic Ṭurṭūs̲h̲a (nisba: Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī), a town in Spain on the left bank of the Ebro, a few miles above the beginning of the delta of this river, 115 miles from Valencia, 105 from Barcelona and 60 from Tarragona. Tortosa which now has 28,000 inhabitants, is the chief town of a partido of the province of Tarragona and the see of a bishop. The town is built on the site of the old Iberian town of Dertosa which was succeeded by the Roman colony of Julia Augusta. Its geographical position has always given it considerable commercial importance. It passed early under Muslim rule and mo…

Tripoli

(4,355 words)

Author(s): Rossi, Ettore
(Ṭarābulus, Aṭrābulus), a city on the Northern coast of Africa, 13° 20′ E. long., 32° 50′ N. lat., now the seat of the government of Tripolitania, one of the two colonies forming Italian Lybia. Its Muslim population, according to the census taken in 1914 by the municipality of Tripoli, was 19,907, including the Menscia; Jewish population 10,471, European population, in the town of Tripoli only, 14,180. The latter, in 1928, may be calculated at 25,000; total about 60,000. The name Tripolis, applied to the territory of the three cities Sabrata, Oea, Leptis (Lepqi), of Phoen…

Tripolis

(4 words)

[See Ṭarābulus.]
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