Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(110 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
the name of the fourth letter of the Arabic alphabet with the numerical value 500. Its form is a horizontal stroke, curved upwards at its ends, with three dots above it. By these three dots it is distinguished from the third letter of the alphabet, tāʾ [q. v.], which has two dots only. This similarity explains also the place of t̲h̲āʾ immediately after tāʾ. Of the other Semitic alphabets it is only the South-Arabic which has a special form for the sound t̲h̲. Etymologically t̲h̲āʾ corresponds to Canaanitic , Aramaic (early-Aramaic ), Assyrian s̲h̲, Aethiopic . In Arabian its place is some…


(2,515 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Nisba of three Arab authors: 1. Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl, one of the most fertile intellects of the vth (xith) century, of whose life we only know that he was born in 350 (961) in Nīsābūr and died in 429 (1038). His numerous compilations, in which he deals by no means scrupulously with the intellectual property of his predecessors and repeats himself frequently, deal mainly with the poetry of his time but also with lexicology and rhetoric. His most famous and, for us most important, work is the Yatīmat al-Dahr fī Maḥāsin Ahl al-ʿAṣr on the poets of his own and the preceding ¶ …


(834 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, whose personal name was ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, an important Ottoman poet of the transition period (mainly under Sulṭān Aḥmad III [1703—30]) with a distinct style of his own, quite outside of the usual. Born in Užica in Bosnia about 1060 (1650) of humble origin and of Serbo-Croat parents, he was related to the poet Wuṣlat ʿAlī Bey Pašić of Užica and Māhirī ʿAbd Allāh of Serajevo. He died in Constantinople in 1124 (1712—13). He adopted a theological career and went to Constantinople at the end of his studies, …

T̲h̲ābit b. Ḳurra

(843 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, mathematician, physician and philosopher, one of the greatest figures among the promoters of Arab learning in the third (ninth) century. Born in 836 (826?) at Ḥarrān, the ancient seat of the worship of the planets, he belonged to a prominent family settled there, which produced a long series of scholars. The later names in his genealogy (T̲h̲ābit b. Ḳurra b. Zahrūn [Marwān?] b. T̲h̲ābit b. Karāyā b. Mārīnūs b. Mālāg̲h̲riyūs [ΜελέαγροΣ]) take us back to a time when the Greek character of the li…


(597 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
On the eve of the Hid̲j̲ra, the tribe of T̲h̲aḳīf, settled in the district of Ṭāʾif, claimed a common ancestor called T̲h̲aḳīf. His real name is said to have been Ḳasī and T̲h̲aḳīf a surname. A malicious tradition has identified this Ḳasī-T̲h̲aḳīf with Abū Rig̲h̲āl, the traitor, who guided the Abyssinian army from Abraha to Mecca, and whose tomb used to be stoned on the road from Ṭāʾif to Mecca. It was when they wished to ascend beyond this eponymous ancestor that divergences began. Some connec…


(630 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Zaid b. Saiyār (or: Yasār) al-S̲h̲aibānī (= Mawlā of the Banū S̲h̲aibān), an Arab grammarian, although regarded as of the “Kūfa” school (see below), spent his life in Bag̲h̲dād. Born in 200 (815), at the age of 16 he began to devote himself to the study of the Arabic language. Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Aʿrābī, al-Zubair b. Bakkār were among his teachers. He also studied with great enthusiasm the works of al-Kisāʾī and especially of al-Farrāʾ; he is said to have known all the lat…


(232 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, a common old Arab proper name (more rarely T̲h̲aʿlab) and eponym of a number of subdivisions of the larger tribal divisions of ancient Arabia. Thus we have the T̲h̲aʿlaba b. ʿUḳāba of the great tribe of Bakr b. Wāʾil (Yamāma as far as Baḥrain); the T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Saʿd b. Ḏh̲ubyān of the tribe of G̲h̲aṭafān in the Nefūd region; the T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Yarbūʿ of the tribe of Tamīm; the T̲h̲aʿālib Ṭaiy clans of the Ṭaiy [q.v.]. A T̲h̲aʿlaba b. ʿAmr b. Mud̲j̲ālid is mentioned as the first plylarch of the…


(308 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abū Isḥāḳ al-Nīsābūrī, a famous theologian and Ḳurʾān exegist, born in Muḥarram 427 (Dec. 1035). His great work is the commentary on the Ḳurʾān entitled al-Kas̲h̲f wa ’l-Bayān ʿ an Tafsīr al-Ḳurʾān which Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī (according to Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, p. 660; ed. Popper, ii. 166) ¶ criticises on the ground that it accepts weak traditions, especially in the early Sūras, but which according to Schwally (in Nöldeke’s Geschichte des Qorāns, ii. 174), must be one of the most useful works on the subject, as he uses about 100 sources in addition…


(562 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, the name of one of those old Arabian peoples, which like the ʿĀd, Iram (Aram), Wibār (Jobaritae?) had disappeared some time before the coming of the Prophet. A series of older references, not of Arabian origin, confirm the historical existence of the name and people of T̲h̲amūd. Thus the inscription of Sargon of the year 715 b. c. mentions the Tamud among the people of eastern and central Arabia subjected by the Assyrians. We also find the Thamudaei, Thamudenes mentioned in Aristo, Ptolemy, and Pliny. The latter mentions as settlements of the Thamuda…


(1,798 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Dualism, means the doctrine that light and darkness are the two equal eternal creative principles. There is not a regular T̲h̲anawīya sect or school in Islām. The term, as the characteristic name of a school of thought, is limited to three non-Muslims and their adherents: Ibn Daiṣān, Mānī and Mazdak [see these three articles]. A danger arose to Islām through the tendency to dualism within its ranks from the mass conversions of Persians, as was seen for example at the beginning of the ʿAbbāsid period in the disturbing figure of Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ. He w…


(285 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, Mawlānā, whose real name was Aḥmad, was a disciple of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Naṣīr al-Dīn Maḥmūd Čirāg̲h̲-i Dihlī (d. 757 = 1356), and was distinguished for his learning and piety. When the news of the arrival of Tīmūr (d. 807 = 1404) spread in Dihlī, most of the ʿUlamāʾ left the place but T̲h̲ānīsarī stayed till he and his dependents became prisoners of Tīmūr. As his fame was widespread and Tīmūr had previous knowledge of his learning, he was set at liberty and was received by him after order had been res…


(4 words)

[See Ḳiṣāṣ.]


(259 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the constellation of Taurus, the second in the zodiacal circle. The figure is the front half of a bull whose head is turned to one side so that the horns face east. The constellation consists of 32 stars in the figure and 11 outside it. On the sector ( ḳaṭʿ, ἀποτομή) are said to be four stars in a straight line; in reality the stars f s ξ o form a curve. The bright star of the north horn also belongs to the constellation of the Steersman. The eye of the bull, ʿAin al-T̲h̲awr, the star with a red light of the first magnitude α in the centre of a thick group of smaller stars, the Hyades …


(529 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(a., plur. of t̲h̲ag̲h̲r, “cleft, opening”), the zone of the fortresses built against the Byzantines in the Syrian and Mesopotamián marches (hence also T̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr al-Rūmīya). In Constantinos Porphyrogennetos they are called τὰ Στόμια ( De Cerimon., ed. Bonn, i. 657; cf. Reiske’s note, ii., p. 777 = Migne, Patrol. Graec., cxii., col. 1220, note 38), by the Syrians “the land of Tagrā” (Michael Syrus, ed. Chabot, iii. 20 sq., 467; Barhebraeus, Chron. Eccles., ed. Abbeloos-Lamy, i. 339 sq.). This frontier zone ran from Ṭarsūs [q. v.] in Cilicia along the Taurus on to Malaṭya…


(570 words)

Author(s): Grohmann
, T̲h̲ilā, a town in South Arabia, at the foot of a reddish range of hills, which branches off from the great chain of Kawkabān, Ḥaḍūr al-S̲h̲ēk̲h̲, Dhī Bīn to the east (S. E.) and forms the southern boundary of al-Baun. According to E. Glaser who visited it on Dec. 5, 1883, the town is very clean, and has narrow streets and very high regularly built houses of yellowish-red limestone, which is hewn into neat blocks of about 10 inches by 4 and shows the same character in the whole town. The town is built against the eastern side of 1,000 feet high sandstone cliff, on the top of which is the castle ( ḥuṣn) el…


(8 words)

[See Arabia , i. 386b, 387a.]

T̲h̲umāma b. As̲h̲ras

(545 words)

Author(s): Horten, M.
, a theologian, representative of the liberal movement under the early ʿAbbāsids. On account of his great learning and intellectual ability he was invited to the court by Hārūn and Maʾmūn, to whom his sharp criticism of conservative views was no doubt also pleasing. This brought upon him the enmity of the conservative school of thought, which began to come to the front again after Mutawakkil and they have endeavoured to belittle his reputation. To the burning questions of his time he took up an independent position, logically thought out, which often seemed peculiar a…


(261 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the constellation of the Pleiades. According to al-Ḳazwīnī, the group is made up of two brighter stars between which are three others close together like grapes in a bunch. The group is also called simply al-Nad̲j̲m “the (group of) stars” and the principal star (η; Alkyone) is called Wasaṭ, Ḏj̲awz or Naiyir al-T̲h̲uraiyā i. e. middle, heart or bright star of the Pleiades. The word T̲h̲uraiyā is a diminutive of t̲h̲arwā which means “existing in plenty” and would correspond to the Greek πλειάΣ if this name could be connected with πλεόΣ and not with πλεῖν “to naviga…


(245 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Meḥemmed, an Ottoman biographer, born in Stambul, the son of a certain Ḥusnī Bey (cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿ Ot̲h̲mānī, ii. 178), adopted an official career and died in his native town as an official in the education service on the 19th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1326 (Jan. 12, 1909). His tomb is in Scutari in the Ḳarad̲j̲a Aḥmad cemetery. Meḥemmed T̲h̲uraiyā has earned lasting fame as the compiler of an Ottoman Dictionary of National Biography, which he called Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿ Ot̲h̲mānī and published in 4 volumes in Stambul between 1308 and 1315. On the plan, contents and importance of t…
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