Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Tāʾ

(27 words)

, third letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 400. For palaeographical details see Arabia , i. 382b, 383b and plate I.

Ṭāʾ

(24 words)

, sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 9. For palaeographical details see Arabia , i., plate I.

Taʾabbaṭa S̲h̲arran

(362 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, a nickname of the old Arab poet and Beduin hero, famed in legend, T̲h̲ābit b. Ḏj̲ābir b. Sufyān of the tribe of Fahm. Various explanations of it are given by the sources: “he carried mischief under his arm”, namely a sword, a knife ( ḥamāsa), a ram which proved to be a g̲h̲ūl. or a skin full of poisonous snakes ( Ag̲h̲ānī). His mother was according to one statement (in Fresnel) a negress, according to the Ag̲h̲ānī a woman of the Fahm tribe called Amīna, who afterwards married the Hud̲h̲ailī Abū Kabīr, who sought to take his step-son’s life. Taʿabbaṭa S̲h̲arrān was thro…

Ṭabaḳāt

(922 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, “book of categories”. The word means when used of place: “similar, lying above one another” and with regard to time: “similar, following one another”; e.g. Sūra lxvii. 3; lxxi. 14, of the seven heavens placed one above the other; also the “storey” of a house (glossary to Idrīsī, Description de l’Afrique, ed. Dozy and de Goeje, Leyden 1866, p. 338; Sobernheim, inscr. N°. 41, in M. I. F.A.O., xxv.; Fagnan, Additions, s. v.); ṭabaḳāt al-ʿain “the successive skins of the eye” (Ḵh̲wārizmī, Mafātīḥ, p. 154). With reference to time, it means especially “generation” (the lexicographers give ḳarn

Tabāla

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, a place in the west of northern Yaman, in the interior of ʿAsīr, about seven days’ journey S. E. of Mecca, Its fertility was¶ proverbial among the Arabs. The basin of Tabāla and Taraba is often called ak̲h̲ḍar (“green”; cf. al-Hamdānī, Ḏj̲azira, ed. D. H. Müller, Leiden 1884, p. 165; Yāḳūt Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 164). The itinerary of the pilgrim caravans from Mecca through the frontier lands of the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Y aman to Ṣanʿāʾ given in Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, London 1829, i. 445 was marked on the map as early as Berghaus, Arabien und das Nilland (Gotha 1835, cf. esp. p. 69; …

al-Ṭabarī

(967 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, nisba from Ṭabaristān; most of the bearers of the nisba have come from Āmul, the capital of this province. This nisba is also wrongly referred to Ṭabarīya (Tiberias) in place of the correct al-Ṭabarānī (cf. Samʿānī, Ansāb, fol. 366b; Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, iii. 355). 1. Abu ’l-Ṭaiyib al-Ṭabarī, Ṭāhir b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir, a S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, teacher of Abū Isḥāḳ al-S̲h̲īrāzī and of al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī; al-S̲h̲īrāzī who attended his lectures for over ten years, praises him as his best teacher. Al-Ṭabarī was born in Āmul in the year 348 (959/960). At the age of 14 he began his studies in fiḳh

al-Ṭabarī

(1,496 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Mūḥammad b. Ḏj̲arīr, the Arab historian, was born probably in 839 (end of 224 or beg. 225 a. h.) at Āmul in the province of Ṭabaristān. He began to devote himself to study at a precociously early age, and is said to have known the Ḳurʾān by heart by the time he was seven. After receiving his early education in his native town, he received from his father who was quite well off the necessary means of visiting the centres of the Muslim learned world. He thus visited Raiy and its vicinity, then Bag̲h̲dād…

Ṭabaristān

(962 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Pahlavi inscriptions on coins: Tapūristān, land of the Ταπυροι), the name applied by the Arabs to Māzandarān, a province of Persia, north of mount Alburz; the name is explained by a popular etymology to mean “land of the ṭabar” (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, Geography, text p. 432; Mehren, Cosmography, p. 314) on account of the thick forests which cover the country and the principal industry of the inhabitants (woodcutting). It is bordered on the north by the Caspian Sea, on the south by the chain of the Alburz, on the east by Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān and on the wes…

Ṭabarīya

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Tiberias, a town on the western side of the lake of Tiberias (sea of Galilee) ( Buḥairat Ṭabarīya) through which the Jordan flows to the south; the lake is rich in fishes, is 13 miles long, 6 broad and lies 700 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; the town is long and narrow as it is shut in by the steep hills on the west which come right down to the water, north and south of the town. S.S.W. of the town is the Mount of Herod. Ṭabarīya had probably a predecessor in a little town in this ¶ region mentioned in the Old Testament (on account of the hot springs some identify it with Hammat,…

Tabarka

(876 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town on the Tunisian coast, 75 miles W.N.W. of Tunis and 10 miles E. of the Algerian frontier. It is built on a sandy bay surrounded by hills at the mouth of a rather narrow fertile valley watered by the Wād al-Kabīr, which descends from the mountains of Ain-Draham (Ḵh̲umiria). Three quarters of a mile from the shore lies a rocky islet, 2,000 yards long and 500 broad. A roadstead lies between this island and the mainland accessible on the east side to ships of medium tonnage but only possibl…

Ṭabas

(298 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in the province of Ḵh̲nrāsān. in reality two towns whence the dual form used by the Arab geographers: Ṭabasāni. The first is called Ṭabas al-ʿUnnāb, “T. of the jujube-trees” (in Persian Ṭabas-Masīnān), and the second Ṭabas al-Tamr, “T. of the date-palms” ( al-sufla, Muḳaddasī), in Persian Ṭabas-Gilakī (Kurī, Kurīn). The first has walls now in ruins and no citadel. The second is commanded by a fortress; it has a small market and a graceful mosque; it gets its water-supply from reservoirs fed by open canals ( ẓāhira). These two towns are under Ḳāin, the capital of th…

Ṭabās̲h̲īr

(107 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, a drug highly esteemed in the east, consisting of pebble-like accretions, which are formed in the nodes of Bambusa arundinaria Wild. The substance is obtained, according to Ḳazwīnī (ii. 82) or Ibn Muhalhil, by burning the reed and from ancient times it has always been a valuable article of commerce which the Greeks called τάβασιΣ. (J. Ruska) Bibliography E. O. von Lippmann, Geschichte des Zuckers, Leipzig 1890, p. 76—80 B. Laufer, Sino-Iranica, Chicago 1919, p. 350—352 E. Wiedemann, Beitr., xl., p. 187 Ibn al-Baiṭār, transl. Leclerc, N. E., xxv. 1, 399—401 Seligmann, Abu Mansur Mwwaff…

Tābiʿ

(265 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), pl. tābiʿūn, follower, follower of a prince, disciple of a teacher, adherent of a doctrine; the verbal form is tābaʿa, e. g. tābaʿa Ḏj̲ālīnūs, he followed Galen (in medicine). The word is of special significance in Tradition where the name tābiʿ is given to those who came after the Companions of the Prophet, the Aṣḥāb. The aṣḥāb are the people who saw and were directly acquainted with the Prophet; the tābiʿūn are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions. The “followers” of the second generation ( tābiʿu…

Ṭabl

(2,246 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, the generic name for any instrument of the drum family. Islāmic tradition attributes its “invention” to Tūbal b. Lamak (Masʿūdī, ed. Paris, viii. 88—89), whilst another piece of gossip says that Ismāʿīl, the founder of the mustaʿriba [q. v.], was the first to sound it (Ewliyā Čelebi, Travels, I/ii. 239). The word may be equated with the Assyrian ṭabbalu and perhaps the Egyptian tabn. According to al-Faiyūmī (1333—1334), the term ṭabl was applied to a drum with a single membrane ( d̲j̲ild) as well as to that with two membranes. This, however, does not include the duff or tambourine [q. v.]…

Ṭabl K̲h̲āna

(4,933 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
(Naḳḳār Ḵh̲āna, Naḳḳāra Ḵh̲āna, Nawba Ḵh̲āna),literally the “Drum House”, “Kettledrum House”, “Military Band House”, is the name given in Islāmic lands to the military band and its quarters in camp or town. These names are derived from the drums ( ṭabl, naḳḳāra) which formed the chief instruments of the military band, and from the name given to the special type of music ( nawba) performed by this band. Originally the naḳḳāra k̲h̲āna or ṭabl k̲h̲āna consisted of drums only, and in some instances of particular kinds of drums. This we know from several authorities. Ibn T…

Tabrīz

(11,636 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, capital of the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān [q. v.]. Geographical position. The town lies in the eastern corner of the alluvial plain (measuring about 30 × 20 miles) sloping slightly towards the north-east bank of Lake Urmiya. The plain is watered by several streams, the chief of which is the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai (“bitter river”) which, rising in the south-west face of Mount Sawalān runs along the Ḳarad̲j̲a-dag̲h̲ which forms a barrier on the south and entering the plain runs around on the northwest suburbs of the town. The left bank tributary ¶ of the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai, Mihrān-rūd (now th…

Tabūk

(299 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the pilgrim road and on the railway from Damascus to Medīna (according to Yāḳūt four days’ journey from al-Ḥid̲j̲r and 12 from Medīna). It lies on a slight undulation of the sandy plain and has a very good well, probably the one mentioned in Arab legend. ¶ The most important building is the pilgrim’s fort built according to the inscription in 1064 (1654), the oldest parts of which can easily be distinguished from the later restorations. Beside it is a modern mosque built of beautifully hewn stones. Euting found the place empty excep…

Tabula Smaragdina

(265 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the revelation of secret alchemistic teaching ascribed to Hermes Trismegistos. Known in a later version in the west since the middle of the xiith century, the origin of the text was until recently an unsolved problem in the history of chemistry. Since R. Steele in his edition of Bacon (1920) showed that the text of the Tabula existed in Arabic and Latin in the Sirr al-Asrār of Pseudo-Aristotle, and E. J. Holmyard in 1923 discovered a more primitive form of the text in the Kitāb al-Uṣṭuḳuss al-t̲h̲ānī of Ḏj̲ābir b. Ḥaiyān, J. Ruska has been able to show that the original source o…

Ṭabūr

(80 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (Eastern Turkī: tapḳūr, a palisade formed of wagons arranged in a circle or square; a body of men sent out to reconnoitre), a battalion, a corps of about a thousand men, commanded by a biñ-bas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). ¶ (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Radlof, Opyt, iii. 953, 978 Pavet de Courteille, Dict. turk-oriental, p. 192 Sulaimān Efendi, Lug̲h̲āt-i Ḏj̲ag̲h̲atai, p. 97 Aḥmad Wafīḳ-Pas̲h̲a, Lehd̲j̲è-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, ii. 739 Barbier de Meynard, Dict. turc-français, ii. 250 Vámbéry, Čag̲h̲ataische Sprachstudien, p. 253.
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