Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(169 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, transcribed by Arab writers as , is the old name of a stronghold in the south of Spain the site of which is the modern Aguilar de la Frontera, a little town with about 13,000 inhabitants, in the province of Cordova, 12 miles N. W. of Cabra and of Lucena. The identification of Polei with Aguilar was made by Dozy on the strength of information supplied by a charter of 1258. The town which played a considerable part in the rising of the famous ʿOmar b. Ḥafṣūn [q. v.] against the Umaiyad emirs of Cordova is again mentioned in the xiith century by the geographer al-Idrīsī. The ruins of a fortress …


(2,704 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, the name given to a Bulgarian speaking Muslim in Bulgaria and Thrace. This name which is usually given them by their Christian fellow-countrymen, used also to be given occasionally by Bulgarians to Muslims speaking Serbian in western Macedonia. There however the Serbian Muslims are usually called torbeši (sing, torbeš) by their Christian fellow-citizens, sometimes also poturi, more rarely kurki etc. How far these Serbian Muslims are still called Pomaks by some people depends mainly on the influence of the Bulgarian school and literature and would only…


(927 words)

Author(s): Nieuwenhuis, A. W.
, the name of a part of the Dutch residency “Wester-Afdeeling” of Borneo, also of the Sultanate in the delta of the river Kapuas and of its capital. As a Dutch province Pontianak includes the districts of Pontianak, Kubu, Landak, Sanggau, Sĕkadau, Tajan and Mĕliau. The administration is in the hands of an assistant-resident whose headquarters are in Pontianak where the Resident of the “Wester-Afdeeling” also lives. The Dutch settlement is on the left bank of the Kapuas, where also is the Chinese commercial quarter. The Malay town lies opposite on the right bank. The sultanate of Pontiana…

Port Saʿīd

(864 words)

Author(s): Atiya, A. S.
, a Mediterranean seaport of Egypt at the entrance of the Suez Canal on its western bank, in 31° 15′ 50″ N., 32° 18′ 42″ E., 145 miles from Cairo by rail via Zagāzīg and Ismāʿīlīya, 36 and 125 miles from Damietta and Alexandria respectively along the coast. It was founded in 1859, as soon as the Suez Canal was decided, during the reign of Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a [q. v.], Viceroy of Egypt, and was named after him. Except for the strip of sand which, varying in width between 200 and 300 yards, separates Lak…


(4 words)

[See Ḳiṭfīr.]


(878 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(pronounced Pósharevatz; in the French orthography Pojarévatz; Passarovitz is a corruption like the Turkish Pasarofça), a rising commercial town in Yugoslavia (in the Danube banate), headquarters of the district of the same name in the fertile plain between Mora va and Mlava, only 10 miles from the Danube port of Dubravica with 13,731 inhabitants (1930). The town, the name of which is popularly ¶ connected with the Serbo-Croat word požar (“fire”) (M. Ð. Milićević, Kneževina Srbija, Belgrad 1876, p. 172 and 1058), is first mentioned towards the end of the xvth century. It must however…

Prang Sabil

(888 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, the name of the d̲j̲ihād [q. v.] in the East Indian archipelago; prang (Indon.) = war. The course of history has made it impossible for Muslims to fulfil their duties with respect to the d̲j̲ihād. The representatives of the law however still teach and the masses readily believe that arms should only be allowed to rest against the kāfir so long as any success must be despaired of. In a Muḥammadan country under non-Muslim rule like the Netherlands Indies the teachers however prefer to be silent. At most they say that under the prevailing conditions ther…


(2,490 words)

Author(s): Werner, A.
(Fulbe), a West African tribe, originally pastoral nomads, now to a large extent settled and agricultural. Fulbe, their name for themselves, is the plural of Pulo; they are called Fulani by the Hausa, Felata by the Kanuri, and by French writers Peul. Their language is called by themselves Fulfulde. They appear to have come in from the northeast, perhaps ultimately from Fezzān, but their lines of migration in more recent times have rather been from west to east. Migeod, in 1923, found them in what is now the British Mandated Territory of Camero…


(1,397 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(Skr. upawāsa), in the East Indian Archipelago the name for the month of Ramaḍān and for fasting in this month or at other times. The Arabic names however are not unknown. Fasting is in Indonesia generally a favourite pious practice not only on the days prescribed or recommended by law but also as a means of attaining a desired end. The observation of the fast in Ramaḍān is here as elsewhere ¶ regarded as the most important of the pillars of Islām; here also we find the popular belief prevailing that it can atone for the sins of the whole year. Not all however cont…