Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Philippine Islands

(989 words)

Author(s): Berg, C. C.
, a group of islands between 4° and 21°N. Lat. and 117° and 127° East Long. (Greenwich), consisting of 2,441 islands of which Luzon and Mindanao are the largest and 2,000 are less than a square kilometre in area. The population numbering about 12,000,000 speak over 50 Indonesian dialects of which the Tagalog spoken in the capital Manila and neighbourhood is the most important. In the Christian areas the prominent families speak Spanish while at the present day the youth is taught English in the …

Piāle Pas̲h̲a

(979 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Ottoman Grand Admiral, came according to St. Gerlach, Tage-Buch (Frankfurt a/M. 1674, p. 448), from Tolna in Hungary and is said to have been the son of a shoemaker probably of Croat origin. Almost all contemporary records mention his Croat blood (cf. the third series of the Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, ed. E. Albert, Florence 1844—1845, and esp. 111/ii. 243: di nazione croato vicino al confini d’Ungheria; p. 357: di nazione croato; 111/iii. 294: di nazione unghero; p. 418). Following the custom of the time his father was later given the name of ʿAbd al…


(5 words)

[See G̲h̲rūs̲h̲ ]


(521 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
or Pulau Pinang, an island on the western shore of the Malay Peninsula, lying in latitude 5° 24′ N. and longitude 100° 21′ E. The area is 276 km.2; it is separated from the mainland by a channel from 3 to 16 km. broad. The town of Pinang is built on the northeastern promontory, 4 km. off the shore of the mainland. The official names, Prince of Wales’ island and Georgetown, never became popular and exist only in official documents. — The island was acquired in 1786 for the East India Company against a yearly payment from th…


(179 words)

Author(s): Levy, R.
(P.), elder. In the Ṣūfī system he is the murs̲h̲id, the “spiritual director”. He claims to be in the direct line of the interpreters of the esoteric teaching of the Prophet and hence holds his authority to guide the aspirant ( murīd) on the Path. But he must himself be worthy of imitation. “He should have a perfect knowledge, both theoretical and practical, of the three stages of the mystical life and be free of fleshly attributes”. When a pīr has proved — either by his own direct knowledge or by the spiritual power ( wilāyat) inherent in him — the fitness of a murīd to associate with other Ṣūfī’…

Pīrī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(480 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman grand vizier, belonged to Amasia and was a descendant of the famous Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn of Aḳserāy and therefore traced his descent from Abū Bakr. He took up a legal career and became successively ḳāḍī of Sofia, Siliwri and Galata, administrator of Meḥmed II’s kitchen for the poor ( ʿimāret) in Stambul and at the beginning of the reign of Bāyazīd II attained the rank of a first defterdār ( bas̲h̲ defterdār). In the reign of. Selīm I he distinguished himself by his wise counsel in the Persian campaign (cf. J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., ii. 412, 417 sqq.), was sent in advance to Tabrīz to take …

Pīrī Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Reʾīs

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Ottoman navigator and cartographer, was probably of Christian (Greek) origin and is described as nephew of the famous corsair Kemāl Reʾīs (on the latter see the Bonn dissertation by Hans-Albrecht von Burski, Kemal Reʾis ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der türkischen Flotte, Bonn 1928 and especially J. H. Mordtmann, Zur Lebensgeschichte des Kemāl Reʾīs, in M. S. O. S., xxxii., part 2, Berlin 1929, p. 39—49 and p. 231 sq.), who was probably a renegade. His father is said to have been a certain Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Meḥmed, while he himself in the preface to his sailing-book cal…


(1,215 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the title given to one of the ministers of the Bahmanī sulṭāns of the Deccan; the chief minister of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī; the head of the Marāṭhā confederacy. (Persian “leader”; Pahl. pēs̲h̲ōpay; Arm. pēs̲h̲opay. For older forms see Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik, i. 230). S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī, the founder of Marāṭhā political power in the Dakhan, was assisted by a council of ministers known as the As̲h̲ta Pradhan, one of whom was the Pīs̲h̲wā or Muk̲h̲ya Pradhan. The office of Pīs̲h̲wā was not hereditary and the nature of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī’s autocratic…


(59 words)

Author(s): Levy, R.
(P.), a kind of food compounded of the liver of gazelles or almonds etc. A daily portion of the size of a pistachio ( pistah) is taken by those derwīs̲h̲es and others who undertake long fasts, e. g. the čilla or forty-day fast, and is sufficient to maintain life. (R. Levy) Bibliography Vullers, Lexicon Persico-Latinum, s. v. pist čilla.


(4 words)

[See Aflāṭūn.]


(890 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(Plewna, Plevna, Turkish Plewne ), an important town in Northern Bulgaria, 350 feet above sea-level in a depression formed by the little river Tučenica (c = tz), which flows not far from the town on the right into the Vid, the right bank tributary of the Danube. Surrounded by hills and at the intersection of the high roads to Vidin, Nikopol, Sofia and the passes of the Balkans, Plevna has long been a place of strategic importance; it is now also crossed by one of the main railway lines (Sofia-Plevna…