Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Coil

(7 words)

[See aligarh , p. 299.]

Čoka-Adasi

(13 words)

“cloth Island”, the Turkish name of the island of Cerigo (Cythera).

Comoras

(189 words)

, a group of four islands (Great Ḳōmōra or Angazid̲j̲a, Mōheli, Anz̲h̲uān, and Mayōta) now under French protection, northwest of Madagascar, included by the Arabs with the latter (see Ferrand, op. cit., i. 44 et seq.) under the name d̲j̲azīrat or d̲j̲azāʾir al-Ḳumr (frequently explained as ḳamar “Moon” Island). They ¶ were possibly first brought into contact with Islām by merchants or emigrants from South Arabia in the early centuries of the Hid̲j̲ra. It is not known when Islām was completely adopted in these islands but it was certainly brough…

Constantine

(3,345 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Arabic Ḳusṭanṭīna, with numerous variants) a town in Algeria, the capital of the département of Constantine, 330 miles cast of Algiers and 50 miles southeast of Philippeville, which is the port of Constantine and is connected with it by railway; it lies in 36° 22′ N. Lat. and 18° 56′ E. Long. (Greenwich). In 1906 the population was 52,247, of whom 15,779 were Europeans, 8,427 Jews and 28,041 natives. The situation of Constantine makes the town a natural fortress. It is built on a rocky plateau in the form of a trapezoid, bounded on the S. E., N. E. and N. W., by…

Constantinople

(9,912 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
Constantinople to the Ottoman conquest (1453). The Name. The city, which Constantine the Great on the 11th May 330 raised to be the capital of the Eastern Empire and which was called after him, was known to the Arabs as Ḳosṭanṭinīya (in poetry also Ḳosṭanṭīna, with or without the article); the older name Byzantion (buzanṭia, in various spellings) was also known to them as well as the fact that the later Greeks, as at the present day, used to call Constantinople simply ἡ πόλιΣ as “the city” par excellence (Masʿūdī, ix. 337; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, i. 235; A…

Constantinus Africanus

(820 words)

Author(s): Meyerhof, Max
, the earliest translator of Arabic medical works into Latin, born in the beginning of the vth (xith) century, in Tunisia (“Carthago”), died a monk in the famous monastery of Monte Cassino at Capua in South Italy in 1087 A. D. Very little is known of his life and that comes only from the by no means reliable chronicle of Petrus Diaconus (d. after 1140 a. d.). According to this, he must have been a Muslim, as he studied grammar, dialectic, natural science and medicine in Bag̲h̲dād (“Babylonia”); he travelled in India and Ethiopia (?) and completed his studies i…

Consul

(382 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Arabic ḳonṣul, Persian ḳonṣūl, Turkish ḳonṣolos), the accredited administrative and commercial agent to the local authority in a commercial town. Turkey gives its consuls the title of s̲h̲ah-bender and Persia that of kār-pardāz. In Muḥammadan countries, the consul as well as those, who claim his jurisdiction, have the right of extra-territoriality; he is the judge of the latter, who are exempt from the jurisdiction of the local courts, except in mixed cases. The old Venetian capitulations granted the republic the right of maintaining at the Porte a consul called the bailo (cf. the a…

Coran

(4 words)

[See ḳorʾān.]

Čorbād̲j̲ī

(77 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, a title applied to colonels of the regiments of Janissaries ( orta) [see the article janissaries] and to prominent individuals in the smaller townships of Turkey on whom it devolved to entertain passing strangers. At the present day it is used only as a title of Christian country gentlemen. (F. Giese) Bibliography Muradgea d’Ohsson, Tableau Général de l’Empire Othoman, (Paris 1788—1824) von Hammer, Des Osmanischen Reiches Staatsverfassung (Vienna 1815) do., Geschichte des Osm. Reiches (Pest 1836).

Córdoba

(1,714 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, French Cordoue, English, Italian and German Cordova (Kordova), Arabic Ḳurṭuba, Latin Cordŭba (370 feet above sea-level) on the right (north) bank of the central course of the Guadalquivir (from the Arabic Wād al-Kabīr “the great river”), the ancient Baetis, with 60,000 inhabitants, is at the present day the capital of the province of the same name which lies on both sides of the river in the heart of Andalusia. The southern and smaller half of the province, practically the famous La Campiña ( Iḳlīm al-Kanbāniya, Idrīsī, Arabic text, p. 174), rising in the south east to a heigh…

Coromandel

(54 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, the name adopted by European geographers for the eastern coast of India. It is a corruption of Chōṛamaṇḍala, “the kingdom of Chora or Chola”, which is found in Tamil inscriptions of the xith cent, at Tand̲j̲ore. The early Muḥammadan name for the same coast is Maʾbar [q. v.] (J. S. Cotton)

Crac

(21 words)

, Crath, a mediaeval Frankish corruption of the place-name Karak [q. v.]; crac des chevaliers see ḥiṣn al-akrād .

Crete

(2,054 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
1. Present Conditions and Constitution. Crete, the geography and pre-Muḥammadan history of which will not be dealt with here, was called by the Arabs and Kirid by the Turks. At the present day it is an autonomous state, owning the suzerainty of the Porte but paying no tribute and governed on behalf of the four protecting Powers, Britain, France, Italy and Russia, by a High Commissioner (till 1906 Prince George of Greece, who was followed by Zaïmis; the post is at present unoccupied). The High Commissioner is assist…

Croja

(8 words)

[See aḳ ḥiṣār 3, p. 224.]

Čū

(1,685 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a river in Russian Turkestan, rising in the Terskei-Alatau mountains and called Ḳočḳar on the upper part of its course, approaches within 4 miles of the west end of the Issiḳ-Kul and sends out a branch, the Kutemaldi, to this lake; the river itself rushes through the Buam (Būg̲h̲ām) ravine, receives the waters of the Great and Little Kebin on its right bank and on its left the Aḳsu and Kuragati with their tributaries and after a course of about 650 miles falls into the small lake of Saumul-Kul…

Čūpān

(159 words)

Author(s): Bartold, W.
, Čopan (Čag̲h̲atāi) or Čoban (Ot̲h̲manli and Krim-tatar), a Perao-Turkī word for “herdsman”; it is applied particularly to shepherds and cowherds in opposition to horseherds (Pers. kalabān). The Čūpān is considered the type of the lowest class of the people in a contemptuous sense, when the rude and uncultured people are contrasted with the classes chosen to rule (cf. the sayings ascribed to Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān in Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Berezin, Trudi vost. otd. ark̲h̲. obs̲h̲č., xv. 179), as well as in epic tales in which the representative of the inherent strength of the p…

Čūpān-Atā

(531 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turḳ, “father-herdsman”), a ridge of hills on the south bank of the Zarafs̲h̲ān near Samarḳand. The modern name is apparently connected with the legend given in the Kitāb-i Ḳandīya. Samarḳand is said to have been attacked by a hostile force over a 1000 years before Muḥammad; the inhabitants prayed to God and his prophets for help; when they awoke on the following morning, nota trace was left of the enemy’s army, but before the city was a mountain which no had seen before and on it a shepherd was grazing his sheep. It appe…