Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(4 words)

[See s̲h̲ers̲h̲el.]


(73 words)

, from the Pers. Čawgān (Čawgān guy), arabicised Ṣawlad̲j̲ān, polo, Arab. Laʿb al-Kurra, τξυκάνιον, German Schaggun. Cf. Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson 2, p. 190—193 (cf. 719—720); Dozy-Engelmann, Glossaire s. v. Choca; Modi, The Game of Ball Bat (Chougan Gui) among the Ancient Persians as described in the Epic of Firdousi (Bombay 1890); Ḳābūsnāma, c. 19, transl. by Querry, p. 169 et seq.; Sykes, Ten Thousand Miles in Persia etc., p. 334 et seq.


(17,553 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martin
The Muḥammadans of China fall into two main ethnic groups: Turks and Chinese, who again may be considerably subdivided. On the Turks of China see the article Turkish Peoples. In this article the Turks will only be dealt with in so far as they have had a share in the development of Chinese Islām. China in this article is the land of the eighteen Provinces. I. Historical and Geographical Section. The intercourse of the pre-Islāmic world with China was based almost exclusively on the silktrade; in fact the usual words for silk in Western Asia and Europe are probably only corruptions of the Chinese sī…


(111 words)

(chotin, Turk. Ḵh̲ōtīn), fhe capital of a district in Bessarabia, famous in history for the fierce but unsuccessful attack by Sulṭān ʿʿOt̲h̲mān II on the strong encampment of the Poles there m September 1621 (1030). In 1084 (1673) there was further fighting around Chocim, in which the Turks were again unsuccessful, but finally in the beginning of 1674 it had to surrender to the Ottoman troops. In 1182-1183=1769, the town was besieged by the Russians and captured but afterwards given back to the Tu…


(95 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word (from the Persian d̲j̲uft, Avestan yuk̲h̲tā), meaning “pair”, “couple” and in particular, the “pair of oxen yoked to the plough”, whence it comes to mean “cultivated fields”, “ploughing”, and “the amount of ground ¶ that can be tilled by a pair of oxen in a day”. As an abbreviation for čift aḳčesi it means a definite tax on certain tributary land. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. d’Ohsson, Tableau de l’Empire Othoman, vol. vii. p. 234 Belin, Etude sur la Propriété Foncière, in the Journ. As., vth Ser. Vol. xix. 1862, p. 206.


(76 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, cultivated land, hence country farm i, e. the dwelling-house of the farmer and the lands attached to it; the farms on the Imperial estates are known in the official language as čiftlikāt-i humāyūn. In Bosnia, a čiftlik of land of the first quality contained from 60 to 80 dönüm (a dönüm being 40 paces square), of the second quality from 90 to 100 and of the third from 130 to 150. (Cl. Huart)

Čig̲h̲alezāde Sinān Pas̲h̲a

(330 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, an Italian renegade, who was brought as a prisoner to Constantinople with his father. They belonged either to Messina or Genoa, where a prominent family of the name Cicala is known to have existed. According to Gerlach, Türkisches Tagebuch, p. 17 and 244, the father was „Visconti Zicala of Genoa a powerful Corsair and holding high rank in the service of the King of Spain”. The Ḥadīḳat al-Wuzerā calls him a captain of the republic of Genoa. Gerlach relates that he was taken prisoner off Majorca on the journey from Naples to Spain — by Piale Pas̲h̲a, according to the Ḥadīḳat. The father died so…


(26 words)

, a fast lasting forty days ( quadragesima) which pious ascetics and derwīs̲h̲es spend in seclusion, prayer, and fasting. Cf. Jacob, Die Bektaschijje, p. 36.


(69 words)

, the name of a variant of the letter Ḏj̲īm [q. v.] which the Persians have invented to express the fricative t + š (cf. the article, arabia (Arabic Writing, p. 391a). This derivative of the letter d̲j̲īm is noteworthy for the pronunciation of in the time and district in which it was ¶ made. Other peoples, who use the Arabic alphabet, have borrowed čīm from the Persians.


(578 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the capital of a district in Russian Turkestan, Lat. 42° 10′ N. and Long. 69° 30′ E. (Greenw.), 1550 feet above sea-level, on the right bank of the Badam which flows into the Aris, a tributary of the Sir-Daryā. At the time of the Russian conquest (1281 = 1864) the town had a circumference of about 4 miles and was surrounded by a low wall of clay; the citadel was on a high mound in the south east. According to the most recent census the number of houses in the old town is 1886, while there are …


(267 words)

, one of the names applied to the Gypsies in the East, which has passed into various European languages in more or less modified forms. The origin of the name is still disputed. It is supposed that the Sāsānian Bahrām V Gōr (420—438) first brought the gypsies from India to Persia and that they spread thence over the world. In the passages referring to this in Firdawsī and Ḥamza Iṣpahāni these Indians are called Lūrī or Zoṭṭ. Other names commonly used are Nawar in Syria, G̲h̲urbat or Ḳurbat in Al…


(6,809 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, frequently written Činkkīz-Ḵh̲ān, Mongol conqueror and founder of the Mongol world-empire, was born in 1155 a.d. (according to the Turco-Mongol animal cycle in the year of the pig, 549-550 a. h.), on the right bank of the Onon in the district of Dülün-Boldaḳ (now in Russian territory, about 115° E. of Greenwich). He is said to have received his original name of Temūčīn from the name of a prince who was conquered by his father Yisūkāi-Bahādur about the time of his birth. What else is related of his ancestors and his early yo…


(243 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Plur. from the Persian čirāg̲h̲, “torch, lamp or light”), “illumination of gardens and kiosks”; the name of a palace built by Dāmād Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier of Sulṭān Aḥmad III, on the European shore of the Bosporus, between the villages of Bes̲h̲ik-tās̲h̲ and Ortakiöi, into which Sulṭān Maḥmūd II moved from Ṭop-ḳapū and which was rebuilt by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. The name is derived from the festivities which used to be celebrated there nightly. The ‘feast of tulips’ was particularly famous; it was the most brilliant of all the illuminati…

Čirāg̲h̲ Dihlī

(150 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, with his real name Naṣīr al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. Yaḥyā, was born in Oudh in India and when he was nine years old, his father died. His mother sent him to Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Karīm S̲h̲īrwānī to acquire learning. After the death of his teacher, he sat at the feet of Iftik̲h̲ār al-Dīn Gīlānī. At the age of forty he came to Dihlī and became the disciple of Niẓām al-Dīn Awliyā who esteemed him very highly and called him Čirāg̲h̲ Dihlī (the light of Dihlī) by which title he is known in India. His many discourses have been collected in A. H. 756 = A. D. 1355 by his disciple Ḥamīd under the title of Ḵh̲air al-Mad̲j̲ālis. He…


(7 words)

[See čerkesses , p. 834.]


(225 words)

, muʿīn al-Dīn Muḥammad, founder of a Ṣūfī brotherhood, widely disseminated throughout India and one of the greatest of the saints of India, as the name Aftāb-i Mulk-i Hind (Sun of the kingdom of Hind), which is given him, shows. Muʿīn al-Dīn belonged to Sīstān and was born in 537 (1142); when he was fifteen years of age, his father G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Ḥasan died; he then lived in various towns in Ḵh̲orāsān and finally came to Bag̲h̲dād. During this period he made the acquaintance of the most famous…


(753 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Indian Order or Caste of faḳīrs, founded according to some by one Abū Isḥāḳ, descended in the ninth generation from ʿAlī, who migrating from Asia Minor, settled at Čis̲h̲t, a village of Ḵh̲urāsān, or, in another account, settled in Syria and was buried at Acre; according to others by Banda Nawāz, who is buried at Kalbarga; according to others by Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ā Aḥmad Abdāl of Čis̲h̲t (d. 355 = 965—966) brought to India by Muʿīn al-Dīn Čis̲h̲tī, a native of Sid̲j̲z, who migrated thither in the time of Muʿizz al-Dīn b. Sām (589 = 1193) and settled in Ajmeer (Sir D. Ibbetson, Panjab Castes, 1916, p. 22…


(30 words)

, the name, no longer in use, of a small Indian copper coin, worth 1/25 of a dām [q. v.]; cf. Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, s.v.Jeetul, p. 457.


(1,338 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
= Chitrāl in its usual acceptation denotes the upper valley of the Kunār River, from the Bārōghil Pass (Lat. 36° 50’ N.) to Arnawai at the confluence of the Bas̲h̲gōl River with the Kunār. (Lat. 35° 10′ N.). This valley, formerly called Kās̲h̲kār, has received the name Čitrāl by extension from the group of villages in its most fertile part. In its widest extension the name also includes Yāsīn as far east as the boundary of Punyāl, which was politically united with Čitrāl for a time. Including thi…


(164 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
or Čattagram, a town and district of India, in Eastern lien gal, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, extending south along the coast towards Arakan. Area of district, 2,429 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 1,353,250, of whom 72% are Muḥammadans. The town, on the right bank of the Karnaphuli river, 12 m. from the sea, is the second seaport in Bengal after Calcutta, and its importance has been increased by the opening of railway communication with Assam. In 1905 it was created the subordinate capital of the new …
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