Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(245 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
= Aboabdíllāh = Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad XI, the last king of Granada (887—897 = 1482—1492), son of ʿAlī Abu ’l-Ḥasan (== Mulai Hasen = Mulahacen: 866—887 = 1461—1482), was called El Rey Chico (“The Little King”) by the Spaniards and by the people of Granada el-Zogoybi (“the Poor Devil” cf. Dozy, Supplément s. v.: Zog̲h̲bī) while his uncle the Pretender Muḥammad XII b. Saʿd (890—892 = 1485—1487) was called al-Zagal = al-Zag̲h̲all (“the Valiant”; cf. Dozy, ibid.). Boabdil dethroned his father in 887 (1482) but the latter regained it from 888— 890 (1483—1485). M. J. Müller ( Die letzten Zeiten …


(165 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, a ruined mountain fortress in Andalusia. After Casiri and Conde Bobastro had been confused with the Babastro in Aragon and also with Huéscar in the extreme north east of the province of Granada Dozy thought ( Recherches I, 323—327 and Histoire des Musulmans II, 195), that it ought to be identified with the ruins of the ancient Municipium Singiliense Barbastrense (Singilia Barba), the modéra el Castillon near Teba, west of Antequera in the upper Guadalhorce valley. Simonet more correctly seeks to connect it with Estébanez Calderon betwe…


(124 words)

al-S̲h̲arābī, also called Bog̲h̲a al-Ṣag̲h̲īr (Bog̲h̲a the younger), likewise a skilful general, defeated the rebels in Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān in the reign of al-Mutawakkil. It was he who led the conspiracy against this Caliph and brought about his assassination. During the brief reigns of al-Muntaṣīr and al-Mustaʿīn, all authority really was in the hands of Bog̲h̲a and his confederate Wāṣīf. When Mustaʿīn was forced to abdicate in 252 (866), Bog̲h̲a was to receive the governorship of al-Ḥid̲j̲āz, but…


(140 words)

al-Kabīr, Bog̲h̲a, the elder, a Turkish general under al-Muʿtaṣim and his successors, won a name for himself in various campaigns, in which he held the supreme command, against the Beduins around al-Medīna in 230 (844-845), against the Armenians in 237 (851-852), against the Byzantines in 244 (858) etc. At the time of the assassination of the Caliph al-Mutawakkil ¶ in 247 (861) he was away from court, but returned immediately to the palace and after the death, which took place very soon after, of the Caliph al-Muntaṣir raised al-Mustaʿīn to the throne in 248 (862). He died in the same year. Bib…


(363 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Bog̲h̲ār = Abū G̲h̲ār?), a small town in Algeria (department of Algiers) about 50 miles from Medea (Lamdīya) on the left bank of the S̲h̲alif, at a height of 2800 feet above sealevel; the population is 2386 of whom 2041 are natives. The situation of Boghar, the “Balcony of the South” on the borders of the plateaus, on the natural road, formed by the S̲h̲alif where it enters the Tell, which is followed by the nomads on their migrations, has always been of the highest strategic importance. The Roman…


(417 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) “Ravine”, “gully” (literally “strangling” from the root bog̲h̲) hence in geographical names “pass” or „strait”. It is particularly applied to the Thracian Bosporus ( Ḵh̲alīd̲j̲-i Ḳusṭantīnīye) a strait 18 miles long and from 600 to 3,500 yards broad with 7 bays and 7 promontories. The various parts into which it is broken up, together form the bog̲h̲āz-iči, “the interior of the Bosporus”. This runs from the heights of the Serai cape and Scutari up to the Black Sea. It separates the European coast from the Asiatic and is traversed by two lines of …


(86 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a village in Asia Minor near Ṣung̲h̲urlu, formerly the capital of a Ḳazā (in the Wilāyet of Angora, Sand̲j̲aḳ of Čorum). The ruins of Pterium “the City of the Medes” were found here by Texier on the 28th July 1834. It has Hittite monuments. Since the summer of 1906, important excavations have been carried on there by H. Winckler. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography J. Garstang, The Lands of the Hittites (1910), Chap. IV V. Cuinet, La Turquie d’Asie, i. 302 Mitteilungen der deutschen Orientgesellschaft, 35.


(634 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the Turkish name for Moldavia, ¶ borrowed from that of its founder Bog̲h̲dān I Dragos̲h̲ (1352). Stephen the Great had gained a victory over the Turks at Racova (1475) but in the following year he was in turn defeated in the White Valley ( Valea Alba). In alliance with the Turks he laid waste a part of Poland in 1498; but a year later he threw off the suzerainty of the Ottomans. In alliance with the Poles and Hungarians, he repelled another invasion in 1499. On his death-bed (2nd July 1504) he advised his son Bog̲h̲dān to submit to Turkey (Treaty of 1511 ). During the siege of Vie…


(39 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a district of India, in Eastern Bengal: area 1,359 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 854,533, of whom no less than 82% are Muḥammadans, being the highest proportion in the province. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Imperial Gazetteer of India.


(923 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T. W.
(Bohras, Buhrah), a Muḥammadan sect in Western India, (mainly of Hindu descent), for the most part S̲h̲īʿas of the Ismāʿīlī sect, and belonging to that branch of it which upholds the claims of al-Mustaʿlī (487—495 = 1094—1101) to succeed his father al-Mustanṣir, in the Fāṭimid Caliphate of Egypt, in opposition to his brother Nizār, whose adherents (the ancient Assassins) are represented in India by the modern Ḵh̲od̲j̲ahs [q. v.]. The. name Bohorās denotes “traders”, (from the Gud̲j̲arātī vohorvu ‘to trade’) and records the occupation of the earliest converts to Islām; th…


(1,292 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
(Buhtān), the name ofa Kurdish district south of the Lake of Van. The name is applied to the whole district between the Tigris and the Bohtān-ṣu and the (little) Ḵh̲ābūr, which flows into the Tigris at Meg̲h̲āra (about 42° 20′ East Long Greenw.). This area which is separated from the surrounding country by large ¶ rivers has the form of a triangle with unequal sides, the base of which is the Bohtān-ṣu and the sides the Tigris and the Ḵh̲ābūr, continued by a line to Ṣānō. In the north, Bohtān is bounded by S̲h̲īrwān, in the south by the district of …


(96 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(Bocthor), Elias, an Arabic philologist, born of Christian parents on the 12th April 1784 in Siūṭ, served as a dragoman in the French army during the Napoleonic expedition and accompanied it to France on its retreat, was appointed Professor of Modern Arabic at the Bibliothèque du Roy in 1818 and died on the 26th September 1821. He compiled a Dictionnaire Français-Arabe, published by Caussin de Perceval, 2 voll., Paris, 1827—1829, 2nd edition, ib. 1848. (C. Brockelmann) Bibliography Biographie Universelle, lviii. Suppl., p. 408 Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, vi., 314 Brockelmann, G…


(11 words)

, a mountain-pass in Balōčistān, see above p. 625.


(84 words)

, a town in Asia Minor on the Boli-ṣū, a tributary of the Filyasčai (Billaeus), capital of a Sand̲j̲aḳ in the Wilāyet Kastamūni with 10,796 inhabitants. The name appears to be an abbreviation of Claudiopolis, the ancient Bithynium. The site of the latter town is to be sought for in Eski Ḥiṣar about one hour’s journey to the east of Boli. Bibliography ʿAlī Ḏj̲ewād, Ḏj̲og̲h̲rāfīya log̲h̲āti, 215 Cuinet, La Turquie d’Asie, iv. 507 et seq. Pauly-Wissowa, Realenc. der Klass. Altertumswiss., s. v. Bithynion.

Bolor Dag̲h̲

(9 words)

, see the article pamir .


(271 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, A Turkish word, properly meaning “division” ( böl to separate), group or troop. Since the reforms, it has been the name applied to a company of infantry (about a hundred men) commanded by a captain ( yüz-bās̲h̲i), and to a squadron of cavalry. The bölük-emīni is the farriersergeant. It was also the name of one of the three divisions of the corps of Janissaries, composed of sixty-one orta (“regiments”), of which thirty were distributed throughout the provinces, while the others were quartered, as a garrison, in Constantinople. Those who composed it were called bölük-lü or bölük-k̲h̲alḳi. …


(51 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an officer in the Ottoman army under the old regime, “captain of a squadron” commanding a bölük or squadron of the sipāḥ and siliḥdār cavalry. The fourth general officer, commander-in-chief of the sipāḥs was called Bās̲h̲-bölük-bās̲h̲ī. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. d’Ohsson, Tableau de l’Empire Ottoman, vol. vii. p. 364.

Bombay City

(384 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, an island on the W. coast of India, now connected by causeways with the mainland, capital of the presidency of the same name, chief sea port of India, and centre of cotton trade and manufacture. Area, 22 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 776,006. The census was taken in time of plague, and a special enumeration in 1906 gave a total of 977,822. The name is undoubtedly derived from Mumbādevī, a Hindu goddess whose shrine is still worshipped. The island, though commanding the only safe harbour for large ships…

Bombay Presidency

(433 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a province in western India, with its capital at Bombay city [q. v.]. It stretches from Sind, through Gud̲j̲arāt, to the Konkan, with a landward extension across the Ghāṭs into the Dakhan and the Carnatic. Comprised within its limits are the Portuguese possessions of Goa, Damān, and Diu, and also the state of Baroda. The settlement of ʿAden at the mouth of the Red Sea is politically a part of Bombay. It differs from other provinces in that more than one third consists of native states. Includi…


(1,576 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(French Bône), a town on the Algerian coast in the department of Cons tan tine, situated at the mouth of the Sebus on the western shore of the gulf of the same name, which lies between Cape Garde in the west and Cape Rosa on the east. The town is built between the sea and the wooded heights, which form the outer buttresses of the massif of the Edough (). It is called Bōna by the Arab geographers and ʿAnnāba by the natives. The population (census of 1906) is 42,934 of whom 16,457 are French, 11,880 foreigners, 1662 Jews and 12,935 natives. ¶ The modern town of Bōna is about 1 ½ miles from the site of Hippōne ( Hi…
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