Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(5 words)

[See ibn bād̲j̲d̲j̲a.]


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[See ibn rus̲h̲d.]


(458 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sg. ʿAwlaḳî, Beduin Mawweleḳ and Mawleḳî), dynastic name of a group of tribes ¶ in South Arabia. Their country is bounded in the South by the Arabian. seq, in the West by Dat̲h̲īna (in the southern part), by the land of the Awādil (in the centre) and by that of the Razāz (in the northern part); in the Northwest by the Kaṣâb (Gazāb), in the Northeast and the upper part of the East by the land of the upper Wāḥidī and in the lower (southern) part of the East by the land of the Ḏh̲īabi (Ḏh̲iēbi). The whole coun…

ʿAwāriḍ Aḳčesi

(399 words)

Author(s): Krcsmarik, J.
or Wirgüsi. The name of a direct tax which has been levied in most of the provinces of Turkey. This impost belonged to that class of public burdens which are known as voluntary taxes ( Takālī f-i-ʿUrfīya) in opposition to those laid down in the S̲h̲erīʿat ( Takālīf-i-s̲h̲arʿīya). This tax with the others in the same category was abolished with the reforms instituted in 1255 (1834) and replaced by a single tax (wirgü). Opinions differ regarding the adjustment and application of this tax; what complicates matters is that the practice in administrating the very numerous…

ʿAwāriḍ Waḳfi

(91 words)

Author(s): Krcsmarik, J.
By this term is understood a Waḳf foundation whose receipts were devoted to the defrayal of extraordinary or periodic requirements of a village or quarter of a town ( Maḥalla) as for example such wakf as those which were founded for the burial of paupers who had died in the district, for the support of persons incapable of earning their own living and also for repairing the streets or for bringing in a water supply. (J. Krcsmarik) Bibliography ʿOmar Ḥilmī, Itḥâf al Ak̲h̲lāf ft Aḥkām al-Awḳâf (Const., 1307) § 36.


(1,278 words)

Author(s): Streck
(a., “defences, fortifications”) the region of fortifications, the radius of the Syrian-Asia Minor boundary which from the time of ʿOmar separated the dominion of the Caliph from that of the Emperor. At first the two hostile states sought to keep one another off by turning a fairly wide stretch of country into a desert. This unclaimed, waste zone was called al-Ḍawāḥī i. e. ‘the outer part, the outer land’ (Cf. Ṭabarī ed. de Goeje, ii. 1317; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ed. Tornb., iv. 250). Later, though st…


(404 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(or Awdag̲h̲os̲h̲t), an ancient town in N. W. Africa which has quite disappeared from the face of the earth. According to Bakrī it was situated between the land of the negroes and Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, distant about 51 days journey from ‘ the latter oasis and 15 from G̲h̲āna: according to Barth’s hypothesis it lay between long. 10° and 11° w. of Greenwich and between 18° and 19° north., not far from Ḳṣar and Barka, that is to say S. W. of the military station of Tid̲j̲ika in French Mauretania. We have only a few scanty notices of this town; it appears to have been originally a trading set…


(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sing. ʿAwd̲h̲alī, pl. ʿAwād̲h̲ila, in Hamdānī, Banū Awd; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geogr. Arabiens, p. 206, 269, identical with the Оὐδηνοι of Ptolemy and the Autaridae of Pliny), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, lying between the land of the Yāfiʿa and that of the ʿAwāliḳ, is for the most part highland and crossed by a great range, the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr (Kor) often also called Ẓāhir (Ḍaher). Of the Wādīs that rise in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr the W. Yerāmīs (Jerames) is the best watered. The climate is tropi…


(16 words)

(a.), Arabicised from the Persian Awg. Awd̲j̲ and Ḥaḍīḍ denote in Astronomy the Apsides.


(379 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a Tripolitan oasis situated 150 miles south-southwest of the coast of the Gulf of Gabes and 152 miles east-north-east of Murzuk and distant about 60 hours journey from Beng̲h̲āzī. Ibn Ḥawḳal describes it as a small town which had just shortly before been incorporated in the province of Barka and makes particular mention of its richness in date-palms (Ibn Ḥawḳal, transl. by de Slane, yourn. As., Series 3, xiii. 163). A century later it is mentioned by al-Bakrī as a thickly populated town with bazaars and several mosques and he adds that Awd̲j̲ila is really th…


(180 words)

, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, Persian man of letters, who prided himself on being descended from ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf [q. v.] (whence the name ʿAwfī). When and where ʿAwfī was born cannot be ascertained with certainty but this much is certain that he spent his early years in ¶ Buk̲h̲ārā and the other towns of Ḵh̲orāsān till the Mongol invasion carried him into India. Here he was received at the court of Sultan Nāṣir al-Dīn Ḳabad̲j̲a and composed for his Vizier ʿAin al-Mulk Ḥusain al-As̲h̲ʿarī the oldest Persian Tezkira (Tad̲h̲kira), that has been preserved to us which bears the title of Lubāb al-Al…


(108 words)

(properly al-Malik al-Awhad), Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Aiyūb b. al-ʿĀdil, an Aiyūbid, received from his father the governorship of Maiyāfāriḳīn and a few adjoining towns. A first attempt to bring the town of Ḵh̲ilāṭ under his sway failed (603 == 1206-1207). He was successful however in the following year but it was only with great difficulty that he maintained his hold there against the Georgians. Indeed his rule did not last long, for he died soon after in 607 (1210-1211) and left his territory to his brother al-As̲h̲raf [q. v.]. Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornberg), xii. 103 et seq. Maḳrīzī, H…


(93 words)

, Rukn al-Din, a Persian poet who died in (1337) at Marāg̲h̲a. He had taken the pen-name of Awḥadī in honour of his teacher Awḥad al-Dīn Kermānī who himself was a famous Ṣūfī and poet (cf. Ḳazwīnī on him, ed. Wüstenf. ii. 164 et seq.). Awhadi left behind him a Dīwān of 10,000 verses but he is best known by the mystic poem Ḏj̲ām-ī Ḏj̲em (the goblet of Ḏj̲em). He also composed a Deh-Nāmah. Bibliography Dawlats̲h̲āh (ed. Browne), p. 210 et seq. Ethé in the Grundriss der iran. Philologie, ii. et seq.


(8 words)

(a.), plur. of Waḳf [q. v.].


(8 words)

(a.), plur. of Waḳt [q. v.].


(216 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(a), in Muslim legal works is a certain method of reducing inheritances. It sometimes happens that the number of heirs having a claim upon the estate at the same time, according to the Ḳorʾān, is so great that the total of the legacies due to them under the statutes is greater than the whole estate; for example in the following case: if a man dies leaving a widow, both his parents and two or more daughters, their claims are as follows: The daughters are entitled to 2/3 (16/24) of the estate The father is are entitled to 1/6 (4/24) of the estate The mother are entitled to 1/6 (4/24) of the estate The widow…
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