Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Aʿrāb

(8 words)

(a.) = Badawī’s, nomads. [See badawī.]

ʿAraba

(121 words)

, in the Old Testament name of the whole valley of the Jordan, now denoting only the continuation of this valley to the south of ¶ the Dead Sea. It is a large bare desert of undulating ground traversed by the beds of streams; the mountain-ridge Rīs̲h̲t al-Ḥawwar divides it into two unequal parts, the larger of which belongs to the Dead Sea. Musil conjectures that even in historical times a narrow arm of the Red Sea reached as far as G̲h̲aḍyān. To the North is situated the fruitful plain of G̲h̲ōr Fēfe which extends as f…

Arabesque

(4,899 words)

Author(s): Herzfeld, E.
In German the word arabesque denotes the foliage ornament of Muslim art; in a wider sense current already since the Baroque period it is applied to the ornament of that art in general. The word moresque, properly referring to the art of Muslim Spain, is almost synonymous. Modern usage frequently applies the word arabesque to that style of Renaissance ornament, which more correctly is called grotesque. — It is similar in English: the word is used in a general way, but without historical accuracy…

ʿArabfaḳīh

(180 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
(ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Sālim b. ʿOt̲h̲mān S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn), Arabic historian; he wrote towards the year 950 (1543) at Ḏj̲īzān a history of the wars of the Imām Aḥmed Grāñ of Ḥarar against the Christian Abyssinians; the book is entitled Tuḥfat al-Zamān or Futūḥ al-Habas̲h̲a, and is based on statements made by the Imām himself and by the amīr Ḥusain b. Abī Bakr al-Ḏj̲ātirī; the account of the events beginning with the year 934 (1528) is preceded by a short history of the descendants of Saʿd al-Dīn, who ruled over the Somali coast. In addition to the Mss. at Algiers (catal. Fagnan, No. 1628 et seq.) and L…

Arabia

(8,766 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S. | Kratschkowsky, Ign.
C. Arabia under Islām. Both internal and external causes have since the last date (1876) worked changes in the peninsula, the geography of which has been markedly advanced by a number of intrepid explorers, especially St. John Philby, R. E. Cheeseman, Bertram Thomas, D. Van der Meulen and H. Von Wissmann. The regions traversed by the last three of these, the “Empty Quarter” and the independent sulṭānates of Ḥaḍramawt, have indeed been little affected; though even in the latter the motor-car is showi…

Arabia

(53,755 words)

Author(s): de Goeje, M. J. | Hommel, F. | Moritz, B. | Schaade, A. | Kampffmeyer | Et al.
, the westernmost of the three peninsulas of southern Asia. a. Topography, Climate, Products. Arabia, called by the Arabs Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab, “the peninsula (island) of the Arabs”, or abbreviated al-Ḏj̲azīra, “the peninsula”, ʿArabistān by the Persians and Turks, is only joined to continental Asia in the North and is bounded to the West by the Red Sea, to the East by the Persian Gulf and the Sea of ʿOmān, to the South by the Indian Ocean. By the isthmus of Suez it is connected with Africa, from which only the…

ʿArābī Pas̲h̲a

(1,398 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
, leader of the Egyptian Nationalist party. — Aḥmad ʿArābī al-Maṣrī (= al-Miṣrī, ‘the Egyptian’), as he called himself with pride, was the son of a fellāḥ of Lower Egypt. He entered the army and under the Khedive Tawfīḳ (Tewfiḳ) rose to the rank of colonel and commander of the 4th regiment. He took a subordinate part in the officers’ revolt of 1879 under Ismāʿīl, and later in the great military revolt of 1881-1882 he headed the movement which is known to history by his name. The occasion which first gave ʿArābī political prominence arose out of the difficult relations which for a…

ʿArabistān

(45 words)

Author(s): Streck
, ‘the Arab country’, modern official designation, used almost to the exclusion of the old name, of the Persian district which formerly was mostly called Ḵh̲ūzistān. For further particulars see article k̲h̲ūzistān. Following the Persian usage ʿArabistān denotes occasionally the Arabian peninsula. (Streck)

ʿArabkīr

(424 words)

Author(s): Streck
(ʿarabgīr), i.e. ‘conquest of the Arabs’, Armenian ʿArabkēr, town in Turkish Armenia, situated to the North of Malāṭiya on the road from Egin to Malāṭiya under 38° N.L. and 38½° E. of Greenwich. The town lies in a depression, closed in by rocks of basalt, at a short distance from the western bank of the Euphrates, a tributary of which called ʿArabkīr-Ṣu flows through it. The climate of ʿArabkīr owing to the high situation is inclement. The extensive orchards surrounding the town are worthy of no…

ʿAraḍ

(94 words)

Author(s): de Boer, T. J.
(accident), correlative of d̲j̲awhar (substance), denotes every thing in any respect appertaining to a subject. The philosophers restrict the use of the term especially to the 2.—10. Aristotelian categories; the ‘Mutakallimīn’ however use it in a very wide sense for everything that is not d̲j̲awhar. It is stated to be a characteristic element in the teaching of the Mutakallimīn, that for various stated reasons they deny the possibility of the existence of an accident in another accident. — Cp. e.g. Dict. of techn. terms, p. 986 et seq. (T. J. de Boer)

Araḍa

(285 words)

Author(s): Hell
(also arḍa; a.), the termite (termes arda, white ant). Our knowledge concerning this insect which is found in all hot countries up to 40° N. and S. Lat. is still very scanty; the Arabs were nearly as well informed, at any rate as far as the species occurring within the Muslim world are concerned. The insect described by Arabic authors is the white ant which is found in Egypt in a few species, more frequently further up the Nile in Nubia, and most frequently in the Sūdān. The Arabs made the observa…

al-Aʿrāf

(16 words)

(a.), plur. of ʿUrf [q. v.]; sūrat al-Aʿrāf is the title of sūra 7.

ʿArafa

(408 words)

or ʿArafāt, a hill famous as a place of pilgrimage with an adjoining plain of the same name, 6 hours to the East of Mekka. It is a hill of granite of moderate dimensions reaching a relative height of 150—200 feet. On the East broad steps of stone lead to the top; on the 60th step there is a platform containing the pulpit from which a k̲h̲uṭba (sermon) is annually delivered on the afternoon of the 9. Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a (the day of ʿArafa). On the top there stood formerly a Ḳubba named after Umm Salima (thus Ibn Ḏj̲ubair, ed. de Goeje, p. 173) which was destroyed by the Wahhābīs. Acco…

al-ʿArāʾis̲h̲

(1,006 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, French orthography Larache, sea-port town in Morocco situated on the Atlantic coast about 44 miles S. W. of Tangiers and 83 miles N. W. of Fās (Fez), under 35° 13’ N. Lat. and 8° 28′ 22″ W. Long. (Paris). ¶ Larache is built on the slopes of a hill dominating the left bank of the Wēd Lekkus at the spot where the river joins the ocean. The town is surrounded by an old turreted wall, which is adjoined on the land side by the Ḳaṣba and towards the sea by a fortress. It offers little that is of interest: ‘the streets are dirty, the mosque…

Arakān

(50 words)

, the northernmost division of the province of Burma in Further India conquered by the British in 1826. The present capital is Akyab, the name of the former capital is Mrohaung (English spelling Myohaung). The number of inhabitants is 762 102 (1901) of whom 162 754 are Muḥammadans.

Aral

(1,316 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(lake), great lake in Central Asia (Russian ‘Aralskoie more’ i. e. ‘sea of Aral’) which according to the most recent calculations (1900—1902) covers an area of 26 140 square miles (without the islands); it receives the two chief rivers of Russian Turkistān, the Āmū-Daryā [q. v.] and the Sir-Daryā [q. v.]. The ancients do not seem to have known lake Aral, though a vague notion of its existence may be the foundation of the contradictory accounts about the Central Asiatic Maiotis (it is conjectured that t…

Ararat

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Streck
(Turkish Ag̲h̲ridag̲h̲, Egridag̲h̲; Armen. Maṣik; Pers. Kūh-i Nūḥ, ‘mountain of Noah’), the most important elevation of the Armenian highlands. The Ararat massif is situated between 44° and 45° E. Long. (Greenw.) and under 39° 40′ N. Lat.; it rises almost without the intervention of any foot-hills from the flat plain of the Araxes which it skirts in a wide curve stretching from N. E. to S. W.; only towards the West certain ridges (called Sinak; cp. Dubois, Voyage iii. 454) form a connection with the Aband Bingöl-Dag̲h̲. The Ararat group has a circumference of 80 miles an…

Aras

(12 words)

, the Araxes of the ancients, well-known river. [See al-rass.]

Arbāb

(8 words)

(a.), plur. of Rabb [q. v.]
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