Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(164 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.), pl. of aḥad [see next art.], meaning units in arithmetic. In the science of tradition it is used as an abridged plur. of k̲h̲abar al-wāḥid, which are, as contrasted with mutawātir [q. v.], ḥadīt̲h̲ communications which come not from a larger number of trustworthy companions ( aṣḥāb), but from a single person. By means of Istifāḍa, i. e. further extension by different


(22 words)

(a.), a numeral „one“; also surname of God [see wāḥid ]. Yawm al-aḥad, the first day of the week, Sunday.


(29 words)

, the cavalry guard corps in the army of the Great Mog̲h̲ul. Bibliography Horn, Das Heer und Kriegswesen der Grossmoghuls W. Irvine, The army of t…


(6 words)

(a.), traditions. [See ḥadīt̲h̲.]


(77 words)

(a.), pl. of ʿuhūd, command, covenant, alliance; hence walī al-ʿahd = successor to the throne by virtue of a decree of the reigning prince; ahl al-ʿaha, „the people of the covenant“, i.e. those who have made a covenant with the Mussulmans, namely the Christians and the Jews [see d̲h̲imma .]. Further ʿahd means the document itself which contains the regulations of the alliance; hence al-…


(8 words)

(a.), pl. of ḥadat̲h̲ [q. v.].


(41 words)

(a.) = „the sand downs“. The Arabs particularly apply this appellation to the large sandy desert south of the Arabian Peninsula, an entirely unknown region, visited by no traveller. — It is also the title of the 46th Sūra.


(112 words)

(a.), originally meaning „those who occupy with one the same tent (Hebrew ōhel)“, thus „family, inmates“. Therefore ahl al-bait means „the household of the Prophet, his descendants“. When the ahl (pl. ahālī) of a town or a country ¶ is spoken of it denotes its inhabitants, sometimes, as in Medina (according to Burton), specially those who were born there and own houses. But this word is often connected with other notions, and then its meaning is still more subtle, so that it may mean so much as „sharing in a thing, belonging to it“, or „owne…


(8 words)

(a.), pl. of ḥilf [q. v.].

Ahl al-Ahwāʾ

(91 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.; sing, hawā, „predilection, inclination of the soul“; comp. Ḳorʾān vi. 151) is according to the view of the orthodox theologians the appellation of the followers of Islām, whose religious tenets in certain details deviate from the general ordinances of the Sunnite confession (comp. Zeitschr. d. Deutsch.Morgenl. Gesellsch

Ahl al-Bait

(290 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.) = „the people of the house, of the family“. With reference to Ḳorʾān, xxxiii. 33, the S̲h̲īʿites (and in general the Muḥammedans friendly to ʿAlī) attribute to ʿAlī, Fāṭima, their sons and their descendants to whom alone they restrict this appellation, the greatest moral and spiritual merits as well as the greatest influence on the political rule and religious gui…

Ahl al-Dār

(17 words)

(a.) = „the people of the house“, in the Almohad hierarchy the 6th order.

Ahl al-Ḏh̲imma

(25 words)

(a.), the Jews and Christians, between whom and the faithful there is according to Mussulman law a certain legal relation [see d̲h̲imma]. ¶
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