Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Āḥād

(164 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.), pl. of aḥad [see next art.], meaning units in arithmetic. In the science of tradition it is used as an abridged plur. of k̲h̲abar al-wāḥid, which are, as contrasted with mutawātir [q. v.], ḥadīt̲h̲ communications which come not from a larger number of trustworthy companions ( aṣḥāb), but from a single person. By means of Istifāḍa, i. e. further extension by different isnād ways, the āḥād tradition was raised to the rank of mutawātir. The discussion of the question: to what extent the āḥād contain positive science and may serve as a criterion for the practice, forms one of…

Aḥad

(22 words)

(a.), a numeral „one“; also surname of God [see wāḥid ]. Yawm al-aḥad, the first day of the week, Sunday.

Aḥadī

(29 words)

, the cavalry guard corps in the army of the Great Mog̲h̲ul. Bibliography Horn, Das Heer und Kriegswesen der Grossmoghuls W. Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls.

Aḥādīt̲h̲

(6 words)

(a.), traditions. [See ḥadīt̲h̲.]

Aḥadīya

(46 words)

(a.) = unity, technical term in philosophy denoting simply the indivisibility of God’s entity, which in the teaching of the Ṣūfīs constitutes the highest degree ( martaba) of the divine Being. Comp. the definitions in the Dictionary of the technical terms (ed. Lees), p. 1463.

ʿAhd

(77 words)

(a.), pl. of ʿuhūd, command, covenant, alliance; hence walī al-ʿahd = successor to the throne by virtue of a decree of the reigning prince; ahl al-ʿaha, „the people of the covenant“, i.e. those who have made a covenant with the Mussulmans, namely the Christians and the Jews [see d̲h̲imma .]. Further ʿahd means the document itself which contains the regulations of the alliance; hence al-ʿAhd al-ʿAtīḳ, „the Old Testament“ and al-ʿAhd al-Ḏj̲adīd, „the New Testament“.

al-Ahdal

(58 words)

al-Ḥusain b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammed al-Ḥasanī Bedr al-Dīn, Arab historian, born in 779 (1377), and died in 885 (1480). One of his works is a compendium of al-Ḏj̲anadī’s history of Yemen, entitled: Tuḥfat al-zaman fī aʿyān ahl al-Yaman. Bibliography Brockelmann, Gesch, d. arab. Litter., ii. 185 Kay, Yaman, its early mediaeval history, pp. xviii et seq.

Aḥdāt̲h̲

(8 words)

(a.), pl. of ḥadat̲h̲ [q. v.].

Āhī

(169 words)

, Turkish poet, whose real name seems to have been Beñli Ḥasan („Ḥasan with the mole“). His father Sīdī Ḵh̲od̲j̲a was a merchant in Trstenik (not far from Nicopolis). After the latter’s death Āhī went to Constantinople and chose for himself the career of a scholar, but he did not for a long time advance any further than the degree of a candidate ( mulāzim), because he declined the position of Muderris in Bāyazīd Pas̲h̲a’s Medrese in Brusa. Finally he obtained a similar though less important position in Ḳara-Ferya (Berrhoea), where he died in 923 (1517). He l…

al-Aḥḳāf

(41 words)

(a.) = „the sand downs“. The Arabs particularly apply this appellation to the large sandy desert south of the Arabian Peninsula, an entirely unknown region, visited by no traveller. — It is also the title of the 46th Sūra.

Aḥkām

(8 words)

(a.), pl. of ḥukm [q. v.].

Ahl

(112 words)

(a.), originally meaning „those who occupy with one the same tent (Hebrew ōhel)“, thus „family, inmates“. Therefore ahl al-bait means „the household of the Prophet, his descendants“. When the ahl (pl. ahālī) of a town or a country ¶ is spoken of it denotes its inhabitants, sometimes, as in Medina (according to Burton), specially those who were born there and own houses. But this word is often connected with other notions, and then its meaning is still more subtle, so that it may mean so much as „sharing in a thing, belonging to it“, or „owner of the same“, etc. Some of the compounds with ahl most i…

Aḥlāf

(8 words)

(a.), pl. of ḥilf [q. v.].

Ahl al-Ahwāʾ

(91 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.; sing, hawā, „predilection, inclination of the soul“; comp. Ḳorʾān vi. 151) is according to the view of the orthodox theologians the appellation of the followers of Islām, whose religious tenets in certain details deviate from the general ordinances of the Sunnite confession (comp. Zeitschr. d. Deutsch.Morgenl. Gesellsch., lii. 159). As examples there are mentioned: Ḏj̲abarīya, Ḳadarīya, Rawāfiḍ, Ḵh̲awārid̲j̲, anthropomorphists, Muʿaṭṭila. From the above definition it may be inferred that in the sense of Mussulman theology it is not prop…

Ahl al-Bait

(290 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.) = „the people of the house, of the family“. With reference to Ḳorʾān, xxxiii. 33, the S̲h̲īʿites (and in general the Muḥammedans friendly to ʿAlī) attribute to ʿAlī, Fāṭima, their sons and their descendants to whom alone they restrict this appellation, the greatest moral and spiritual merits as well as the greatest influence on the political rule and religious guidance of Islām. These ideas come to the surface in a more or less exaggerated form with regard to the ʿAlīdes according to the views of those spheres [see s̲h̲īʿa]. In a notice by Ibn Saʿd (iva. 59,15) the appellation Ahl al-B…

Ahl al-Bidaʿ

(11 words)

(a.) = „the people of innovation“, i.e. sectarians.

Ahl al-Buyūtāt

(42 words)

(a.), originally denoted those that belong to Persian families of the highest nobility (Nöldeke, Gesch. d. Perser u. Araber zur Zeit der Sassaniden, p. 71), then, the nobles in general. Other meanings are given by Dozy, Supplément, i. 131b.

Ahl al-Dār

(17 words)

(a.) = „the people of the house“, in the Almohad hierarchy the 6th order.

Ahl al-Ḏh̲imma

(25 words)

(a.), the Jews and Christians, between whom and the faithful there is according to Mussulman law a certain legal relation [see d̲h̲imma]. ¶
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