Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(1,387 words)

Author(s): Kratschkowsky, Ign.
(in modern pronunciation Zīdān), D̲j̲ird̲j̲i, an Arab scholar, journalist and man of letters, born in Bairūt on Dec. 14, 1861, died in Cairo on Aug. 21, 1914. Born in a poor Christian family, he had no regular education and in almost all branches of learning he was self-taught. He spent some time at the Protestant College and received the diploma in pharmacy. Soon afterwards he went to Egypt where for about a year he was on the staff of the newspaper al-Zamān. In 1884 he served as a dragoman on the expedition to the Sūdān to the relief of Gordon, and then returned to Bairūt.…

Zaid b. ʿAlī

(988 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [q. v.] gave his name to the Zaidīya [q. v.] who revere him as a political and religious martyr; he was the first ʿAlid after the catastrophe which overwhelmed his grandfather al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī ¶ [q. v.] at Kerbelāʾ to endeavour to deprive the Umaiyads of the caliphate by armed rebellion when he placed himself at the disposal of the Kūfans as Imām. Except for an interval of two months when he was secretly seeking adherents in Baṣra, he spent a year in preparation in Kūfa, hidden in constantly changing hiding-places…

Zaid b. ʿAmr

(244 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Nufail, a Makkan and Ḳuras̲h̲ī, one of the religious seekers known as the ḥanīf, died before Muḥammad’s mission, when the Prophet was about 35. He had abandoned the pagan religion without embracing either Christianity or Judaism, objected to female infanticide, refused to eat the flesh of animals sacrificed to idols or slaughtered without invoking God’s name, and considered himself the only true believer in Makka and a follower of Abraham’s religion. A cousin of ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb, he was married to Ṣafī…

Zaid b. Ḥārit̲h̲a

(404 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. S̲h̲arāḥīl al-Kalbī, Abū Usāma, was brought as a slave to Makka by Ḥakim b. Ḥizām b. Ḵh̲uwailid, a nephew of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a’s, who had bought him in Syria and sold him to her. Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a made a gift of Zaid to Muḥammad before his mission. His father Ḥārit̲h̲a came to Makka to obtain his freedom, but Zaid refused to leave Muḥammad, who thereupon freed him and adopted him. He was thenceforward known as Zaid b. Muḥammad, and was often associated in his adopted father’s commercial enterprises. About ten years younger than Muḥammad, Zaid was one of the very first converts to Islām, …

Zaid b. T̲h̲ābit

(429 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Zaid b. Lawd̲h̲ān b. ʿAmr b. ʿAbd Manāf (or ʿAwf) b. G̲h̲anm b. Mālik b. al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲īr al-Anṣārī al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī, one of the Companions of Muḥammad, best known through his part in the editing of the Ḳurʾān. His father was killed in the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ [q. v.], five years before the hid̲j̲ra, when Zaid was six years old. His ¶ mother was al-Nawār, daughter of Mālik b. Muʿāwiya b. ʿAdī, also of a Madīnd̲j̲ad̲j̲ family. It is said that the boy knew already a number of Sūras when Muḥammad settled in al-Madīna. At any rate he became his secretary, who rec…


(2,548 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the practical group of the S̲h̲īʿa, distinguished from the It̲h̲nā ʿAs̲h̲arīya [q. v.] and the Sabʿīya [q. v.] by the recognition of Zaid b. ʿAlī. After the latter’s death they took part in several ʿAlid risings but were not a united body. Writers on heresy distinguish eight schools among them: from Abū ’l-Ḏj̲ārūd, who combined warlike activity with apotheosis of the imāms and belief in a Mahdī, to Salama b. Kuhail whose Zaidism was watered down to a simple S̲h̲īʿa point of view. It was the sa…


(648 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a port on the African coast o the Gulf of ʿAden. It lies on a narrow tongue of land, which is cut off from the mainland at high water and is the only harbour of importance in British Somaliland. Formerly an important trading centre and one of the largest ports of export for the slave trade with Arabia, the town now only possesses modest remnants of buildings of the middle of the xivth century like the tomb of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Ibrāhīm, and also the fort erected to the west of it by the Indian government, the palace of S̲h̲armakai ʿAlī of which only the groundfloor and the …


(4 words)

[See Almoravids.]

Zainab bint Ḏj̲aḥs̲h̲

(417 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Riʾāb, al-Asadīya, o n e o f Muḥammad’s wives, was the daughter of Umaima bint ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; her kunya was Umm al-Ḥakam and her name had been Barra. One of the first emigrants to Madīna, she was a virgin (some traditions say a widow) when the Prophet gave her in marriage to his freedman and adopted son Zaid b. Ḥārit̲h̲a. In 4 a. h. Muḥammad, calling on Zaid in his home, saw Zainab alone and fell in love with her. Zaid divorced her in order that the Prophet might marry her; the latter’s scruples were set at rest by the revelation of Ḳurʾān xxxiii. 36—3…

Zainab bint K̲h̲uzaima

(113 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Hilālīya, one of Muḥammad ’s wives, had borne the name of Umm al-Masākīn since the Ḏj̲āhilīya. Her first husband, al-Ṭufail b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, had divorced her; the second, ʿUbaida b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, was killed at Badr. Muḥammad married her in Ramaḍān 4 a. h. and gave her a dowry of 400 dirhams; she died 2 or 8 months later, the first of his Madīnese wives to die before him, and was buried in the cemetery of al-Baḳīʿ. (V. Vacca) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, ed. Sachau, viii. 82 Caetani, Annali dell’ Islām, 4 a. h., § 16 and § 22 al-Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, i. 1775—1776 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-G̲h̲…

Zainab bint Muḥammad

(241 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, one of the Prophet’s daughters, said to have been the eldest, was married before her father’s mission to her maternal cousin Abu ’l-ʿĀṣī b. al-Rabīʿ. She was in al-Ṭāʾif at the time of Muḥammad’s hid̲j̲ra, and did not follow him to Madīna; her husband, still a pagan, was taken prisoner at Badr. Zainab sent a necklace which had belonged to Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a to ransom him, and Muḥammad freed him on condition that Zainab should come to Madīna. On her way thither she was maltreated by al-Ḥabbār b. al-Aswad and had a fall which caused her to miscarry (some authors place this accident in 8 a. h. and attribut…


(395 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Ṭirād b. Muḥammad, a vizier of the ʿAbbāsids. He and his family had the name Zainabī because they were descended from Zainab bint Sulaimān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, the cousin of the two first ʿAbbāsids, who was held in great honour among the ʿAbbāsids. In Rad̲j̲ab 453 (July—Aug. 1061) his father Ṭirād was appointed chief inspector ( naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ) of the ʿAbbāsid s̲h̲arīfs and after his death in Shawwāl 491 (Sept. 1098), ʿAlī al-Zainabī inherited this office with which was combined in 517 (1123—1124) that of the ʿAlid chief inspectorate ( niḳābat al-ʿalawī…

Zain al-ʿĀbidīn

(9 words)

[See ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain , al-Tūnisī.]

Zain al-Dīn

(250 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awāfī, founder of an order called after him Zainīya, which traced itself to Ḏj̲unaid, was born in 757 (1356) at Ḵh̲awāf (between Bus̲h̲and̲j̲ and Zuzan) in Ḵh̲urāsān, and was buried in 838 (1435) at the village Mālīn (two parasangs from Herāt), whence his remains were transferred to Darwīs̲h̲ābād, and thence to the ʿĪdgāh of Herāt, where a mosque was built over them. He obtained authorization ( id̲j̲āza) in Egypt ¶ from Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Miṣrī ( Nafaḥāt al-Uns, N°. 505), and returned to Central Asia, but visited Egypt again, whenc…


(853 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in the southeast of Asia Minor. It is the chief town in a ḳazā of the wilāyet (formerly sand̲j̲aḳ) of Marʿas̲h̲ and is (or was before the recent persecutions) inhabited for the most part by Armenians, who call it Zet̲h̲un or Ulnia, usually however simply Keg̲h̲ (“village”). The name Ulni (Ulnia) is also used for the whole of the mountainous country on the Ḏj̲aiḥān between Ḳaratūt̲h̲ (S. W. of Albistān) and Bertis. Whether Ulnia was originally the name of Zaitūn or Furnus to the S. W. of…


(1,077 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the xviiith century. Al-Zaiyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of the Zaiyān ¶ in Central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147 (1734—1735). He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zen [q. v.] of sulṭān Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and…

Zākānī ʿUbaid

(6 words)

[See ʿUbaid Zākānī.]


(452 words)

Author(s): heller, Bernhard
, the father of John the Baptist, is reckoned in the Ḳurʾān (vi. 65) along with John, Jesus and Elias among the righteous. Muḥammad gives the substance of Luke i. 5—25 as follows: Zakārīyā guards the Virgin Mary in the niche ( miḥrāb) and always finds fresh fruits there. He prays to God; angels announce to him that a son will be born to him, Yaḥyā, a name never previously given to anyone, a pious man, a prophet, Yaʿḳūb’s heir, pleasing to God. Zakārīyā ¶ thinks he is too old. As a sign to him he is struck dumb for three days (Sūra iii. 32, 36; xix. 1—15; xxi. 89—90). Later legend expands the Gospel stor…


(2,632 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
(a.), the alms-tax, one of the principal obligations of Islām. By this the law means a tax, which is levied on definite forms of property and is distributed to eight categories of persons. Muslim scholars explain the word from Arabic as meaning “purity” or “increase”. In reality it was borrowed in a much wider sense by Muḥammad from Jewish usage (Hebrew-Aramaic zākūt). In the east among the religiously inclined, the giving away of worldly possessions was regarded as a particularly pious act, the possession of earthly riches on the other hand almost as an …


(301 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
, an unimpressive, but busy commercial town in the Egyptian Delta, in the administrative division ( mudīrīya) of S̲h̲arḳīya. Along with Damanhūr it is one of the towns which do not constitute fiscal units for purposes of land tax. The town, an important railway centre, has an extensive trade in grain and cotton. There are oil refineries and a large market for dates, oranges and onions. It is 46 miles from Cairo, and is connected with it by rail. Its inhabitants in the time of Boinet Bey numbered 35,715 but in 1…
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