Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(138 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, Zāy, 11th letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 7. For its palaeographical pedigree, see arabia, plate i. It belongs to the sibilants ( al-ḥurūf al-asalīya) and corresponds to the same sound in the other Semitic languages. It is pronounced like English and French z. In the spoken Arabic of to-day z may also represent other sounds of the classical language, such as d̲h̲ and . In Persia and Turkey Arabic is often pronounced z. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages, Cambridge 1890, p. 57 sq. A. Schaade, Sibawaihī’s Lautleh…


(1,014 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a region of Algeria. The name Zāb (plur. Zibān) is given to the area around Biskra measuring about 125 miles from W. to E. and 30 to 40 from N. to S. It is a rather flat plain shading in the south into the Sahara and bordered on the north by the southern slopes of the Saharan Atlas, but having easy communication with the depression of the Hodna and the plateaus of Constantine through a wide gap which opens up between the hills of Zāb and the Awrās. Being subject to desert influences Zāb has only rare a…


(868 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the name of two left bank tributaries (al-Zawābī) of the Tigris. 1. The Upper or Great Zāb ( Zāb al-aʿlā or al-akbar) was known already to the Assyrians as Zabu ēlū, the “Upper Zāb”. The Greeks called it Lykos (Weissbach, s. v., N°. 12 in Pauly-Wissowa, R.E., vol. xiii., col. 2391 sq.; on the name see J. Markwart, Südarmenien, Vienna 1930, p. 429 sq.), the Byzantines however have again ό μέγαΣ ΖάβαΣ (Theophan., Chron., ed. de Boor, p. 318, 320). In Syriac it was called Zābhā, in Armenian Zaw (Thomas Arcruni, ed. Patkanean, 111/iv., p. 143; transl. Brosset, in Collection d’hist. Arméniens, i. 1…


(1,925 words)

Author(s): Ferrand, Gabriel
(), inaccurately transcribed Zābed̲j̲ < Sanskrit Jāvaka, the name of an island. The Arabic transcription, so far as I am aware, goes back to the ninth century a. d. We do not see why the Arabic has rendered by a sonant the guttural occlusive surd of the Sanskrit. The fact that we might be dealing with a form borrowed from a highly sonorous Prākrit hardly seems to me to require to be considered here. The Chinese knew this place-name as early as the seventh century under various forms which are reproduced in Chinese characters in L’empire sumatranais de Çrīvijaya: S̲h̲e-li Fo-s̲h̲e < Skr. Śrī Vijay…


(881 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a town in the Tihāma of Yaman, on the road running from north to south from Mecca to ʿAden, halfway between the Yaman highlands and the Red Sea, about 16 miles from the coast. At this distance the country is suitable for agriculture in view of the better water-supply, and the town itself is adjoined by two wādīs, in the north the Wādī Rimaʿ and the south the perennial Wādī Zabīd, from which it has taken the name which has replaced the original al-Ḥusaib. In contrast to the rest of the Tihāma it is famous for its gardens with date-palms, ¶ a little corn, indigo and various medicinal plants; th…


(843 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), probably a loanword from the South, but already used by pre-Islāmic poets in the sense of “writ”; in this sense it is still found in al-Farazdaḳ, Naḳāʾiḍ, lxxv. 1. From the second Makkan period onwards, Muḥammad uses the plural zubur in order to denote the revealed books (Sūra xxvi. 196; iii. 181; xvi. 46; xxxv. 23) as well as the heavenly writings, in which human deeds are recorded (Sūra liv. 43, 52). The singular zabūr, on the other hand, occurs in the Ḳurʾān exclusively in connection with Dāwūd. In the early Sūra xvii. 57 Muḥ…


(4 words)

[See Zakārīyāʾ.]


(6,076 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, 1. now a group of ruins near an insignificant village in southern Yaman, about 10 miles S. W. of Yarīm, celebrated in ancient times as the capital of the Ḥimyar kingdom (also called Ẓafāri; see Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iii. 576; i. 196; South Arabian inscriptions give the radicals ẓ-p[f]-r; it is reproduced in Ethiopie as Ṣafār). ¶ The royal city is mentioned by Pliny, Natur. Hist., vi. 104 as regia Sapphar and in the Periplus Mar. Erythr., § 23 as μητρόπολιΣ ΣαΦάρ in which χαριβαήλ (Karibaʾil), “king of the Homerites (Ḥimyar) and Sabaeans” ruled, of that dynasty which, succ…


(100 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, nickname of the rad̲j̲az poet ʿAṭāʾ b. Usaid Abu ’l-Miḳāl (according to another reading: Miḳdām). He belonged to the Banū ʿUwāfa, a branch of the tribe of Saʿd b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm, whence he was known as al-Saʿdī or al-Tamīmī. It is clear from one of his poems that he went through the rising of Abū Fudaik (73 = 692) and was roughly a contemporary of al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲. (H. H. Bräu) Bibliography A few quoted fragments of his urd̲j̲ūza’s from a defective copy of the Dīwān, ed. by Ahlwardt in Sammlungen alter arab. Dichter, Berlin 1903, vol. ii.


(8 words)

[See Fāṭimids , above ii. 91.]


(1,825 words)

Author(s): Kratschkowsky, Ign.
, Ḏj̲amīl Ṣidḳī, the greatest Arabic poet of modern ʿIrāḳ, born in Bag̲h̲dād on 29th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1279 (June 18, 1863), died on Feb. 23, 1936. His father Muḥammad Faiḍī al-Zahāwī, muftī of Bag̲h̲dād, was of Kurdish descent of the house of al-Bābān, members of which had once been emīrs of Sulaimānīya [q.v.]; according to a legend, they trace their family back to the famous Arab general Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd [q.v.]. His grandfather lived for a time in Zahāw in Persia, whence the nisba. His mother was also of Kurdish descent. He was a pupil of his father in the traditional Muslim br…


(15 words)

[See the articles Baibars I , Barḳūḳ , Fāṭimids , Supra, ii. 90.]


(255 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi-Amr Allāh Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. al-Nāṣir, an ʿAbbāsid Caliph. As early as Ṣafar 585 (March-April 1189) the caliph al-Nāṣir had designated his eldest son Muḥammad as his successor. Later however, he changed his mind in favour of his younger son ʿAlī but since the latter died in 612 (1215—1216) and al-Nāṣir had no other male heirs, he had to come back to Muḥammad and again have homage paid to him as heir-apparent. Regarding the treatment given the future commander of the faithful in his father’s house…

Ẓahīr al-Dīn

(133 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Saiyid) al-Marʿas̲h̲ī, son of the Saiyid Nāṣir al-Dīn, descendant of a family of ¶ Saiyids, Persian statesman and historian, born in 815 (1412), was at the court of Muḥammad, Sulṭān of Gīlān, for whose son Kārgiā Mīrzā ʿAlī he composed the Chronicle of Ṭabaristān from the earliest times to 881 (1476). The sovereign employed him on various missions, sent him to the help of Malik Iskandar, son of Malik Kayomart̲h̲ of Rustamdār, who was fighting his brother Malik Kāʾūs and entrusted him with other military expeditions; among these …

Ẓahīr-i Fāryābī

(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Ṭāhir b. Muḥammad, Persian poet of the xiith century, born at Fāryāb near Balk̲h̲ in 551 (1156), a pupil of Ras̲h̲īdī of Samarḳand, entered the service of Ardas̲h̲īr b. Ḥasan, ispahbad of Māzandarān (d. 607 = 1210), then went to the court of Tog̲h̲ān, prince of Nīs̲h̲āpūr (d. 582= 1186); after being imprisoned for six years, he left Ḵh̲urāsān for’ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī where he wrote panegyrics on the Atābek Ḳizil-Arslān b. Ildigiz about 583 (1187). Towards the end of his life, he retired from the world and led a life of…


(1,288 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a school of law, which would derive the law only from the literal text ( ẓāhir) of the Ḳurʾān and Sunna. In the “branches” of law ( furūʿ al-fiḳh) it still further increased the number of contradictory detailed regulations by many divergencies, peculiar to it alone. More important is its significance for the principles of legislation ( uṣūl al-fiḳh), the development and elucidation of which it considerably furthered by its uncompromising fight against raʾy, ḳiyās, istiṣḥāb, istiḥsān and taḳlīd [q. v.]. In the ʿIrāḳ the Ẓāhirī mad̲h̲hab, also called Dāʾūdī after its founder [see dāʾūd b.…

Ẓāhir al-ʿOmar

(607 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
In Syria, he is called Ḍāhir (local pronunciation of Ẓāhir) al-(āl-)ʿOmar, from the name of his father ʿOmar, s̲h̲aik̲h̲ of the Banū Zaidān, nomads who had settled in the district of Ṣafad [q. v.]. In 1750, Ẓāhir lord of Tiberias and the upper Jordan, came to an arrangement with the Metwalis of Galilee to drive out the Turkish officials by degrees; after which he seized the ruined port of ʿAkkā which was to serve him as an outlet for the export of cotton and silk. He repopulated the town and hu…


(1,387 words)

Author(s): Kratschkowsky, Ign.
(in modern pronunciation Zīdān), D̲j̲ird̲j̲i, an Arab scholar, journalist and man of letters, born in Bairūt on Dec. 14, 1861, died in Cairo on Aug. 21, 1914. Born in a poor Christian family, he had no regular education and in almost all branches of learning he was self-taught. He spent some time at the Protestant College and received the diploma in pharmacy. Soon afterwards he went to Egypt where for about a year he was on the staff of the newspaper al-Zamān. In 1884 he served as a dragoman on the expedition to the Sūdān to the relief of Gordon, and then returned to Bairūt.…

Zaid b. ʿAlī

(988 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [q. v.] gave his name to the Zaidīya [q. v.] who revere him as a political and religious martyr; he was the first ʿAlid after the catastrophe which overwhelmed his grandfather al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī ¶ [q. v.] at Kerbelāʾ to endeavour to deprive the Umaiyads of the caliphate by armed rebellion when he placed himself at the disposal of the Kūfans as Imām. Except for an interval of two months when he was secretly seeking adherents in Baṣra, he spent a year in preparation in Kūfa, hidden in constantly changing hiding-places…

Zaid b. ʿAmr

(244 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Nufail, a Makkan and Ḳuras̲h̲ī, one of the religious seekers known as the ḥanīf, died before Muḥammad’s mission, when the Prophet was about 35. He had abandoned the pagan religion without embracing either Christianity or Judaism, objected to female infanticide, refused to eat the flesh of animals sacrificed to idols or slaughtered without invoking God’s name, and considered himself the only true believer in Makka and a follower of Abraham’s religion. A cousin of ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb, he was married to Ṣafī…

Zaid b. Ḥārit̲h̲a

(404 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. S̲h̲arāḥīl al-Kalbī, Abū Usāma, was brought as a slave to Makka by Ḥakim b. Ḥizām b. Ḵh̲uwailid, a nephew of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a’s, who had bought him in Syria and sold him to her. Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a made a gift of Zaid to Muḥammad before his mission. His father Ḥārit̲h̲a came to Makka to obtain his freedom, but Zaid refused to leave Muḥammad, who thereupon freed him and adopted him. He was thenceforward known as Zaid b. Muḥammad, and was often associated in his adopted father’s commercial enterprises. About ten years younger than Muḥammad, Zaid was one of the very first converts to Islām, …

Zaid b. T̲h̲ābit

(429 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Zaid b. Lawd̲h̲ān b. ʿAmr b. ʿAbd Manāf (or ʿAwf) b. G̲h̲anm b. Mālik b. al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲īr al-Anṣārī al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī, one of the Companions of Muḥammad, best known through his part in the editing of the Ḳurʾān. His father was killed in the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ [q. v.], five years before the hid̲j̲ra, when Zaid was six years old. His ¶ mother was al-Nawār, daughter of Mālik b. Muʿāwiya b. ʿAdī, also of a Madīnd̲j̲ad̲j̲ family. It is said that the boy knew already a number of Sūras when Muḥammad settled in al-Madīna. At any rate he became his secretary, who rec…


(2,548 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the practical group of the S̲h̲īʿa, distinguished from the It̲h̲nā ʿAs̲h̲arīya [q. v.] and the Sabʿīya [q. v.] by the recognition of Zaid b. ʿAlī. After the latter’s death they took part in several ʿAlid risings but were not a united body. Writers on heresy distinguish eight schools among them: from Abū ’l-Ḏj̲ārūd, who combined warlike activity with apotheosis of the imāms and belief in a Mahdī, to Salama b. Kuhail whose Zaidism was watered down to a simple S̲h̲īʿa point of view. It was the sa…


(648 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a port on the African coast o the Gulf of ʿAden. It lies on a narrow tongue of land, which is cut off from the mainland at high water and is the only harbour of importance in British Somaliland. Formerly an important trading centre and one of the largest ports of export for the slave trade with Arabia, the town now only possesses modest remnants of buildings of the middle of the xivth century like the tomb of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Ibrāhīm, and also the fort erected to the west of it by the Indian government, the palace of S̲h̲armakai ʿAlī of which only the groundfloor and the …


(4 words)

[See Almoravids.]

Zainab bint Ḏj̲aḥs̲h̲

(417 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Riʾāb, al-Asadīya, o n e o f Muḥammad’s wives, was the daughter of Umaima bint ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; her kunya was Umm al-Ḥakam and her name had been Barra. One of the first emigrants to Madīna, she was a virgin (some traditions say a widow) when the Prophet gave her in marriage to his freedman and adopted son Zaid b. Ḥārit̲h̲a. In 4 a. h. Muḥammad, calling on Zaid in his home, saw Zainab alone and fell in love with her. Zaid divorced her in order that the Prophet might marry her; the latter’s scruples were set at rest by the revelation of Ḳurʾān xxxiii. 36—3…

Zainab bint K̲h̲uzaima

(113 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Hilālīya, one of Muḥammad ’s wives, had borne the name of Umm al-Masākīn since the Ḏj̲āhilīya. Her first husband, al-Ṭufail b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, had divorced her; the second, ʿUbaida b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, was killed at Badr. Muḥammad married her in Ramaḍān 4 a. h. and gave her a dowry of 400 dirhams; she died 2 or 8 months later, the first of his Madīnese wives to die before him, and was buried in the cemetery of al-Baḳīʿ. (V. Vacca) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, ed. Sachau, viii. 82 Caetani, Annali dell’ Islām, 4 a. h., § 16 and § 22 al-Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, i. 1775—1776 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-G̲h̲…

Zainab bint Muḥammad

(241 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, one of the Prophet’s daughters, said to have been the eldest, was married before her father’s mission to her maternal cousin Abu ’l-ʿĀṣī b. al-Rabīʿ. She was in al-Ṭāʾif at the time of Muḥammad’s hid̲j̲ra, and did not follow him to Madīna; her husband, still a pagan, was taken prisoner at Badr. Zainab sent a necklace which had belonged to Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a to ransom him, and Muḥammad freed him on condition that Zainab should come to Madīna. On her way thither she was maltreated by al-Ḥabbār b. al-Aswad and had a fall which caused her to miscarry (some authors place this accident in 8 a. h. and attribut…


(395 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Ṭirād b. Muḥammad, a vizier of the ʿAbbāsids. He and his family had the name Zainabī because they were descended from Zainab bint Sulaimān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, the cousin of the two first ʿAbbāsids, who was held in great honour among the ʿAbbāsids. In Rad̲j̲ab 453 (July—Aug. 1061) his father Ṭirād was appointed chief inspector ( naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ) of the ʿAbbāsid s̲h̲arīfs and after his death in Shawwāl 491 (Sept. 1098), ʿAlī al-Zainabī inherited this office with which was combined in 517 (1123—1124) that of the ʿAlid chief inspectorate ( niḳābat al-ʿalawī…

Zain al-ʿĀbidīn

(9 words)

[See ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain , al-Tūnisī.]

Zain al-Dīn

(250 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awāfī, founder of an order called after him Zainīya, which traced itself to Ḏj̲unaid, was born in 757 (1356) at Ḵh̲awāf (between Bus̲h̲and̲j̲ and Zuzan) in Ḵh̲urāsān, and was buried in 838 (1435) at the village Mālīn (two parasangs from Herāt), whence his remains were transferred to Darwīs̲h̲ābād, and thence to the ʿĪdgāh of Herāt, where a mosque was built over them. He obtained authorization ( id̲j̲āza) in Egypt ¶ from Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Miṣrī ( Nafaḥāt al-Uns, N°. 505), and returned to Central Asia, but visited Egypt again, whenc…


(853 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in the southeast of Asia Minor. It is the chief town in a ḳazā of the wilāyet (formerly sand̲j̲aḳ) of Marʿas̲h̲ and is (or was before the recent persecutions) inhabited for the most part by Armenians, who call it Zet̲h̲un or Ulnia, usually however simply Keg̲h̲ (“village”). The name Ulni (Ulnia) is also used for the whole of the mountainous country on the Ḏj̲aiḥān between Ḳaratūt̲h̲ (S. W. of Albistān) and Bertis. Whether Ulnia was originally the name of Zaitūn or Furnus to the S. W. of…


(1,077 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the xviiith century. Al-Zaiyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of the Zaiyān ¶ in Central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147 (1734—1735). He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zen [q. v.] of sulṭān Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and…

Zākānī ʿUbaid

(6 words)

[See ʿUbaid Zākānī.]


(452 words)

Author(s): heller, Bernhard
, the father of John the Baptist, is reckoned in the Ḳurʾān (vi. 65) along with John, Jesus and Elias among the righteous. Muḥammad gives the substance of Luke i. 5—25 as follows: Zakārīyā guards the Virgin Mary in the niche ( miḥrāb) and always finds fresh fruits there. He prays to God; angels announce to him that a son will be born to him, Yaḥyā, a name never previously given to anyone, a pious man, a prophet, Yaʿḳūb’s heir, pleasing to God. Zakārīyā ¶ thinks he is too old. As a sign to him he is struck dumb for three days (Sūra iii. 32, 36; xix. 1—15; xxi. 89—90). Later legend expands the Gospel stor…


(2,632 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
(a.), the alms-tax, one of the principal obligations of Islām. By this the law means a tax, which is levied on definite forms of property and is distributed to eight categories of persons. Muslim scholars explain the word from Arabic as meaning “purity” or “increase”. In reality it was borrowed in a much wider sense by Muḥammad from Jewish usage (Hebrew-Aramaic zākūt). In the east among the religiously inclined, the giving away of worldly possessions was regarded as a particularly pious act, the possession of earthly riches on the other hand almost as an …


(301 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
, an unimpressive, but busy commercial town in the Egyptian Delta, in the administrative division ( mudīrīya) of S̲h̲arḳīya. Along with Damanhūr it is one of the towns which do not constitute fiscal units for purposes of land tax. The town, an important railway centre, has an extensive trade in grain and cotton. There are oil refineries and a large market for dates, oranges and onions. It is 46 miles from Cairo, and is connected with it by rail. Its inhabitants in the time of Boinet Bey numbered 35,715 but in 1…


(4 words)

[See Ḏj̲ahānnam.]


(313 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given by the Muslim historians to the place near the town of Badajoz ([q. v.] Ar. Baṭalyaws) where the armies of the Almoravid sulṭān Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn [q. v.], assisted by Andalusian contingents, inflicted a memorable and severe defeat on the troops of Alfonso VI of Castille on Friday 12th Rad̲j̲ab 479 (Oct. 23, 1086). This famous battlefield is now known as Sagrajas on the banks of the Rio Guerrero about 8 miles N. E. of Badajoz. Almost all the Muslim historians of Spain devote a large space in their works to the account of the battle of al-Zallāḳa, but the mo…


(788 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, Manṣūr b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḍārib, was a famous lute-player at the early ʿAbbāsid ¶ court (Guidi, Tables alphabétiques du Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, has Zilzil, whilst Caussin de Perceval, loc. cit.; Carra de Vaux, loc. cit.; R. d’Erlanger, Al-Fārābī, p. 47; and De Slane, Ibn Ḵh̲allikān’s Biographical Dictionary write Zulzul. This latter is the epithet applied to an agile young man and especially one playing so on a musical instrument, as al-Fīrūzābādī points out. On the other hand the Mafātīḥ al-ʿUlūm, p. 239, and almost every MS. on Arabian music theory that 1 have consulted give t…


(13 words)

or al-Zilzāl, title of sūra xcix,, taken from the opening words.


(2,262 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, abu ’l-Ḳāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿOmar, a Persian born Arabic scholar, theologian and philologist. Born in Ḵh̲wārizm on 27th Rad̲j̲ab 467 (March 8, 1075), in the course of his travels as a student he came to Mecca, where he stayed for some time as a pupil of Ibn Wahhās, hence his epithet Ḏj̲āru ’llāhi. He must however have achieved a literary reputation before this; when he passed through Bag̲h̲dād on the pilgrimage he was welcomed there by the learned ʿAlid Hibat Allāh b. al-S̲h̲ad̲j̲arī. As a theologian he followed the teachings of the Muʿtazila; as a p…


(2,955 words)

Author(s): Hartner, Willy
(pl. azmān, azmun, azmina), time. As a guide to the distinction in use between zamān (common to the Semitic languages) and waḳt (only Arabic with the meaning of “time”) the following rules may be deduced from the Arabic works of a scientific naturè, although they appear to be not infrequently broken even in works that have been compiled with great care. Zamān is used predominantly for time as a philosophical or mathematical conception in contrast to makān, “space” (the similarity in sound between these two words has possibly not been without influence on the preference given to zamān over waḳ…


(2,042 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.) is the word generally used in the terminology of philosophy to express the conception of time. Dahr, waḳt and ḥīn are synonyms. To distinguish it from time as perceived of the senses, time in the abstract is often called dahr (Pers. zurvān) or described as zamān maʿnawī, zamān muṭlaḳ, zamān ʿalwī etc. Speculations on time (or space) as the highest principle of the world, with which Islām was acquainted from Hellenistic and Persian tradition, were of course strictly avoided. The doctrine that time, like space, was one of the five principles of…


(103 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
(p.), a landholder, the possessor of a landed estate. In Bengal these holdings are usually extensive and the zamīndār is responsible to the Government for the rent of his estate and also in some degree for the maintenance of order therein. In other parts of India zamīndārs have smaller estates, held sometimes in common, under a settlement periodically renewable. (T. W. Haig) Bibliography G̲h̲ulām Ḥusain Ḵh̲ān, Siyar al-Mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn, Lucknow 1897 R. Orme, History of the military Transactions of the British Nation in Indostan, London 1805 Imperial Gazetteer of India, Oxford 190…


(455 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Sammūra), a town in the N. W. of Spain, capital of the province of the same name, 2,130 feet above sea-level on the left bank of the Duero, has now a much reduced population (16,000). The Arab geographers of Spain describe it as a town in the country of the Galicians (al-Ḏj̲alāliḳa). It was, after the conquest of al-Andalus, peopled by Berbers and had to be evacuated at the beginning of the viiith century as a result of the territorial gains of the Christian kingdom of Leon. Retaken by the Muslims, it was reconquered and rebuilt in 280 (893) by Alfonso III. ʿAbd…


(410 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, the sacred well of Mecca, also called the well of Ismāʿīl. It is in al-ḥaram al-s̲h̲arīf S. E. of the Kaʿba opposite the coiner of the sanctuary in which the Black Stone is inserted. It is 140 feet deep and is surmounted by an elegant dome. The pilgrims drink its water as health-giving and take it home with them to give it to the sick. Zamzam in Arabic means “abundant water” and zamzama “to drink by little gulps” and “to mutter through the teeth”. Muslim tradition connects the origin of this well with the story of Abraham. It was opened by the angel Gabriel to save Hagar and h…


(622 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L.
, the name of the negro tribes of the east coast of Africa, given by the Arab historians to the rebel slaves who, having previously rebelled in 75(694),for fifteenyears(255-270 = 868—883) terrorised lower Mesopotamia. This rising is very important for it is a war of a classical type, a regular “social war” directed against Bag̲h̲dād like those of Eunus (140 b. c.) and Spartacus (73—71 b. c.) against Rome, like that of Toussaint Louverture in Haiti (1794—1801), like the strikes of Natal coolies led by Gandhi (1906—1913) against European colonisation. The rebels were, according to Ṭaba…


(898 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in northern Persia, capital of the province of Ḵh̲amsa which lies between Ḳazwīn, Hamad̲h̲ān, Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān and Gīlān. Geography. The town of Zand̲j̲ān is situated on the river Zangānarūd (the old name of which, according to the Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, p. 221, was Mād̲j̲-rūd), which runs from east to west and joins the Safīd-rūd [q. v.] on its right bank. Zand̲j̲ān is an important station on the great road from Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān to Ḳazwīn and thence to Tiḥrān and Ḵh̲urāsān. Zand̲j̲ān is also at the junction of several other roads: to the north, that to Ardabīl [cf. tārom] and Gīlān (via…


(382 words)

Author(s): Lichtenstädter, Ilse
, ʿIzz al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. Abū ’l-Maʿālī al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī, also called al-ʿIzzī, an Arabic grammarian, who lived in the first half of the viith (xiiith) century. The place and date of his birth are unknown and the date of his death is also uncertain. The few facts that we know of the his life are given us by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, who in giving the works of al-Zand̲j̲ānī adds what the latter says about their date and place of composition. We thus know that he stayed in Mōṣul in 637 (1239) where he finished his al-Muʿrib ʿammā fi ’l-Ṣiḥāḥ wa ’l-Mug̲h̲rib, a work on t…


(2,712 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Werner, Alice
(al-Zand̲j̲abār), capital of the island of the same name, which lies off the east coast of Africa in 6° South Lat. The town is on the west side of the island 26 miles N. E. of the harbour of Bagamoyo in 6° 9′ S. Lat. and 39° 15′ East Long, and forms a triangular peninsula 1½ miles in length, which runs from east to west and affords a roomy anchorage, one of the best in Africa. The peninsula is connected with the mainland of the island by a narrow isthmus on which there is a cemetery; on the bay …


(682 words)

Author(s): Cerulli, Enrico
is in Arabic a loanword from Amharic, as the popular beliefs in the genii zār were imported from Abyssinia into the Islāmic world. Similar ideas about genii who may temporarily become incarnate in particular human beings, are found in various Muslim countries of Asia and Africa where they have special names: such as būrī (Nigeria and Tripolitania) and amok (Malaya). This article, however, is concerned only with the habits of the zār adopted with that name in Egypt, Ḥid̲j̲āz and ʿOmān, besides Abyssinia. In Abyssinia itself the name zār is of non-Semitic origin. Zār is very probably deri…


(440 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, the former capital and principal town of Sid̲j̲istān to the south of Herāt, at a distance of ten days’ journey in a desert traversed by canals led from the river Hindmend (Hīlmend). Attacked by al-Rabīʿ b. Ziyād al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī in 30 (651), he left it to the satrap Parwīz on payment of 200 slaves, each carrying a basin of gold. At the end of 2½ years, al-Rabīʿ was replaced by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Samura who besieged the satrap in the citadel and made peace on payment of 2,000,000 d…


(470 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, Burhān al-Dīn, an Arab philosopher. His ism is not known and his period can only be approximately stated. Ahlwardt in the Berlin Catalogue under N°. 111 says that Maḥmūd b. Sulaimān al-Kaffawī (d. 990 = 1562) in his Aʿlām al-Ak̲h̲yār min Fuḳahāʾ Mad̲h̲hab al-Nuʿmān al-Muk̲h̲tār puts our author in the twelfth class of the Ḥanafīs and from this calculates that he flourished about 620 (1223). In agreement with this is the fact that Eduard van Dyck, Iktifāʾ al-Ḳanūʿ bi-mā huwa maṭbūʿ, Cairo 1896, p. 190, describes our philosopher, in agreement with Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, N°. 31…


(81 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(Sulaimān), a Ṣūfī Ottoman poet, of Gallipoli (not Brussa, as often stated), k̲h̲alīfa of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī. He died in 1151 (1738) as pūst-nis̲h̲īn of the Ḵh̲alwetī monastery in Kes̲h̲an. He left a Dīwān with Ṣūfī poems and a treatise in verse: Sawāniḥ al-Nawādir fī Maʿrifat al-ʿAnāṣir (printed together); and two prose works: 23 Esʾele-i müteṣawwifāneye Ḏj̲ewāb-nāme and Miftāḥ al-Masāʾil. ¶ (Th. Menzel) Bibliography Brusali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ Müʾellifleri, i. 72—73 T̲h̲uraiyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, ii. 342 Sāmī, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, iii. 2224.


(686 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, one of the most important Ottoman poets of the preparatory classical period. His real name was ʿIwaz or Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī or Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī (according to Laṭīfī). Born in 876 (1471—1472) in Bali̊kesri in Ḳarasi̊, the son of a shoemaker, he followed the same trade. He had no education. In spite of all obstacles his poetical ability displayed itself. He was a born poet. In the time of Sulṭān Bāyazīd he came to Constantinople. As his original plan of becoming a ḳāḍī after some training fell through on acc…


(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in Ḵh̲orāsān near Naisābūr. In the time of Muḳaddasī, it was a rural district which did not contain a town; but later (xivth century) there was a fine town there with a citadel built of brick. It contains the tomb of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Ḥaidar, who was still alive in 617 (1220) whence the name of Turbat-i Ḥaidarī now given to the town. Muḳaddasī mentions a town of the same name near G̲h̲azna ( B. G. A., iii. 50, 297). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ii. 770, 910 = Barbier de Meynard, Dict. de la Perse, p. 282 B. G. A., iii. 319c Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, iii. 79 Ḳazwīnī, Āt̲…


(362 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of two towns in North Africa. 1. Zawīlat al-Mahdīya (according to al-Bakrī: Zuwaila) built by the Fāṭimid ʿUbaid Allāh al-Mahdī (d. Rabīʿ I 14, 322) situated a bowshot distant from al-Mahdīya, of which it was a suburb. According to Idrīsī the two towns formed one. It had fine bazaars and buildings and many merchants resided there who went to their businesses in Mahdīya in the day. The town was surrounded by a wall even on the side facing the sea; the land side was further protected by a great …


(1,030 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, properly the corner of a building, was at first appled to the cell of the Christian monk (cf. the Greek γωνία), then to a small mosque or praying room; the word still has this meaning in the Muslim east in contrast to a more important mosque ( masd̲j̲id or d̲j̲āmiʿ). On the other hand the term zāwiya has retained a much more general meaning in North Africa and is applied to a building or group of buildings of a religious nature, which resembles a monastery and a school. An excellent definition of the Mag̲h̲ribī zāwiya was given as early as 1847 by Daumas ( La Kabylie, p. 60) and it seems to be in …


(492 words)

Author(s): Bel, Alfred
(Banū Zayān or Banū Ziyān, the two vocalisations zayān and ziyān are classical; we also find zaiyān), a Berber dynasty of kings of Tlemcen, who reigned over Central Mag̲h̲rib from the xiiith to the xvith century a. d., whose claim to noble descent from Idrīs is disputed (cf. Hist. des Berbers, transl. de Slane, iii. 328 and ibid., the words attributed to Yag̲h̲murāsan). They are called by the chroniclers also ʿAbdalwādids (q. v., i., p. 64b). This is because ʿAbd al-Wād [q. v.] and Zaiyān were two of the ancestors of the kings of Tlemcen, centuries apart however, the f…


(179 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, an astrological magic table common in Morocco, the making and use of which is fully described by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn in the Muḳaddima. The word is connected with Zīd̲j̲ [q. v.]; its fuller name is Zāyird̲j̲at al-ʿĀlam. The inventor is said to have been the Ṣūfī Abū ’l-ʿAbbās al-Ṣibtī (i. e. of Ceuta) who lived in the time of the Almohad Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr, i. e. at the end of the vith (xiith) century. The table has on one side a system of concentric circles with divisions corresponding to the signs of the zodiac and others for telling fortunes and answering questions on i…


(1,303 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a.), popular form for ziʿāma, Turkish pronunciation zeamet and ziamet: 1. the quality of zaʾīm, 2. (military) fief of a zaʿīm (the other meanings of zeʿāmet will be found in the Arabic dictionaries). — The word zaʿīm, plur. Zuʿamāʾ, has several meanings which may be grouped round that of “person who puts forward a claim, who intercedes for or answers for one or more weaker individuals”. It means, in effect: 1. “caution, surety” (Ḳurʾān, Dīwān of Imruʾu ’l-Ḳais, treatises on Muslim law); 2. “spokesman of a group of individuals or metaphorically of animals, acting in n…


(695 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the name of a Turkish tribe in the region of Smyrna. The origin of the Zeibek has not yet been fully explained. Just as it used to be the custom to say the Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲i [q. v.] were descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Asia Minor, so the ancestors of the Zeibek were sought in the remnants of Thracians who had settled around Tralles. In favour of this we have also the fact that they were called Gjaur by orthodox Turks (Lord Keppel, op. cit., ii. 266). This view however is undoubtedly wrong; we must rather see in the Zeibek one of those Yürük tribes, who settled in consi…


(969 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
The Arab historians of the middle ages give this name to one of the two great groups into which the population of Barbary falls. According to the genealogical fiction which formed the frame-work of their ethnical classification, the Zenāta, who are descended from Maddg̲h̲is al-Abtar, are distinguished from the Ṣanhād̲j̲a who are descended from Bernes; Bernes and Madg̲h̲is were the sons of one father, Berr. Other theories connect the Zenāta with a certain S̲h̲ana or Ḏj̲ana, who was said to be ei…


(511 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, one of the principal rivers of Central Persia. Its source lies about 90 miles W. of Iṣfahān in the province of ʿArabistān (Ḵh̲ūzistān) in the Zardeh-Kūh, “the yellow hills” (so-called after the yellow limestone found there) which are included among the Bak̲h̲tiārī mountains, in which also rises the Kārūn [q. v.], the greatest river of southern Persia. After leaving the mountains the Zende-rūd flows through the district of Iṣfahān after which it is often called Iṣfahān-Rūd, “the river of Iṣfahā…


(1,126 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, ʿImād al-Dīn b. Ḳasīm al-Dawla Aḳsonḳor b. ʿAbd Allāh, atābeg of al-Mawṣil and one of the most distinguished emīrs of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period. His father Aḳsonḳor al-Ḥād̲j̲ib (“the chamberlain”), a Turkish Mamlūk in the service of Sulṭān Maliks̲h̲āh [q. v.], had received from the latter the town of Ḥalab as a fief; but when Aḳsonḳor on the death of Maliks̲h̲āh rebelled against his brother Tutus̲h̲ [q. v.], he was taken prisoner and put to death (487 = 1094) and the young Zengī, who was then only ten years…


(583 words)

Author(s): Hartner, Willy
, the vertical point, i. e. the highest point in the visible sphere of the heavens in the direction of the vertical (plumb line) above the observer, at the same time the upper (visible) pole of the horizon. The technical astronomical term for zenith in Arabic is samt al-raʾs or samt al-ruʾūs, which means “direction ( samt) of the head”, corresponding to the Greek κορυφή or τò κατά κορυφὴν σημεĩον. Plato Tiburtinus reproduces samt al-raʾs in his Latin translation as zenith capitis or zenith capitum, the Spanish translation of al-Battānī by el zonte (el zont) de la cabeça (cf. al-Battānī, Opus a…


(421 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(formerly Hungarian Szenta; Turkish , , ; [ Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, iv. 2425] and also [in Ḵh̲alīl Edhem, Düwel-i islāmīye, 1927 p. 323]; Serbo-Croat Senta), a flourishing town on the right bank of the Theiss in the Bačka (since 1929 in the Danube banate) in Jugoslavia, with 30,044 inhabitants (1931), first mentioned in 1216 and made a free city in 1516. After the battle of Mohács (1526) Zenta became Turkish and belonged to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Segedīn (Szegedin; cf. e. g. Fekete, Türkische Schriftendes Palatin N. Esterházy, 1932, p. 110 and 324). Ewliyā Čelebi (vii. 363) who visited Zenta in the xviith …

Zer Maḥbūb

(134 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, “beloved gold”, a Turkish gold coin (sequin). In the reign of Aḥmad III (1115-1143 = 1703—1730) a new gold sequin was issued weighing 40 grains (2.6 grammes), in addition to the older sequin of 53 grains (3.44 grammes) ( funduḳ altūnī) which continued to be issued alongside of it. This coin, known as the zer maḥbūb, remained in circulation till the great Med̲j̲īdīye recoinage of 1280 (1844), being reduced in weight to 37 grains (2.4 grammes) by Selīm III (1203—1222 = 1789—1807) and to 25 grains (1.62 grammes) in the last years of Maḥ…
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