Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(681 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿḳūb b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Wahb b. Wāḍiḥ al-Kātib al-ʿAbbāsī, an Arab historian and geographer, a descendant of the Wāḍiḥ, a freedman of Ṣāliḥ and later of his father, the Caliph al-Manṣūr, after whom the family takes the name al-ʿAbbāsī. Like his ancestor, who as governor of Egypt paid with his life for the protection which he gave to Idrīs b. ʿAbd Allāh on his flight after his defeat at al-Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in 169 (785), our author was also a S̲h̲īʿī of the moderate Mūsawīya who belong to the Imāmīs. He…

Yāḳūt al-Mustaʿṣimī

(235 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Mad̲j̲d b. ʿAbd Allāh, a famous calligrapher, was a slave of the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād, al-Mustaʿṣim, who had him brought up and educated, whence his surname. His origin is unknown; some say he was a Greek from Amasia; he was probably carried off on a razzia while still very young. He was a eunuch. He died at Bag̲h̲dād in 698 (1298) at the age of 80 (lunar years) which would make him born in 618 (1221). The continuer of Ibn al-Bawwāb, he was called Ḳiblat al-Kuttāb, “model of calli graphers”, and was head of a school; he also wrote in prose and verse; we have by him a Kit…

Yāḳūt al-Rūmī

(856 words)

Author(s): Blachère, R.
, or, according to a genealogy which he assumed later, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Yaʿḳūb b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī, the famous Arab encyclopædist. Born in 575 (1179) in Byzantine territory of non-Arab parents (hence his ethnic al-Rūmī) he was captured when a boy, sold as a slave in Bag̲h̲dād and purchased by a certain ʿAskar b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥamawī, a merchant in the capital of the caliphs. ʿAskar gave Yāḳūt, who added to his name his master’s ethnic, a good education and a few years later sent him to trade in the Persian Gulf in th…


(519 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
1. Name of a tribe belonging to Hamdān in South Arabia, described by Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir as the Banū Yām b. Aṣbaʿ living in al-Ḳadīm and in the wādīs of al-Ḥāniḳ and al-Ḥuḳḳa. Al-Hamdānī numbers the Banū Yām among the tribes who speak a pure Arabic but E. Glaser established the fact that their dialect is different from the Arabic which is spoken in the Yaman highlands. The Banū Yām are, according to Passama, the finest type of men among the southern Arabs, of fine physique, proud and warlike. The…


(4 words)

[See Janissaries.]


(693 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a district in Central Arabia, which was originally called Ḏj̲aww (“the bottom of a valley”). The name of Yamāma is said to go back to the seeress Zarḳāʾ al-Yamāma, who plays a prominent part in the story of the decline of the tribes of Ṭasm and Ḏj̲adīs. The district was first of all called after her Ḏj̲aww al-Yamāma, then simply al-Yamāma. The statement that al-Yamāma lies on the long ridge of the ʿĀriḍ, to which belongs its chief wādī ʿIrḍ, which runs through the district, shows, like the lon…


(3,589 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, formerly a province, now an imāmate in the southwest of the Arabian peninsula. The name is variously explained; some say it was given because the Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii. 856), others because Yuḳtan b. ʿĀbir and his companions turned right on separating from the other Arabs ( B. G. A., v. 33; Yāḳūt, iv. 1034), while others again derive the name from the eponymous hero Yaman b. Ḳaḥṭān (cf. al-Wāsiʿī, p. 281). Sprenger thinks the Greeks and Romans translated Teman and Yaman by “eudaemon” and “felix” and …


(100 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
, the most usual Muslim term for oath, from the meaning “the right hand”, according to al-Ḏj̲awharī, Ṣiḥāḥ, s. v., because those swearing take one another’s right hands but rather because participants in an oath in general use the right hand in the ceremony; cf. Lisān al-ʿArab, xvii. 356, 7. On the oath s. ḥilf and ḳasam. On particular expressions like Yamīn al-Ḥint̲h̲, Yamīn al-Ṣabr, Yamīn al-Ḳaḍāʾ etc. s. Corpus Iuris di Zaid Ibn ʿAlī, ed. Griffini, Indices; Il Muḫtaṣar o Sommario del Diritto Malechita di Ḫalīl Ibn Isḥāq, transl. Guidi and Santillana, i. p. XL. (Johs. Pedersen)


(436 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
(Yamboʿ), a little port and also a town some distance inland on the west coast of Arabia; the former is also called Yanbuʿ al-Baḥr or S̲h̲erm Yanbuʿ and the latter, 6—7 hours journey N. E. of it, is called Yanbuʿ al-Nak̲h̲l. The port, which has now replaced the old harbour of al-Ḏj̲ār as the port of al-Madīna, lies on a shallow but wide bay with good anchorage, protected from the winds by an island lying outside it. The town is divided by an arm of the sea into two parts and defended on the land…


(821 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an important group of the tribe of Tamīm [q. v.] Genealogy: Yarbūʿ b. Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm (Wüstenfeld, Gen. Tab., K 13). The Same name is borne by other ethnic groups not only Tamīmī (e. g. Yarbūʿ b. Mālik b. Ḥanẓala [K 14 and cf. Mufaḍḍalīyāt, ed. Lyall, p. 122, 18 and parallel passages] and also Yarbūʿ b. Tamīm in Ibn al-Kalbī, Ḏj̲amharat al-Ansāb), but also of other tribes, of the south (Kalb, Saʿd Hud̲h̲ain, Ḏj̲uhaina) and of the north (G̲h̲aṭafān, T̲h̲aḳīf, G̲h̲anī, Sulaim, Ḥanīfa, ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; we also find among the Ḳurais̲h̲ a Y…


(433 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a river in Syria, now called S̲h̲arīʿat al-Manāḍira (from the Beduin tribe ʿArab al-Manāḍira). It rises in the Ḥawrān, flows west through a deeply cut valley of erosion, the Wādī al-Ramād, which describes a flat curve open to the south, to the G̲h̲awr, where it flows into the Nahr al-Urdunn (the Jordan) below Lake Gennesareth at Ḏj̲isr al-Mud̲j̲āmiʿ. Pliny calls it ( Hist. Nat., v. 74) Hieromix or Hieromices ( Gadara Hieromice praefluente, var. Hieromiace; the now so popular form “ Hieromax” is not recorded). On the 12th Rad̲j̲ab 15 (Aug. 20, 636 a. d.) in the celebrated battle on the Y…


(324 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, 1. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān b. Hūd, the grandson of the prophet Hūd, who is also regarded as the ancestor of the Ḥimyar kings, is one of the mythical rulers of the Yaman. He is said to have conquered the ʿĀdites who occupied Maʾrib and thus to have become the founder of the Sabaean kingdom. His name is derived by the genealogists from aʿraba “to speak correct Arabic (i. e. with the iʿrāb)” as he is also said to have been the first to speak Arabic, for his father Ḳaḥṭān still spoke the original language of Sām b. Nūḥ. 2. Yaʿrub b. Mālik, the ancestor of the Yaʿrubid dynasty of ʿUmān whose capitals w…


(967 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
(a.), the orphan, i.e. fatherless minor child. The improvement of the social position of orphans, who were particularly numerous in ancient Arabia, played a large part in Muḥammad’s scheme of social reforms. The vigour with which the Prophet had to intervene on their behalf is significant of the conditions which he found. When relations did not take charge of them, the care of orphans fell upon the saiyid of the tribe (Lammens, Le Berceau de l’Islam, p. 246); this obligation was also put upon the Prophet as leader of the community (Lammens, La Mecque à la veille de l’Hégire, p. 153). In Sūra…


(234 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in the province of ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī, formerly called Kat̲h̲a. It has taken the name of the area of which it was the capital. This area was formerly in the district of Iṣṭak̲h̲r in the province of Fārs (Ibn Ḥawḳal, Yāḳūt). Kat̲h̲a had a citadel and a suburb on the edge of the desert. It had two iron gates, the Gate of Izid (Izad) and the “gate of the mosque”, so-called because it was near the cathedral mosque which was in the suburb. It is surrounded by subterranean channels br…


(612 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), God. This word comes from the sphere of Zoroastrian ideas (cf. Avestan yazata, Sanskrit yajata = “worthy of reverence”, a Vedic epithet of gods, e. g. Agni, Indra, Savitar, and also of objects). Old Persian used for “god” the word baga (cf. Avestan bag̲h̲a, Sanskrit bhaga, Pahlavl bag̲h̲). The Avestan yazata as an adjective means “worthy of reverence” and as a substantive “god”; it is used of Ahuramazda himself (he is called the “Greatest of the yazatas”) as well as of the divine beings subordinate to him, like Mit̲h̲ra, Sraos̲h̲a etc. (cf. Bartholomae, Altiran. Wörterbuch, col. 1279 s…


(726 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra al-Azdī, governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. Yazīd was born in 53 (672—673) and after the death of his father al-Muhallab [q. v.] at the end of 82 (702) was appointed governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. With his brotherin-law, the powerful al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf [q. v.], his relations were strained and in 85 (704) the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik, after some hesitation, was persuaded by the latter to remove Yazīd from his office which was given first to his brother al-Mufaḍḍal b. al-Muhallab and a few…

Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(252 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, Omaiyad Caliph, who came to the throne in Feb. 720. The reign of this prince so devoid of energy is a striking contrast to that of his immediate predecessor, the conscientious ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz [q. v.]. Son of ʿAbd al-Malik, grandson of Yazīdī through his mother ʿĀtika, he had inherited none of the qualities of his Sufyānid ancestors which had made them popular in Syria. His brother, the caliph Sulaimān, had favoured the Yamanīs. Yazīd was imprudent enough to declare for the Ḳaisīs and by…

Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya

(920 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, second Omaiyad Caliph and successor of Muʿāwiya, born about 642. As a prince he had commanded the Arab army at the siege of Constantinople. Immediately after his accession (April 680) there broke out in the Ḥid̲j̲āz the rising which the genius of Muʿawiya had so long prevented. At Medīna, Ḥusain b. ʿAlī and ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair refused to recognise the new caliph and took refuge in the inviolable territory of Mecca. Very soon letters from old partisans of ʿAlī and from the chiefs of the ʿIr…
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