Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(99 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, 28th and last letter of the Arabic alphabet with the numerical value of 10. For palaeographical details, see arabia, i. 382b, 383b, 384a and plate i. It belongs to the soft letters ( ḥurūf al-līn); its pronunciation is that of English y. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Arabic Grammar, 3rd ed., i. 2, 5, 7 do., Comparative Grammar of the Sem. Languages, p. 69 sqq. Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergl. Grammatik der sem. Sprachen, i. 138—150 do., Précis de linguistiqus sém., transl. W. Marçais and M. Cohen, Paris 1910, p. 75 A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Leyden 1911, index.

Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲

(931 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(the forms Yaʾd̲j̲ūd̲j̲ and Maʾd̲j̲ūd̲j̲ occur also), Gog and Magog (cf. Gen. x. 2; Ez. xxxviii., xxxix), two peoples who belong to the outstanding figures of Biblical and Muslim eschatology. Magog in Gen. x. is reckoned among the offspring of Japheth; this notion is also found in Arabic sources (e. g. Baiḍāwī on sūra xviii. 93, where also different traditions are mentioned); this much only may be said here, that the Bible as well the Arabic sources connect these peoples with the North-East of the ancient world, the dwelling-p…


(1,408 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
or Yāfa, Joppa, Jaffa, a town on the Mediterranean, the port of Jerusalem. It occurs in the form Y-pw as early as the xvith century b. c. in the list of towns in Palestine taken by Thutmosis III (W. Max Müller, in M. V. A. G., xii., 1907, i., p. 21, N°. 62). In the Amarna tablets and among the Assyrians it was called Yapū or Yappū, in Phoenician inscriptions , in the Bible Yāfō and by the Greeks ’Ιόπη or ’Ιόππη. Yāfā is already the port of Jerusalem in the Bible, to which king Hiram sent in floats the wood destined for the building of the temple. Before the conquest by Sennacherib (701 b. c.) it was subject …


(1,046 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Asʿad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Falāḥ al-S̲h̲āfiʿī ʿAfīf al-Dīn Abu ’l-Saʿāda Abu ’l-Barakāt, a Ṣūfī and author, was born one or two years before 700 (1300 —1301) in the Yaman though the place of his birth does not appear to be known. He studied first under the tuition of Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Dihānī al-Baṣṣāl and Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Ḥarāzī, Ḳāḍī of ʿAdan. These studies comprised probably only the Ḳurʾān and theology, but his ascetic inclinations must have been developed early and have guided his whole…


(381 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, the Japheth of the Bible, is not mentioned in the Ḳurʾān; but the exegesis of the Ḳurʾān and legend are familiar with the names of the sons of Nūḥ: Sām, Ḥām, Yāfit̲h̲ (exceptionally Yāfit: Ṭabarī, i. 222). The Biblical story (Gen. ix. 20—27) of Ḥām’s sin and punishment and the blessing given to Sām and Yāfit̲h̲ is known in Muslim legend but it is silent about Noah’s planting the vine and becoming intoxicated. Al-Kisāʾī completely transforms it: in the Ark Nūḥ could not sleep from anxiety; when…


(372 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (also al-Raḥīm) b. Kuraib al-Ḥiwālī (on the disputed vocalisation cf. the poem in van Arendonk [see Bibl.], p. 232, note 3), founder of the dynasty of Yaʿfurids or Ḥiwālids who claimed to be descended from the Tubbaʿs, the ancient Ḥimyarite kings. Their ancestral home S̲h̲ibām, called S̲h̲ibām Aḳyān or S̲h̲ibām Kawkabān to distinguish it from other places of the same name, is described by geographers as a well cultivated hilly country. In the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim, i. e. before 227 (842), Yaʿf…

Yag̲h̲mā Ḏj̲andaḳī

(814 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V
, pseudonym of the Persian poet Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm b. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ibrāhīm Ḳulī. He was born about 1196 (1782) in the village of Ḵh̲ūr in the oasis of Ḏj̲andaḳ or Biyābānak in the middle of the central desert of Persia. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of 7 his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī) he ultimately became. His first nom de plume was Mad̲j̲nūn. In 1216 (1802) Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān after a rising against the government had to flee to Ḵh̲urāsān, while Ḏj̲andaḳ was …


(2,349 words)

Author(s): Speyer, Heinrich
, the Jews. The message which Muḥammad as an “admonisher” brought to his people was believed by him to come from the same source of revelation as the Tora and the Gospel. If the “Arabic version” of the new scriptures was only a confirmation of what preceding “scriptures” taught, the new Prophet was referred for instruction to the Jews and Christians. The idea of the “day of judgment” which continually recurs in the early Meccan period, makes him speak of the 19 guardians of hell in order to conv…


(730 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, John the Baptist. This prophet plays a fairly prominent part in the Ḳurʾān, which mentions him with Jesus, Elijah and other prophets among the just persons who serve as arguments for the oneness of God (Sūra vi. 83). The history in the Gospels of his miraculous birth is twice given (iii. 33—36 and xix. 1 sq.): God gives him to his parents Zacharias and Elisabeth in spite of their years. There is a kind of annunciation to Zacharias: “O Zacharias, we announce a son to thee; his name shall be Yaḥyā; no one has borne this name before him” (xix. 7). Yaḥ…


(911 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish poet of Albanian origin of the time of Soliman. A scion of the noble north Albanian family of Dukagin, to which also belonged the Turkish poet Dukagin-zāde Aḥmad Bey, Yaḥyā was taken under the dews̲h̲irme for the Janissaries and brought to Stambul. He himself speaks in his Gend̲j̲īne-i Rāz of his being conscripted in this way, a thing that was only to bring him good and when an old man he still recalls his Albanian origin. In Stambul he was put in the corps of ʿAd̲j̲emi-Og̲h̲lan, in which officers for the Janissaries and Spahis were …

Yaḥyā b. Ādam

(543 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
b. Sulaimān, a Muslim student of religion. His full name was Abū Zakarīyāʾ; as mawlā of a descendant of ʿUḳba b. Abī Muʿaiṭ he bore the nisba’s al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī and al-Umawī (al-Mak̲h̲zūmī in al-Nawawī is a mistake); his other nisba al-Kūfī shows that he belonged to or lived in Kūfa. His father is mentioned among the traditionists of Kūfa (Ibn Saʿd, vi. 133; al-Nawawī). Nothing is known of his career except the statement that he never studied under his father. To judge from the dates of death of his oldest s̲h̲aik̲h̲s he must have been …

Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī

(610 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
b. Yaḥyā b. Abī Manṣūr al-Munad̲j̲d̲j̲im, Abū Aḥmad, was one of the best known theorists of music of the old Arabian (classical) school. He belonged to a learned family who were authors, several of whom wrote on, or were interested in music. His grandfather (d. c. 831) was the famous astronomer at the court of al-Maʾmūn [q. v.]. His father (d. 888) had “particular skill in music ( g̲h̲ināʾ)” says Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, having been taught by the celebrated Isḥāḳ al-Mawṣilī [q. v.], and wrote a book entitled Kitāb Ak̲h̲bār Isḥāḳ b. Ibrāhīm [al-Mawṣilī]. That ʿAlī was also acquainted with the th…

Yaḥyā b. K̲h̲ālid

(475 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, a Barmakid. In the ʿAbbāsid caliphate we find Yaḥyā already prominent in the reign of al-Manṣūr, who in 158 (774—775) appointed him governor of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān or, according to another account, Armenia. Three years later, the caliph al-Mahdī appointed him tutor to his son, the young Hārūn, and in 163 (779—780) the latter was appointed governor of the western half of the empire, i. e. of all the provinces west of the Euphrates, with the addition of Armenia and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, and Yaḥyā was p…

Yaḥyā b. Zaid al-Ḥusainī

(793 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, son of Zaid b. ʿAlī [q. v.]. After his father had fallen in the rising (122 = 740) into which he had been dragged by the S̲h̲īʿa of Kūfa, the young Yaḥyā was no longer safe in Kūfa. The reports differ as to whether he at once left the town (Ṭabarī, ii. 1710) or whether he was kept in concealment there for a time until the search for him was abandoned ( ibid., ii. 1713 sq.). He finally escaped to Ḵh̲urāsān with a few followers. According to the Maḳātil al-Ṭālibīyīn, Yaḥyā went from al-Madāʾin to Raiy and then to Sarak̲h̲s where he stayed six months with a certain Yazīd b. ʿAmr al-Taimī ( ʿUmdat al-Ṭālib: b.…


(135 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(East. Turk, yailaḳ, from yai “summer” and the suffix laḳ) “summer encampment”, usually situated in the mountains, to which people resort to in order to avoid the heat of summer; opp. ḳis̲h̲lā (ḳis̲h̲laḳ, from ḳis̲h̲ “winter” and the suffix laḳ), “dwelling-place in winter” (whence in Osmanli Turkish the meaning “barracks”). When the hot summer days approach, the inhabitants of the villages take their cattle with them to the highlands (cf. the Swiss matten). When the ḳis̲h̲laḳ of Ad̲j̲wān near Tabrīz was left by its inhabitants who went to the yailaḳ of the Ḳara-Bag̲h̲, fire was put …


(339 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, the patriarch, the son of Isaac in the Bible, is in the early Meccan Sūras (vi. 84; xix. 50; xxi. 72; xxix. 26) the brother of Isḥāḳ, son of Ibrāhīm; the genealogy: Ibrāhīm, Ismāʿīl, Isḥāḳ, Yaʿḳūb, the (12) tribes (ii. 130, 134), is more true to the Bible. Yaʿḳūb is numbered among the Prophets (xix. 50). He is once or twice mentioned in the Yūsuf Sūra: Yaʿḳūb orders his sons not to go through a door (xii. 93); he becomes blind through sorrow and regains his sight when Joseph’s coat touches his eye (xii. 93, 94). Post-Ḳurʾānic legend relates that Yaʿḳūb and Esau fought already in their mot…

Yaʿḳūb Bey

(6 words)

[See Germiān Og̲h̲lu.]


(681 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿḳūb b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Wahb b. Wāḍiḥ al-Kātib al-ʿAbbāsī, an Arab historian and geographer, a descendant of the Wāḍiḥ, a freedman of Ṣāliḥ and later of his father, the Caliph al-Manṣūr, after whom the family takes the name al-ʿAbbāsī. Like his ancestor, who as governor of Egypt paid with his life for the protection which he gave to Idrīs b. ʿAbd Allāh on his flight after his defeat at al-Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in 169 (785), our author was also a S̲h̲īʿī of the moderate Mūsawīya who belong to the Imāmīs. He…

Yāḳūt al-Mustaʿṣimī

(235 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Mad̲j̲d b. ʿAbd Allāh, a famous calligrapher, was a slave of the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād, al-Mustaʿṣim, who had him brought up and educated, whence his surname. His origin is unknown; some say he was a Greek from Amasia; he was probably carried off on a razzia while still very young. He was a eunuch. He died at Bag̲h̲dād in 698 (1298) at the age of 80 (lunar years) which would make him born in 618 (1221). The continuer of Ibn al-Bawwāb, he was called Ḳiblat al-Kuttāb, “model of calli graphers”, and was head of a school; he also wrote in prose and verse; we have by him a Kit…

Yāḳūt al-Rūmī

(856 words)

Author(s): Blachère, R.
, or, according to a genealogy which he assumed later, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Yaʿḳūb b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī, the famous Arab encyclopædist. Born in 575 (1179) in Byzantine territory of non-Arab parents (hence his ethnic al-Rūmī) he was captured when a boy, sold as a slave in Bag̲h̲dād and purchased by a certain ʿAskar b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥamawī, a merchant in the capital of the caliphs. ʿAskar gave Yāḳūt, who added to his name his master’s ethnic, a good education and a few years later sent him to trade in the Persian Gulf in th…


(519 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
1. Name of a tribe belonging to Hamdān in South Arabia, described by Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir as the Banū Yām b. Aṣbaʿ living in al-Ḳadīm and in the wādīs of al-Ḥāniḳ and al-Ḥuḳḳa. Al-Hamdānī numbers the Banū Yām among the tribes who speak a pure Arabic but E. Glaser established the fact that their dialect is different from the Arabic which is spoken in the Yaman highlands. The Banū Yām are, according to Passama, the finest type of men among the southern Arabs, of fine physique, proud and warlike. The…


(4 words)

[See Janissaries.]


(693 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a district in Central Arabia, which was originally called Ḏj̲aww (“the bottom of a valley”). The name of Yamāma is said to go back to the seeress Zarḳāʾ al-Yamāma, who plays a prominent part in the story of the decline of the tribes of Ṭasm and Ḏj̲adīs. The district was first of all called after her Ḏj̲aww al-Yamāma, then simply al-Yamāma. The statement that al-Yamāma lies on the long ridge of the ʿĀriḍ, to which belongs its chief wādī ʿIrḍ, which runs through the district, shows, like the lon…


(3,589 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, formerly a province, now an imāmate in the southwest of the Arabian peninsula. The name is variously explained; some say it was given because the Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii. 856), others because Yuḳtan b. ʿĀbir and his companions turned right on separating from the other Arabs ( B. G. A., v. 33; Yāḳūt, iv. 1034), while others again derive the name from the eponymous hero Yaman b. Ḳaḥṭān (cf. al-Wāsiʿī, p. 281). Sprenger thinks the Greeks and Romans translated Teman and Yaman by “eudaemon” and “felix” and …


(100 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
, the most usual Muslim term for oath, from the meaning “the right hand”, according to al-Ḏj̲awharī, Ṣiḥāḥ, s. v., because those swearing take one another’s right hands but rather because participants in an oath in general use the right hand in the ceremony; cf. Lisān al-ʿArab, xvii. 356, 7. On the oath s. ḥilf and ḳasam. On particular expressions like Yamīn al-Ḥint̲h̲, Yamīn al-Ṣabr, Yamīn al-Ḳaḍāʾ etc. s. Corpus Iuris di Zaid Ibn ʿAlī, ed. Griffini, Indices; Il Muḫtaṣar o Sommario del Diritto Malechita di Ḫalīl Ibn Isḥāq, transl. Guidi and Santillana, i. p. XL. (Johs. Pedersen)


(436 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
(Yamboʿ), a little port and also a town some distance inland on the west coast of Arabia; the former is also called Yanbuʿ al-Baḥr or S̲h̲erm Yanbuʿ and the latter, 6—7 hours journey N. E. of it, is called Yanbuʿ al-Nak̲h̲l. The port, which has now replaced the old harbour of al-Ḏj̲ār as the port of al-Madīna, lies on a shallow but wide bay with good anchorage, protected from the winds by an island lying outside it. The town is divided by an arm of the sea into two parts and defended on the land…


(821 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an important group of the tribe of Tamīm [q. v.] Genealogy: Yarbūʿ b. Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm (Wüstenfeld, Gen. Tab., K 13). The Same name is borne by other ethnic groups not only Tamīmī (e. g. Yarbūʿ b. Mālik b. Ḥanẓala [K 14 and cf. Mufaḍḍalīyāt, ed. Lyall, p. 122, 18 and parallel passages] and also Yarbūʿ b. Tamīm in Ibn al-Kalbī, Ḏj̲amharat al-Ansāb), but also of other tribes, of the south (Kalb, Saʿd Hud̲h̲ain, Ḏj̲uhaina) and of the north (G̲h̲aṭafān, T̲h̲aḳīf, G̲h̲anī, Sulaim, Ḥanīfa, ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; we also find among the Ḳurais̲h̲ a Y…


(433 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a river in Syria, now called S̲h̲arīʿat al-Manāḍira (from the Beduin tribe ʿArab al-Manāḍira). It rises in the Ḥawrān, flows west through a deeply cut valley of erosion, the Wādī al-Ramād, which describes a flat curve open to the south, to the G̲h̲awr, where it flows into the Nahr al-Urdunn (the Jordan) below Lake Gennesareth at Ḏj̲isr al-Mud̲j̲āmiʿ. Pliny calls it ( Hist. Nat., v. 74) Hieromix or Hieromices ( Gadara Hieromice praefluente, var. Hieromiace; the now so popular form “ Hieromax” is not recorded). On the 12th Rad̲j̲ab 15 (Aug. 20, 636 a. d.) in the celebrated battle on the Y…


(324 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, 1. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān b. Hūd, the grandson of the prophet Hūd, who is also regarded as the ancestor of the Ḥimyar kings, is one of the mythical rulers of the Yaman. He is said to have conquered the ʿĀdites who occupied Maʾrib and thus to have become the founder of the Sabaean kingdom. His name is derived by the genealogists from aʿraba “to speak correct Arabic (i. e. with the iʿrāb)” as he is also said to have been the first to speak Arabic, for his father Ḳaḥṭān still spoke the original language of Sām b. Nūḥ. 2. Yaʿrub b. Mālik, the ancestor of the Yaʿrubid dynasty of ʿUmān whose capitals w…


(967 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
(a.), the orphan, i.e. fatherless minor child. The improvement of the social position of orphans, who were particularly numerous in ancient Arabia, played a large part in Muḥammad’s scheme of social reforms. The vigour with which the Prophet had to intervene on their behalf is significant of the conditions which he found. When relations did not take charge of them, the care of orphans fell upon the saiyid of the tribe (Lammens, Le Berceau de l’Islam, p. 246); this obligation was also put upon the Prophet as leader of the community (Lammens, La Mecque à la veille de l’Hégire, p. 153). In Sūra…


(234 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in the province of ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī, formerly called Kat̲h̲a. It has taken the name of the area of which it was the capital. This area was formerly in the district of Iṣṭak̲h̲r in the province of Fārs (Ibn Ḥawḳal, Yāḳūt). Kat̲h̲a had a citadel and a suburb on the edge of the desert. It had two iron gates, the Gate of Izid (Izad) and the “gate of the mosque”, so-called because it was near the cathedral mosque which was in the suburb. It is surrounded by subterranean channels br…


(612 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), God. This word comes from the sphere of Zoroastrian ideas (cf. Avestan yazata, Sanskrit yajata = “worthy of reverence”, a Vedic epithet of gods, e. g. Agni, Indra, Savitar, and also of objects). Old Persian used for “god” the word baga (cf. Avestan bag̲h̲a, Sanskrit bhaga, Pahlavl bag̲h̲). The Avestan yazata as an adjective means “worthy of reverence” and as a substantive “god”; it is used of Ahuramazda himself (he is called the “Greatest of the yazatas”) as well as of the divine beings subordinate to him, like Mit̲h̲ra, Sraos̲h̲a etc. (cf. Bartholomae, Altiran. Wörterbuch, col. 1279 s…


(726 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra al-Azdī, governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. Yazīd was born in 53 (672—673) and after the death of his father al-Muhallab [q. v.] at the end of 82 (702) was appointed governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. With his brotherin-law, the powerful al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf [q. v.], his relations were strained and in 85 (704) the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik, after some hesitation, was persuaded by the latter to remove Yazīd from his office which was given first to his brother al-Mufaḍḍal b. al-Muhallab and a few months later to the abl…

Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya

(920 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, second Omaiyad Caliph and successor of Muʿāwiya, born about 642. As a prince he had commanded the Arab army at the siege of Constantinople. Immediately after his accession (April 680) there broke out in the Ḥid̲j̲āz the rising which the genius of Muʿawiya had so long prevented. At Medīna, Ḥusain b. ʿAlī and ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair refused to recognise the new caliph and took refuge in the inviolable territory of Mecca. Very soon letters from old partisans of ʿAlī and from the chiefs of the ʿIr…


(7,006 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Yazīdīya, the name of a Kurd tribal group and of their peculiar religion which shows ancient characteristics. …


(1,899 words)

Author(s): Kratschkowsky, Ign.
, 1. al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Nāṣīf b. ʿAbd Allāh, an Arab poet and philologist of the xixth century, born March 25, 1800 in Kafr S̲h̲īmā(Lebanon, near Bairūt; see Baedeker, Palästina und Syrien, seventh ed., p. 266 and map at p. 263), d. on 8th (not 5th as G.A.L., ii. 494) February 1871 in Bairūt. Members of his family, mainly of the Greek orthodox confession, are mentioned as early as the xvii…


(1,041 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
or Yāzid̲j̲i-Zāde, the epithet of two early Ottoman poets and mystics, both sons of a certain yāzid̲j̲i (i.e. kātib) Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn. He is said to have come from Boli and spent most of his later life in Angora. Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn wrote in addition to works on mysticism, a treatise on medicine called S̲h̲emsīye and a poetical calendar of 5,000 couplets of no literary value, but perhaps of linguistic interest, on the omens of certain phenomena in the heavens such as rainbows, eclipses, lunar rings, falling stars etc. The work was published in 841 (1412) an…


(591 words)

Author(s): Wiet, G.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, vizier and chief ḳāḍī of the Fāṭimid caliph al-Mustanṣir bi ’llāh. His father was a citizen in comfortable circumstances of Yāzūr, a little town in Palestine near Ramla. It was in his native town that he began his administrative career in the office of ḳāḍī. In this capacity he attracted the attention of an officer in the service of al-Mus…


(5 words)

[see Janissaries .]


(78 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t., “green river”), a river in Asia Minor (the ancient Iris) formed by the combination of the Gilgit coming from Ḳara-Ḥiṣār-S̲h̲arḳī and Nigisār and the Tūzānli from the west, i. e. from the direction of Amasia. It runs straight north, enters the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḏj̲ānīk (wilāyet of Trebizond) and flows into the Black Sea opposite Sāmṣūn. Its length is about 60 miles from the confluence of the two rivers. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sāmī-Bey, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, vi. 4799.


(5 words)

[see Sāsānians .]
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