Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿUbaid Allāh

(7 words)

[See al-Mahdī ʿUbaid Allāh.] ¶

ʿUbaid Allāh

(733 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ziyād, an Omaiyad governor. ʿUbaid Allāh was the most distinguished of the sons of the favourite of Muʿāwiya I, Ziyād b. Abīhi [q. v.], celebrated for his rigour and severity, and was appointed governor of Ḵh̲urāsān at the age of five and twenty. According to the usual statement, this took place in 54 (673—674). Soon afterwards he crossed the Oxus with an Arab army and advanced as far as Buk̲h̲ārā [q. v.]. But he did not remain long in Ḵh̲urāsān; in 55 (674—675) or according to others 56 (675-…

ʿUbaid Zākānī

(255 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Nihẓām al-Dīn ʿUbaid Allāh), a Persian poet of the xivth century, born c. 700 (1300) at Ḳazwīn in the family of the Zākānī, which took its name from a village in the neighbourhood, whence it had originated, lived in S̲h̲īrāz, which left him happy memories, in the reign of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Isḥāḳ Ind̲j̲ū (d. 747 = 1346—1347), was a judge in Ḳazwīn, went to Bag̲h̲dād where Sulṭān Uwais of the Īlk̲h̲ānian or Ḏj̲alāʾirid dynasty was reigning, to visit the poet Selmān Sāwed̲j̲ī and died in poverty in 772 (1371)…

Ubeda

(259 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Ar. Ubbada, a little town in the southeast of Spain, capital of a district of the province of Jaen, with a population of about 20,000. Although the name Ubeda, which was retained by the Arabs, seem to be of Iberian origin, the Muslim geographers attribute the foundation of the town to the Umaiyad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān II b. al-Ḥakam (206—238 = 822—852); the son and successor of this ruler, Muḥammad, is said to have completed its building. Henceforth it formed part of the district ( kūra) of Jaen [q. v.] and is sometimes called Ubbadat al-ʿArab, “Ubéda of the Arabs” to distinguish it from anoth…

ʿŪd

(3,401 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, the lute, is the most important musical instrument of Islāmic peoples from the Atlantic to the Persian Gulf [cf. also ṭunbūr, ḳītāra, ḳīt̲h̲āra]. Arabic authors do not discriminate between the barbaṭ and the ʿūd, but there seems to have been a fundamental distinction between them. The barbaṭ had its sound-chest and neck constructed in one graduated piece, whereas in the ʿūd proper the sound-chest and neck were separate. Al-Masʿūdī says ( Murūd̲j̲, viii. 88) that the lute was “invented” by Lamak (Lamech of Genesis, iv.), but elsewhere (viii. 99) he tells us that it was general…

ʿUd̲h̲ra

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an Arab tribe of the southern group, belonging to the great subdivision of the Ḳuḍāʿa. Genealogy: ʿUd̲h̲ra b. Saʿd Hud̲h̲aim b. Zaid b. Lait̲h̲ b. Aslam b. al-Ḥāf b. Ḳuḍāʿa (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, i. 18). We know nothing of their history in the remote past, for their identification with the ’Αθριται (var. ’Αθροιται) of Ptolemy, proposed by Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens, p. 205, § 333 is anything but certain; in the historical period we find them established in the north of the Ḥid̲j̲āz, in the vicinity of other Ḳuḍāʿa tribes (Nahd, Ḏj̲uha…

ʿUd̲h̲rī

(572 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
, a patronymic from the name of the Arab tribe of the Banū ʿUd̲h̲ra [q.v.], a small tribe of the Ḥid̲j̲āz, probably of Ḳaḥṭanid descent (cf. Ag̲h̲ānī2 , vu. 72—73), which amalgamated with the Ḏj̲uhaina; the remnants of them are still to be found to-day near Yanbūʿ (Ḥid̲j̲āz) and in the Egyptian Sūdān. Ḥubb ʿud̲h̲rī, “ʿUd̲h̲rī love”, is in the history of Islāmic thought a literary and philosophical theme, related to the “platonic love” of the Greeks from which it is derived, and to the amour courtois of the western Christian middle ages which it inspired. This theme, which probably was inv…

ʿŪd̲j̲

(566 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, also ʿĀd̲j̲ b. ʿAnaḳ or ʿAnāḳ, is the Arabic name of the Biblical ʿŌg, the giant king of Bas̲h̲an. The Ḳurʾān does not mention him. Ṭabarī, Annales, I, 500—501 tells of his great stature and death: Moses was ten ells in height, his staff ten ells long, he jumped 10 ells high and smote ʿŪd̲j̲ in the heel; the body of the fallen giant served as a bridge across the Nile. T̲h̲aʿlabī gives more details: ʿŪd̲j̲ was 23,333 ells high, drank from the clouds, could reach to the bottom of the sea and pull out a whale which he roasted on the sun. Noah drove him in front of th…

Uganda

(2,320 words)

Author(s): Haddon, E. B.
, a British Protectorate in Eastern Equatorial Africa lying to the North of Lake Victoria. It takes its name from the Bantu Kingdom of Buganda, which is one of the four provinces comprising the Protectorate. The Swahili name Uganda (“Country of the Baganda”, the Swahili prefix u “Country of replacing the Baganda bu with the same meaning) was first applied to the kingdom of Mutesa, discovered by J. H. Speke in 1802, and in time came to include the whole Protectorate which grew out of the extension of British influence in Buganda. a. Geographical Outline. The Uganda Protectorate lies app…