Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ṭalāʾiʿ

(606 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. Rūzzīk al-Mālik al-Ṣāliḥ, Fāṭimid wazīr (495—556 = 1101—1161). The events immediately attendant on the treacherous murder of the 12th Fāṭimid caliph al-Ẓāfir (1154) called him forth, at the request of the ladies of the royal household, from his governorship at Us̲h̲mūnain to play the rôle of strong man essential in the circumstances. Success crowned his march on Cairo with his followers from Upper Egypt. Then, following the deposition of ʿAbbās, he was appointed wazīr to the child caliph al-Fāʾiz in 549 (1154) with the title of al-Ṣāliḥ bi ’llāh. His traitorous predecessor in off…

Ṭalāḳ

(4,826 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), repudiation of a wife by a husband, a form of divorce, effected by his pronouncing the words anti ṭāliḳ. The root idea of the verb ṭalaka is: to be freed from a tether etc. (of a camel), to be repudiated by a man (of a wife; in this sense also ṭaluḳa), hence ṭallaḳa, to release (a camel) from a tether, to repudiate (a wife); ṭāliḳ means a camel untethered or a woman repudiated by a man (cf. Lane, Arab. Eyl. Lexicon s. v.). I. The right to a one-sided dissolution of a marriage belonged to the man exclusively, among the pre-Muḥammadan Arabs. Long before Muḥammad this ṭalāḳ was in general use amon…

Ṭālaḳān

(265 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(ṭālḳān; Samʿānī, Ansāb, f. 363b), name of two towns in Persia. 1. A town in Ṭuk̲h̲āristān, between Balk̲h̲ and Merw al-Rūd̲h̲, three days’ march from the latter. Situated in a plain, but quite close to the mountains (an arrow-shot, g̲h̲alwa), it was the largest town of the province and had a large market; it was divided into several parts by two rivers: Ḵh̲uṭṭal-āb (correction of de Goeje) and Bar-āb. It was destroyed in 617 (1220) by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān; ruins near Čāčaktū. 2. A town in Dailam, between Ḳazwīn and Abhar, capital of a district of the same name including several sm…

Talavera

(151 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of several places in Spain; the Arabic form is Ṭalabīra. They are the following: 1. Talavera de la Reina, a town of 10,600 inhabitants, the Caesarobriga of the Romans, on a fertile plain on the banks of the Tagus about 100 miles below Toledo, at the entrance to the Sierra de Gredos: Towers dating from the period of Arab occupations may still be seen there: “the Torres Albarranas”. The Arab geographers boast of the solidity of the ḥiṣn of this town; 2. ca. 20 miles south of the latter: Talavera la Vieja, the ancient Augustobriga; 3. Talavera la Real, a little village ¶ on the south bank o…

Talbiya

(363 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive of form II of the verb labbā, which is formed from the term labbaika to mean “to pronounce the formula labbaika” etc. Labbaika is connected — and probably rightly — by the Arab lexicographers with labb un which means “offering devoted service” as labbaika does “at your service”. According to the native grammarians labbai is a „frequentative” dual. It is difficult to say what is the significance of the element ai in this and similar forms like saʿdaika. The explanation from the Hebrew proposed by Dozy ( De Isrdëliten te Mekka, Haarlem 1864, p. 120) may be said to be now…

Ṭalḥa

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. ʿUbaidallāh, companion of the Prophet, one of the ten mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ara, i. e. those to whom the Prophet had promised Paradise. He belonged to the Ḳurais̲h̲ clan of the Banū Taim b. Murra [q.v.]; his genealogy was: Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbaidallāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAmr b. Kaʿb b. Saʿd b. Taim b. Murra and his kunya, Abū Muḥammad, from his son, celebrated for his piety and one of the first readers of the Ḳurʾān; both father and son were killed in the battle of the camel in 36 a. h. Ṭalḥa was one of the earliest converts to Islām. According to tradition he had suffered along with Abū Bakr the th…

Taʿlīḳ

(7 words)

[See arabia , i. 387a.]

Tali̊s̲h̲

(432 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district and people in the north of the Persian province of Gīlān [q. v.], which since the peace of Gulistān (12/24th Oct. 1813) has belonged to Russia. The name according to Marquart, Osteuropäische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge, Leipzig 1903, p. 278 sq., is first found in the form T’alis̲h̲ in the Armenian translation of the romance of Alexander, Ch. 194 = ii. 19, p. 76 (ed. C. Müller). In the history of the Arab conquest (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 327; al-Ṭabarī, i. 2805) the country is called al-Ṭailasān; according to al-Aṣma…

Talisman

(4 words)

[See Ẓamāʾil.]

Talk̲h̲īṣ

(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)

Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i

(129 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or in the official style, Talk̲h̲īṣī, was the individual appointed to prepare the précis called talk̲h̲īṣ [q. v.] and to take it to the palace where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the grand vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the talk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām was not — at least in the later period — in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first of all through th…

Ṭālūt

(884 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
is the name of king Saul of the Bible in the Ḳurʾān (ii. 248, 250). The name is explained as early as T̲h̲aʿlabī from the height ( ṭūl) of Ṭālūt. Ṭālūt recalls Ḏj̲ālūt (Goliath), an assonance of pairs of names, like Hārūt-Mārūt, Hābil-Ḳābil, Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ (Goldziher). Ḏj̲ālūt itself is explained from the Hebrew (Horovitz). In the Ḳurʾān (ii. 247—253) the following is told of Ṭālūt. After the time of Moses Israel demanded a king. God appointed Ṭālūt king but the people did not find him worthy of the throne. Ṭālūt was distinguished for the…

Tamattuʿ

(6 words)

[See Iḥrām , Mutaʿ.]

Tamgrūt

(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra [q. v.]), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother- zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣirīya [q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet broad but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam = mouth) al-Sūḳ, in the N. E., Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the S. W., Bāb al-Rizḳ and to the east, Fumm al-Sūr. An import…

al-Tamgrūtī

(222 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, a Moroccan writer, a native of Tamgrūt [q. v.], died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 1003 (1594—1595) and was buried in the sanctuary of Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ. He held an official position at the court of the Saʿdian Sulṭān Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī (986—1012 = 1578—1602). He was placed by this ruler in charge of the embassy to Sulṭān Murād III in Constantinople along with another court dignitary Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Fis̲h̲tālī, d. 1021 (1612—1613). Al-Tamgrūtī prepared an account of his journey ( riḥla) which he called al-Nafaḥat al-…

Tamīm

(2,604 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. Murr, an Arab tribe; their genealogy (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, K. L.) Tamīm b. Murr b. Udd b. Ṭābik̲h̲a b. al-Yās b. Muḍar, puts them among the Muḍarī tribes where they take first place; indeed their name is often used as a synonym of the whole Muḍarī branch in contrast to the Ḳais and the Rabīʿa. Of the two latter, the Rabīʿa are most closely delated to them, which is not apparent in the systematic genealogies (where on the contrary the Ḳais are descended from the Muḍar while the Rabīʿa are not), but from expressions like the dual al-Ḏj̲uffān (Lisān al-ʿArab, x. 373) meaning the Tamīm…

Tamīm

(198 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. al-Muʿizz, brother of the fifth Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz, is said to have been born c. 337 (948—949). He was noted in his day for his liberality and interest in belles lettres. A prince of culture and elegance with a reputation amongst his contemporaries as a poet of refinement and skill. He missed nomination as heir apparent, his brother al-ʿAzīz being preferred to him. Al-ʿAzīz seems to have been very fond of him, judging from his grief at the latter’s death, which is stated to have taken place at Cairo in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 3…

Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz

(605 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
, fifthrulerofthe Ṣanhād̲j̲a family of the Banū Zīrī, who reigned in eastern Barbary from 454-501 (1062—1108). He was born at Ṣabra—Man-Ṣūrīya near al-Ḳairawān. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī described him as a man of tall stature and handsome appearance, and gives some curious details about his way of living. He was a very highly cultured man and reckoned among the most distinguished poets who have occupied a throne. He was 23 in 445 (1053) when al-Muʿizz, his father, appointed him governor of al-Mahdīya [q. v.]. It was just after the appearance of the Banū Hilāl Arabs, who …

Tamīm al-Dārī

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, a companion of the Prophet. His nisba al-Dārī is said to be derived from the clan of the Banū ’l-Dār (for ʿAbd al-Dār, according to Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, iv. 108, note 4), a section of the tribe of Lak̲h̲m [q.v.]. Al-Nawawī however ( Tahd̲h̲īb al-Asmāʾ, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 178) gives him the nisba of al-Dairī, said to be derived from the convent ( dair) in which he was a monk before his conversion to Islām. His genealogy was: Tamīm b. Aws b. Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲a b. Sawād (var. Sūd) b. Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma b. Darāʿ (var. Ḏh̲irāʿ, Widāʿ) b. ʿAdī b. al-Dār b. Hāni…

Tammūz

(187 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the tenth month in the Syriac calender. Its name is derived from that of the fourth Jewish month with which it roughly coincides. It corresponds to July in the Roman calendar and like it has 31 days. According to al-Bīrūnī, in Tammūz the lunar stations 8 and 9 rise and 22 and 23 set; the days on which one rose and the other, 14 days apart from it, set were the 10th and 23rd. According to al-Ḳazwīnī on the other hand, stations 7 and 8 rise, 21 and 22 set, on the 4th and 17th respectively. In the year 1300 of the Seleucid era (989 a. d.) according to al-Bīrūnī the stars of the stations mentioned by a…
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