Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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al-Ṭāʾiʿ

(333 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
li-Amr Allāh (or li ’llāh) ʿAbd al-Karīm b. al-Faḍl, ʿAbbāsid Caliph, born in 317 (929—930). His father was the caliph al-Muṭīʿ after whose deposition on 13th…

Ṭaiba

(15 words)

[See al-Madīna…

Ṭāʾif

(1,634 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, a town in Arabia. It lies 75 miles S. E. of Mecca about 5,000 feet above sea level in the mountains of Sarāt. Of the country round with its walled gardens Burckhardt says that it is “the most attractive that he had seen since his departure for Lebanon in Syria”. The Beduins also describe it as a corner of Syria transported and placed under the inclement sky of the Ḥid̲j̲āz and say this marvel is due to the all powerful intercession of Abraham, the friend of Allāh. This healthy and windy site —…

Taimāʾ

(520 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old settlement in a wellwatered oasis in northern Arabia, four days’ journey south of Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; according to Muḳaddasī, three from Ḥid̲j̲r and four from Wādi ’l-Ḳurā. It lies in a depression the length of which Jaussen and Savignac put at 2 miles with a breadth of 500 yards. The subterranean waters collect and burst forth into a well 40—45 feet deep and about 60 feet in diameter, according to the two travellers just named. Taimāʾ is mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions and in th…

Taim B. Murra

(311 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, a clan of the Meccan tribe of Ḳurais̲h̲ Its name, which is born by several other Arab tribes, means “servant” and must therefore be an abbreviation of an ancient theophoric name such as we find in Taimallāh-Taimallāt [q. v.] and in the inscriptions, Taim Manāt, Taim Ruḍā, ΘαιμηλοΣ etc. (cf. Wellhausen, Reste 2, p. 7; Lidzbarski, Handbuch d. nordsem. Epigrahik, p. 385). The Taim b. Murra belonged to the Ḳurais̲h̲ al-Baṭāʾiḥ i. e. to the clans which were dominant in Mecca: but in spite of that ¶ they do not seem to have possessed any political influence, while their real relatives…

Ṭaiy

(609 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, a tribe in early Arabia of Yamanite origin. According to the genealogists its ancestor, Ḏj̲ulhuma b. Udad, with the surname of Ṭaiy, was a descendant of Ḳaḥṭān and a brother of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ and Murra, the ancestor of the large tribe of Kinda. Originally they were at home in that part of the South-Arabian Ḏj̲ōf in which Ḥunaka was situated, on the way between Ṣanʿāʾ and Mecca. Ṭaiy, as well as Azd and other South-arabian tribes, joined the migration which tradition connects with the break of th…

Taʿizz

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an important town in South Arabia, formerly the capital of the Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizzīya, which according to the provincial law regarding the general administration of wilāyets Taḳwīm-i Weḳāʾiʿ (March 15, 1913) included the ḳaḍās of ʿUdain, Ibb, Muk̲h̲ā. Ḳamāʿira, Ḳaʿṭaba, Ḥud̲j̲arīya, and, according to R. Manzoni, also Mak̲h̲ādir, Ḏh̲ī Sufāl, Māwiya, i. e. the whole country between al-Ḥudaida and the independent lands northeast of ʿAden. The town, which lies in 44° 6’ 45” East. Long (Greenw.) and 13° 36’ 55” North L…

Takas̲h̲

(549 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish pronunciation: Tekes̲h̲) b. īl-Arslān, king of Ḵh̲warizm [q. v.] 567—596 (1172—1200), of the fourth and most glorious dynasty of Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āhs [q. v.], was, before his accession governor of Ḏj̲and on the lower course of the Si̊r-Daryā [q. v.]; he had to figh…

Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲i

(547 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, lit. “woodcutter”, the name of an Anatolian sect with S̲h̲īʿa tendencies. The Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲i, like the Čepni or Četni (cf. F. Babinger in Z. D. M. G., lxxvi [1922], 141 and F. Taeschner, ibid., p. 282 sqq.) who are mentioned as early as the end of the xiv’h century, the Zeibeks [q. v.] and all the sub-sects comprised under the name Ḳi̊zi̊lbas̲h̲, form a separate element in the population of Anatolia, as regards ethnography and religious history, the origin of which has not yet been satisfactorily explained. As to the Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲…

Taḳī Kās̲h̲ī

(96 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ḥusainī Kās̲h̲ānī, a Persian biographer, a native of the town of Kās̲h̲ān, died in 1016 (1607). He wrote in 985 (1577—78) the Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-As̲h̲ʿār wa-Zubdat al-Afkār, and wrote the preface to the Dīwān of Muḥtas̲h̲am, who was a poet of the time of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I and of Tahmāsp I. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Bland, J.R.A.S, ix. 126—134 Sprenger, Catal. Oudh., p. 13—46 Rieu, Catal. of Persian Mss., p. 1046’’ E. G. Browne, Literary History of Persia, ii. 370 W. Ivanow, Descriptive Catal. (Calcutta 1924), p. 298, 305.

Taḳīya

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), caution, fear (see Glossarium to Ṭabarī, s.v. t-ḳ-d) or keitmān, “disguise”, is the technical term for dispensation from the requirements of religion under compulsion or threat of injury. Muḥammad himself avoided suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by docetism (Sūra iv. 156) and in everyday life by the hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in case of need the denial of the faith (Sūra xvi. 108), friendship with unbelievers (iii. 27) and the eating of forbidden foods (vi. 119; v. 5). This point of view is general in Islām. But, as he at the …

Taḳlīd

(2,071 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), “to hang something around the neck or on the shoulders”, used as a technical term in the following three meanings: 1. Taḳlīd is the name of the custom originating in Arab paganism and surviving in the ancient practice of Islām and in Fiḳh, of hanging certain objects around the neck of the animals to be slain ( hady) as a sacrifice in the sacred territory of Mecca ( ḥaram) (as ḳilāda, plur. ḳalāʾid). The ḳalāʾid are mentioned along with the hady in Ḳurʾān v. 2 and 98 among the customs of the pilgrimage instituted by Allāh. The object of this rite was, along with the is̲h̲ʿār (branding by an inc…

Taklīf

(561 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
is imposing a requisition or constraint upon any one; it requires an action in which there is difficulty and trouble (Lane, Suppl., p. 3002 c; Lisān, xi. 218: amarahu bi-mā yas̲h̲uḳḳu ʿalaihi). The verb is used in several forms seven times in the Ḳurʾān (ii. 233, 286; iv. 86; vi. 153; vii. 40; xxiii. 64; lxv. 7) to express that Allāh does not require of any one what is beyond his capacity ( wusʿ). Technically it means the necessity which lies on the creatures of Allāh to believe and act as He has revealed to them. It is therefore denned legally by the majority of canonists as the requiring ( ilzām) of a…

Tākoronnā

(218 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a name given in Muslim Spain to the mountain massif of the south of Andalusia, now called Serrania de Ronda. This is undoubtedly a double of the Berber word which is frequently found in North African names, tākrūna. Different writers have given different vocalisations of Tākoronnā: they may be found collected with references in a valuable note by W. Marçais and Abderrahmân Guîga, Textes arabes de Takroûna [in Tunisia], i., Paris 1925, p. viii., note I. Cf. also Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲ām, s. v. s̲h̲īrāz; Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl, al-Ṣila, ed. Codera, B. a. h., p. 185 and 302; Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī, al-…

Takrīt

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(popular pronunciation Tikrīt, cf. Yāḳūt), a town on the right bank of the Tigris to the north of Sāmarrā (according to Streck the distance is a day’s journey) and at the foot of the range of the Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn. Geographically this is the northern frontier district of the ʿIrāḳ. The land is still somewhat undulating; the old town was built on a group of hills, on one of which beside the river, stands the modern town. To the north is a sandstone cliff 200 feet above the level of the river, on which…

Takrūr

(2,939 words)

Author(s): Delafosse, M.
, Tuculor (French Toucouleur), is the name given to the population of negro stock which inhabits the greater part of the lowlands of Senegalese Fūta and the larger part of Bundu. The first of these countries lying on either side of the river Senegal but more on the left bank, includes from west to east the provinces of Dimār, Tōro, Lāo, Yirlāḅe or Irlāḅe, Bōseya, Ngenār or Ganār and Damga. Bundu lies west of the lower Faleme. Tuculor colonies are also found in different parts of West Africa, especially at Kayes (on the upper Senegal), at Nyōro (in Sudanese Sahel), at Sēgu (on ¶ the Niger), at Pan…
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