Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(2,526 words)

Author(s): Storey, C. A.
(Saʿd al-Dīn Masʿūd b. ʿUmar), a celebrated authority on rhetoric, logic, metaphysics, theology, law and other subjects and the author of several text-books used to this day in the madrasas of the East, was born in Ṣafar 722 (Feb.-March 1322) at Taftāzān, a large village near Nasā in Ḵh̲urāsān. He is said to have been a pupil of ʿAḍud al-Dīn al-Īd̲j̲ī (see above, ii. 447 and Brockelmann, G. A. L., ii. 208) and of Ḳuṭb al-Dīn [al-Rāzī al-Taḥtānī presumably, ¶ see Brockelmann, ii. 209]. Lists of his chief works, giving, with variations, their dates and places of composition, are extant ( Mud̲j̲ma…


(696 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, or, more properly, Tug̲h̲luḳ, the correct vocalization being given by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, is the name of a dynasty which reigned at Dihlī from 1320 until 1413, and is taken from the personal name of its founder, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲. al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ, a Ḳarawniya Turk, that is to say, the offspring of a Turkish father and an Indian mother. When Mubārak, the last of the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲īs [q.v.], was murdered by his vile favourite, Ḵh̲usraw, Tug̲h̲luḳ, who was employed on the northwestern frontier, where his numerous suc…


(5,118 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, along with the Bakr the most important tribe of the Rabīʿa group in early Arabia. The real name of the founder of the tribe is said to have been Dit̲h̲ār; when one day his father wished him success in the words tag̲h̲lib “thou shalt conquer”, this name remained attached to him, but “according to all Semitic analogy” (cf. Yas̲h̲kur, Yad̲h̲kur, Jacob, Isaac etc.) it is not to be interpreted as 2nd pers. masc. but as 3rd pers. fern, imperf. The gender shows that the tribal name is older than the fable about the mythical ancestor; besides the older poets down to al-Farazd…


(166 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arabie Wādī Tād̲j̲oh, Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula, rises in the Serrania de Cuenca at about 6,000 ft. Its length to its estuary at Lisbon is 550 miles (of which 190 are in Portuguese terrytory). Among the numerous places on its banks one may mention going down stream: Aranjuez, Algodor, Toledo and Talavera de la Reina, in Spain; Abrantès, Santarem and Lisbon, in Portugal. The Arab geographers describe the Tagus as an important river and mention it especially in their descriptions of Toledo and Lisbon. They …


(288 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L.
, two isolated letters at the head of Sūra xx. in the Ḳurʾān. — It has been proposed to explain them as an abbreviation, either of an imperative (from the root w-ṭ-ʾ; Ḥasan Baṣrī) or from a proper name (Ṭalḥa, Abū Huraira) meaning the ṣaḥābīs, who supplied this Sūra to the first editors of the Ḳurʾān. The important thing to note is that Muslim tradition since the third century has made Ṭā-Hā one of the names of the Prophet and as a result to this day we find boys in Egypt and the ʿIrāḳ given the name “Muḥammad Ṭā-Hā”. From the ¶ ivth century a. h., mystics unanimously see in Ṭā-Hā the purity ( ṭahāra) and r…


(763 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive V from the root h-d̲j̲-d which is one of the roots with opposed meanings ( aḍdād), as it signifies “sleep” and also “to be awake”, “to keep a vigil”, “to perform the night ṣalāt or the nightly recitation of the Ḳurʾān”. The latter two meanings have become the usual ones in Islām. The word occurs only once in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xvii. 81: “And in a part of the night, perform a ṣalāt as a voluntary effort” etc., but the thing itself is often referred to. We are told of the pious (li. 17) that they sl…


(539 words)

Author(s): Tritton, A. S.
(a.); grammatically ṭahāra is a maṣdar and means purity; it has also the technical sense of ceremonial, levitical purity and purification. It holds an important place in Islām, ¶ for “purity is half the faith”, a saying attributed to Muḥammad. Theologians divide defilements into material and mental; lawyers divide them into actual ( ḥaḳīḳī) and religious ( ḥukmī). Fiḳh deals with bodily, material impurity only. Sexual intercourse, menstruation, and child-birth are religious impurities. Actual impurities ( nad̲j̲is, q. v.) have a perceptible body. They are wine, pigs and…


(1,538 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Salāma b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Azdī al-Ṭaḥāwī al-Had̲j̲rī. His nisba Ṭaḥāwī is derived from the name of a village in Upper Egypt named Ṭaḥā. He is considered the greatest Ḥanafī lawyer which Egypt has produced. His ancestors had settled in Upper Egypt and his grandfather Salāma when the news of the rebellion ¶ of Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī reached Egypt threw off, with others, the allegiance to the caliph al-Maʾmūn. The rebels appointed ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Azdī in place of al-Sarī b. al-Ḥakam, who fled at first, …


(506 words)

Author(s): Marçais, Georges
(we also have tīhkrt), amediaeval town of Algeria, on the eastern border of the present departement of Oran. According to Idrīsī there used to be two large towns of this name: the one, Old Tāhert, an old Roman site, perhaps the capital of a native dynasty, vassals or allies of the Byzantines (Gsell), rose from its ruins in the modern period and became the capital of Tiaret; the other, New Tāhert, lies 6 miles w. s. w. of Tiaret, not far from Tagdempt which was one of the strongholds of the amīr ʿAbd al-Ḳādir [q. v.]. It no longer has more than a few almost obliterated traces of its past grandeur. New Tāh…

Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusain

(468 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, founder of the Ṭāhirid dynasty [q. v.] in Ḵh̲orāsān [q. v.], born in 159 (775—776), died in Ḏj̲umādā I (Ṭabarī, iii. 1065, 13) or Ḏj̲umādā II (Ibn Ḵh̲allikān) 207 (822). Ṭāhir belonged to a family of Persian descent and also to the Arab tribe of Ḵh̲uzāʿa [q. v.]. His ancestor Razīḳ was a client of the governor of Sīstān, Abū Muḥammad Ṭalḥa b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī; Razīḳ’s son Muṣʿab took part in the fighting against the Umaiyads under Abū Muslim as secretary ( kātib) to the general Sulaimān b. Kat̲h̲īr al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī. The town of Būshand̲j̲ [q.v.] in the district of Herāt [q. …


(695 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a dynasty in Ḵh̲orāsān, founded by Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusain [q. v.]. The foundation of the rule of the Ṭāhirids was later considered to date from the appointment of Ṭāhir as commander of the army of the Caliph Maʾmūn in 194 (810) and therefore the duration of their rule was put at 65 years (till the deposition of Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir in 259 [873]; cf. the biography of Faḍl b. Śahl [q.v.] in Ibn Ḵh̲allikān N°. 540, ed. de Slane. p. 577; transl., ii. 473 [where we have wrongly ¶ “six and fifty”]). Ṭāhir was succeeded in Ḵh̲orāsān by his son Ṭalḥa, d. 213 (828); after him reigned ʿAbd Allāh’b…

Ṭāhir Waḥīd

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad, ʿImād al-Dawla, a Persian poet of Ḳazwīn, who was the secretary of the two Prime Ministers Mīrzā Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad and Ḵh̲alīfa Sulṭān; in 1055 (1645—6) appointed historiographer to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās II, he became minister in 1101 (1689—90) in the reign of Sulaimān; afterwards he retired into private life and died most probably in 1110 (1698-99) aged 90. The British Museum has five MSS. of his historical works. The Ātas̲h̲-kedè (Bombay 1277, not paginated) says that his poems were mainly admired because of the rank of the author. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Hammer, Gesch. Redek. …


(667 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. ʿAmr al-Kilābī was a minor Arabic poet whose collected poems have by accident been preserved, while more important collections have been irretrievably lost. The time when he lived is fairly accurately known, as he was captured by the Ḥarūrī leader Nad̲j̲da b. ʿAmr al-Ḥanafī on one of his expeditions and employed as a guide. During the night he tried to escape, took one of the best camels and went away. He was however pursued on horses and recaptured. As a punishment for theft the Ḥarūrī imposed…

Ṭahmāsp I

(941 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, second ruler of Persia of the Safawī dynasty, eldest son of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I born in 919 (1514); he ascended the throne at the age of ten years (930 = 1524) and was of course the plaything of the Ḳi̊zi̊lbash chiefs. He defeated the Uzbegs in 934 (1527) near Turbet-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḏj̲am. Summoned to Bag̲h̲dād by the rebellion of Ḏh̲u ’l-Faḳār of the Kurd tribe of the Mūṣlū, who was supported by the Kalhur Kurds and claimed to be under Turkish suzerainty (936 = 1530), he found him murdered by his b…


(2,545 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the second king of the Pīs̲h̲dādī dynasty in the Persian epic cycle. The name Tak̲h̲mō-urupa ( Avesta), Tak̲h̲mōrup ( Bundahis̲h̲) is compounded of tak̲h̲ma (“strong, courageous”) (cf. Rustam < Rustahm) + urupa (or urupi) (cf. Christensen, p. 140), “a certain animal of the dog family”, cf. Bartholomae, Altir. Wört., p. 1532, who, however, expresses doubts as to the real meaning of the name (Darmesteter, Avesta, ii., p. 583, interprets it “of sturdy shape”; cf. ¶ Sanskrit rūpa?). Later forms are Tak̲h̲mūraf, Tahmūras. The transcription into Arabic characters Ṭahmūrat̲h̲…


(1,429 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), corruption of a document, whereby the original sense is altered. It may happen in various ways, by direct alteration of the written text, by arbitrary alterations in reading aloud the text which is itself correct, by omitting parts of it or by interpolations or by a wrong exposition of the true sense. The Muslims found occasion to deal with this conception in connection with those passages in the Ḳurʾān where Muḥammad accused the Jews of falsifying the books of revelation given them, i. e. the Thora, ḥarrafū [cf. ḳorʾān, vol. ii. 1066a]. This accusation was really the only way of…


(172 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is the nomen actionis of the second formation of the verb ḥaṣala, and signifies originally, “collection”, “obtaining” or “acquiring”. In India the use of the word is restricted to the collection of the revenue, and it is applied, in the United Provinces and Madras to a subdivision of a district (called taʿalluḳa, or, corruptly, ¶ tālūkā, in the Bombay Presidency) with an area of from 400 to 600 square miles, or less in the United Provinces, forming an administrative and fiscal unit. In size the taḥṣīl comes between the pargana and the sarkār of the Mug̲h̲ul empire, and the official in …


(622 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusain ʿAtāʾ Ḵh̲ān, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Taḥsīn, also known by the title Muraṣṣaʿ Raḳm; an Indian author, as it seems, from Itāwā, son of Mīr Bāḳir Ḵh̲ān, whose tak̲h̲alluṣ was S̲h̲awk. The son of Taḥsīn, named Ḳāsim ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, was not only an author, but also a musician. The exact dates of Taḥsīn’s birth and death cannot be fixed; the date of the completion of his most important work, the Nawṭarz-i muraṣṣaʿ, is ± 1195 (1780). The author was in the service of General Smith, whom he accompanied from Lakhnaw to Calcutta. Later on, Taḥsīn lived at Patna, …
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