Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Tadallīs

(717 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Tedellēs (Dellys), a town on the Algerian coast, 70 miles east of Algiers and 4 miles E. of the mouth of the Sebau, the principal river of Kabylia, from which it is separated by the mountainous mass which ends in Cape Beugut. — It lies in 55° 20′ N. Lat. and 3° 55′ E. Long (Greenwich). — The town consists of two distinct quarters: the native quarter with its narrow streets and the European quarter regularly built on a plateau about 175 feet above sea-level. Below, the harbour, sheltered against…

Tadbīr

(898 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), Maṣdar of the second stem of the root d-b-r. 1. With the meaning of „direction, administration”. The Arabic lexicographers explain dabbara as a verb from the noun dubur “the hindmost, the end” (opposite: ḳubul); thus we read in the Lisān, v. 358: an tanẓura ilā mā taʾūlu ilaihi ʿāḳibatahu, “to heed what one attains at the end of a matter”, or yanẓuru fī ʿawāḳibihi, “to heed the end of a matter”. This verb has now a double application: a. in the sense of government, administration (e. g. in the title of a work by Ibn Abi ’l-Rabīʿ, Sulūk al-Mālik fī Tadbīr ’l-Mamālik [cf. siyāsa]) and b. which c…

Tad̲h̲kira

(172 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), memorial, memorandum, from d̲h̲akara “to record”. The word appears in the titles of many famous works: the Memorandum of Astronomy of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, the Tad̲h̲kirat al-Awliyāʾ, “Memorial of the Saints” of Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, the Tad̲h̲kirat al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ. “memorial of the poets”, a biography of the poets, popular in Persia. In administrative language it means: ticket, memorandum, permit. It is the name given to travellers’ passports, yol tad̲h̲kirèsi, to the custom house office’s exeat: murūr tad̲h̲kirèsi. It is also more especially applied to the diplomas of…

Tād̲j̲

(2,041 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), Crown. A Persian loanword in Arabie going back to the Old Persian * tag; cf. Armenian ʿtag, Aramaic taga. From it are formed in Arabic the broken plural tīd̲j̲ān and the corresponding verb t-w-d̲j̲ II “to crown”, V “to be crowned”, and tāʾid̲j̲, “crowned” (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologic, Strassburg 1893, p. 81; Siddiqi, Studien über die per she hen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch, Göttingen 1919, p. 74, 84; Fraenkel, Die aramāischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, Ley den 1886, p. 62). Like the name, the thing itself comes from old Persia. The form o…

Tād̲j̲īk

(774 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, older form tāzīk or tāžīk (in Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, i., 324: Težik), the name of a people originally used with the meaning “Arab” (later this meaning became confined to the form Tāzī), afterwards “Iranian” in contrast to “Turk”. The word is derived from the Arab tribal name of Ṭaiy. The nearest Arab tribe to the Iranians was the Ṭaiy, hence the name of this tribe came to be applied to the whole Arab people. The Ṭaiy are “mentioned as early as the beginning of the third century by an Edessene along with the Saracens as representatives of all the Beduins” (Cureton, Spicil. Syr., p. 16 ult. in Nö…

Tād̲j̲īkī

(176 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the language of the Tād̲j̲īk [q. v.]. As a literary language Tād̲j̲īkī seems to be “more or less remote from modern Persian according to the degree of education of the person writing or speaking it”. In this sense (aiming at the elegance of the “Persian literati” but without “denying a dialectical colouring”), the Tād̲j̲īkī was the official and business language under the rule of the Özbegs of Buk̲h̲ārā [q. v] and remained so after the revolution of 1920; since 1924 however Tād̲j̲īkī has been …

Tād̲j̲ Maḥall

(734 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, the beautiful mausoleum erected at Āgra by the emperor S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān [q.v.] for his dearly loved wife, Ad̲j̲umand Bānū Begum, of whose title, Mumtāz Maḥall, the name is a corruption. She was the daughter of Āṣaf Ḵh̲ān, brother of the famous Nūr Ḏj̲ahān [q. v.], and was married to S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān on May 10, 1612, at the age of nineteen. She bore him ¶ fourteen children, and died in June, 1631, at Burhānpūr, after giving birth to a daughter. She was buried temporarily at Zainābād, a suburb of Burhānpūr, but her husband, who mourned her deeply, resolved to co…

Tad̲j̲nīs

(1,662 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
or Ḏj̲inās (a.), paronomasia, play upon words, is a figure of rhetoric ( badīʿ) which consists in using in the same phrase two words of a similar or almost similar sound but of different meanings, e. g. amantes sunt amentes. I. 1. The tad̲j̲nīs is complete ( tāmm) when the two words resemble one another in kind, number, vocalisation (or form) and in the order of the consonants. ¶ a. If the two words are of the same kind (e. g. two substantives, two verbs or two particles), it is called identical ( mumāt̲h̲il), e. g. “The day and the Hour ( al-sāʿa) will dawn, the guilty will swear that they have…

Tad̲j̲wīd

(950 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.) is the art of reciting the Ḳurʾān, giving each consonant its full value, as much as it requires to be well pronounced without difficulty or exaggeration: strength, weakness, tonality, softness, emphasis, simplicity ( tarḳīḳ). There are three kinds of tad̲j̲wīd: 1. tartīl, slow recitation; 2. ḥadr, rapid recitation; 3. tadwīr, medium recitation. — Tad̲j̲wīd, “ the adornment of recitation”, has for its object to prevent the tongue making any mistake in the recitation of the divine words. Besides the study of the articulation of consonants it…

Tādlā

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Colin, G. S.
(or Tādilā), the Tedle of Leo Africanus, a district of Morocco comprising the plateaus which stretch to the west of the high valley of ¶ the Wādī Umm al-Rabīʿ, as well as the western slopes of the Central Atlas, from Wādī ’l-ʿAbīd to the sources of the Moluya. The classical ethnic Tādilī is no longer used except for the S̲h̲orfā of the district; the popular ethnic is Tādlāwī. The region of the plateaus is occupied by six semi-nomad tribes of Arab origin: Urdīg̲h̲a, Bnī Ḵh̲īrān. Bnī Zemmūr, Smāʿla, Bnī ʿĀmer, Bnī Mūsā, whose centres are Wād Zem, Bujad (= Bed̲j̲d̲…

Tadlīs

(927 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, according to the Arabic lexicon, means “to conceal a fault or defect in an article of merchandise from the purchaser”, and according to the traditionists, “to conceal the defects of the ḥadīt̲h̲, either in the text, in the chain of narrators or in the source”, i. e. the teacher from whom it is learnt. Tadlīs is of three kinds. They are: 1. tadlīs fi’l-isnād (tadlīs in the chain of narrators); 2. tadlīs fi ’l-matn (tadlīs in the text) and 3. tadlīs fi ’l-s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ (tadlīs in the teacher from whom the tradition is learnt). a. Tadlīs in the chain of narrators. It is classified under sev…

Tafḍīl

(100 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is the nomen actionis of the second formation of faḍala, it “exceeded”, or “was”, or “became redundant”, or “superfluous”. In grammar it is applied to the comparison of adjectives. Ism al-tafḍīl, “the noun of the attribution of excess, or excellence”, is the noun adjective in the comparative and superlative, or, as it is now usually called, the elative degree. This is also called afʿal al-tafḍīl because it is regularly of the measure afʿal. (T. W. Haig) Bibliography The standard Arabic lexica Wright-de Goeje, A Grammar of the Arabic Language, Cambridge 1896—1898, i. 140-141 de Sacy, Gramm…

al-Ṭaff

(233 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the desert region that lies west of Kūfa along the alluvial plain of the Euphrates. It is higher than the low-lying ground by the river and forms the transition to the central Arabian plateau. According to the authorities quoted by Yāḳūt (iii. 359), al-ṭaff means an area raised above the surrounding country; the name is not found after the xiiith century. The district contains a number of springs, the waters of which run southwest (cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh, p. 187). The best known of these wells was al-ʿUd̲h̲air. From its geographical position al-Ṭaff was the …

Tāfīlālt

(290 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, ethnic Fīlālī, the name of a district in S.E. Morocco, formed by the broadening of the valley of the Wādī Zīz. It consists of an alluvial plain 12 miles long and 10 broad, over which are scattered 200 ḳṣūr (or fortified dwellings of clay) surrounded by gardens and cultivated fields. Where irrigation from wells is possible, the soil is wonderfully fertile. The chief product of Tāfīlālt is the palm-tree and the most developed industry is the preparation of goat-skins by the use of the bark of the mimosa which yields a tanning gall. F…

Tafsīr

(663 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), pl. tafāsīr, ex pl a n a t i o n, commentary, verbal form: fassara to explain. The name is applied to commentaries on scientific and philosophical works and is an alternative to s̲h̲arḥ; it is regularly applied to the Greek and Arabic commentaries on Aristotle: the following are examples taken from Ibn al-Ḳifṭī’s History of Scholars: Banas al-Rūmī wrote a Tafsīr on the Al-magesta and another on the tenth book of Euclid; Abu ’l-Wafāʾ al-Buzd̲j̲ānī, the famous astronomer, wrote a tafsīr on the works of Diophantes and of al-Ḵh̲wārizmī on Algebra; Muḥammad b. Zakarīyā al-Rāzī, the …

Tāfta

(81 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. “twisted”), a kind of silk, taffeta. Clavijo, ambassador of Henry III of Castile, found in the markets of Tabrīz, of Sulṭānīya and of Samarḳand, tafetanes woven in the country itself. This material spread more and more in the West towards the end of the Middle Ages. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. Devic, Dict, des mots français aborigine orientale, p. 214 Clavijo, Narrative, p. 109, 114, 190 W. Heyd, Hist. du commerce du Levant, French ed. by Raynaud, Leipzig 1886, Index.
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