Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ṭarāz

(454 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Arabic name for Talas, a river in Central Asia and the town on it probably near the modern Awliyā Atā [q. v.]. The town was of pre-Muḥammadan, presumably Sog̲h̲dian origin [cf. sog̲h̲d]; Sog̲h̲dian and Turkī were spoken in Ṭarāz and in Balāsāg̲h̲ūn [q.v.] as late as the fifth (eleventh) century (Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk, i. 31). As a town ( k̲h̲ōron) Talas is first mentioned in the report of the embassy of the Greek Zēmark̲h̲os ( Fragm. Hist. Greac., iv. 228) in 568. About 630 Talas (Chin. Ta-lo-sse) was described by Hiuen-Thsang as an important commercial town ( Mémoires…

Tari

(127 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a gold coin, a quarter-dīnār. When the Fāṭimids conquered Sicily in the second decade of the fourth (tenth) century they struck quarter-dīnārs ( rubaʿ) there in large numbers. This denomination was new to Muḥammadan coinage and the fact that it was also introduced into Syria by the Fāṭimids suggests that it was intended to take the place of the Byzantine tremissis. The issue of this denomination was continued by the Norman Dukes who succeeded the Fāṭimids. For the history of the tari as an Italian denomination, which does not concern us here, see the article tareno in E. Martinori, La Moneta…

Taʿrīf

(106 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), explanation, definition, description, from ʿarafa, to know; e.g. taʿrīf Ayā Ṣūfiyā, description of St. Sophia; Kitāb al-Taʿrīfāt, book of definitions, a well-known treatise of Saiyid S̲h̲arīf Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī on the explanation of Ṣūfī terms. In administrative language, in the feminine form, taʿrīfa or taʿrifa with a short i, the word has the meaning of tariff, tax, price of food, of transport, etc.; e. g. in Turkish: gumruk taʿrīfèsi, customs duties; démir yol tarifèlèri, railway charges. In grammar this word means the Arabic definite article al, which is called the particle…

Ṭarīf

(296 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, leader of the first Muslim forces to land in Spain in 91 (710). The Arab historians are not agreed as to the origin of this client of the famous general Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.]: some say he was a Berber, others an Arab. Al-Rāzī calls him: Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Maʿāfirī and Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn: Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Nak̲h̲aʿī. He has also occasionally been confused with the other client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād [q. v.]. We know that when Mūsā b. Nuṣair was urged by Count Julian to cross to Spain with an army he consulted his master, the Caliph al-Walīd; the latter order…

Tarifa

(220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabie Ḏj̲azīrat Ṭarīf, “island of Ṭarīf”, from the name of the client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf [q. v.] who landed there with the first Muslim force at the beginning of the conquest of Spain, a small town in Andalusia on the north shore of the Straits of Gibraltar, at the foot of a mountain range called the Sierra de la Luna, and almost the most southern part of the European continent. Tarifa, with Algeciras ( al-Ḏj̲azīrat al-Ḵh̲aḍrāʾ; cf. i., p. 277a) and Gibraltar (Ḏj̲abal Ṭāriḳ; cf. ii., p. 169 sq.) under Muslim rule had always considerable trade with the Moroccan ports…

Ṭāriḳ

(774 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Ziyād b. ʿAbd Allāh, a Berber chief and leader of the Muslim forces in the conquest of al-Andalus. Ibn Id̲h̲ārī gives a complete genealogy of him and connects him with the tribe of the Nafza. Idrīsī says he was a Berber of the Zanāta; Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn calls him Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād al-Lait̲h̲ī. Others again say he was a Persian, a native of Hamadān. After the reconnaissance undertaken by Ṭarīf ¶ [q. v.] in the south of Spain in Ramaḍān 96 (July 710), Mūsā b. Nuṣair, emboldened by its success, entrusted the command of an expedition on a larger scale to his client Ṭāriḳ b.…

Ṭarīḳa

(4,650 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
(pl. ṭuruḳ). This Arabie term, meaning “road, way, path”, has acquired two successive technical meanings in Muslim mysticism: 1. In the ninth and tenth centuries a. d. it was a method of moral psychology for the practical guidance of individuals who had a mystic call; 2. after the xith century, it becomes the whole system of rites for spiritual training laid down for the common life in the various Muslim religious orders which began to be founded at this time. Muslim mysticism itself in its origins, ideas and tendencies will be examined elsewhere [cf. the article taṣawwuf]; here we only de…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(13,272 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
(ʿIlm al-Taʾrīk̲h̲), Historiography, as a term of literature, embraces both annalistic and biography (but not as a rule literary history). The development of Arabic and Persian historiography is summarized below in four sections: A. From the origins to the third century of the Hid̲j̲ra; B. From the third to the sixth centuries; C. From the end of the sixth to the beginning of the tenth century; D. From the tenth to the thirteenth centuries. For the historical literature of the Ottoman Turks see the article turks (vol. iv. 947 sqq.), and for that written in Malay the article malays (vol. iii.…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(3,525 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.) era, computation, date. The article in vol. iv. received a much needed supplement in the article zamān and is only of value along with it. Here we give supplements to both these articles and shall refer from time to time to the numerous other articles which are essential to the subject. The root of the word is w-r-k̲h̲ common to the Semitic languages, which we find for example in the Hebrew yārēaḥ “moon”, yeraḥ “month”. The meaning of taʾrīk̲h̲ on this analogy would therefore be “fixing of the month”; the meaning has developed on the one hand into “fixing the per…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(804 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), 1. history in general, annals, chronicles. It is the title of a great many historical works, like the Takmilat Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ṭabarī, supplement to the Annals of Ṭabarī; Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, Mekka etc., history of Bag̲h̲dād, of Mecca etc.; Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Andalus, history of Andalusia. The word has also been applied to works of a very different kind, like that of al-Birūnī on India, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Hind, which is rather a study of the state of learning in India, or to special dictionaries like the Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Hukamāʾ of Ibn al-Ḳiftī, a biographical and bibliographical dictionar…

Tarīm

(1,724 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, 1. an old town and still one of the most important in northern Ḥaḍramōt, on the left side of the main wādī which traverses the whole of Ḥaḍramōt and is called Wādī Masīle east of S̲h̲ibām or Wādī Ḥaḍramōt or simply al-Wādī; others distinguish Wādī Masīle and Wādī Ḥaḍramōt, but are not agreed on the position of the confluence of the two (cf. Stieler’s map 60 in his Handatlas 9 [Gotha 1905] and the Map of Hadramut [surveyed by Imam Sharif Khan Bahadur] in Th. Bent, Southern Arabia, London 1900, p. 70). The statements of the Arab geographers regarding Ḥaḍramōt, especially the interi…

Tarim

(825 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, local (Turkish) pronunciation Terim, the principal river of modern Chinese Turkistān (length about 1,200 miles). It is probably the Oik̲h̲ardēs of Ptolemy (vi. 16). In the first (seventh) century the river is mentioned by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuan-Čuang (Hiouen-Thsang, Mémoires, transl. Stan Julien, ii. 220) under the name Si-to (Sanskrit Sîtâ). In the fifth (xith) century Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (i. 116). mentions the river Usmī Tarīm “which flows out of the land of Islām into the land of the Uig̲h̲urs and loses itself in thesand there”. According to the same source ( op. cit., p. 332),…

Tarīm

(716 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
2. According to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā, p. 490 (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, Über die Geographie Arabiens, Jahrbücher der Literatur, Vienna 1841, xciv., p. 93 and following him Ritter. xii. 727), a fortress on the road which runs from the coast-town of Ḏj̲izān on the Red Sea eastwards via “Newidije and the castle of Feleki” (according to v. Hammer’s transcription, which seems not quite certain) to Ṣaʿda; that is in the Upper Yemen. From the mention in the verse of Kut̲h̲aiyir referred to by al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat, p. 182 and quoted by al-Bakrī, p. 184 (cf. 107) and 196, the s…

Tarkīb Band

(185 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is a poem composed of stanzas of from five to eleven couplets. Each stanza, like a g̲h̲azal, has its own rhyme, the first two hemistichs and the second hemistich of each succeeding couplet rhyming with one another, but the rhyme of each stanza varies from that of the others, though the metre must be the same throughout the poem. After each stanza occurs a couplet in the same metie as the rest of the poem, but with its own rhyme, the two hemistichs rhyming with one another. When the same couplet is repeated after each stanza, as a refrain, the poem is called Tard̲j̲īʿ Band, but the older writers on…

Tārom

(3,214 words)

Author(s): Minorsky
(Tārum), 1º. district on the Ḳi̊zi̊l-Uzän [cf. safīd-rūd]. The name. The Arabs call it Ṭarm, Ṭirm (Mutanabbī), Ṭi̊rm ( B. G. A., vi. 404, 408). Yāḳūt mentions it on two occasions, under Ṭarm and Tāram. Mustawfī uses the Arabie dual Tārumain, the “two Tārums”. The modern Persian pronunciation is Tārǒm. Although Tārom is now the name of the district, there is also a little town ¶ named Tārom on the right bank of the Ḳi̊zi̊l-Uzän (between Wenisarā and Kallad̲j̲); another village of Tāri̊m (< Tārom) lies to the right of the direct road Irom Ardabīl to Miyāna outside of the district of Tārom. Tārom, l…

Tarragona

(247 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Arabie Tarrākūna), a little town in the north-east of Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the province of the same name. This town, which now has a population of 23,300, occupies the site of the ancient acropolis of Tarraco, which became one of the centres of Roman domination in Spain and from the time of Augustus, the capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Muslims when they occupied Tarragona retained its old name. They sacked it in 724, then occupied it for the whole of the Umaiyad Caliphate of Cordova, not without having twice to re…

Ṭarsūs

(988 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the frontier between Asia Minor and Syria, the birthplace of the apostle Paul. It lies in a very fertile plain through which flows a river (Cydnos, later Nahr Baradīn). Situated at the junction of several important roads and not far from the sea, even in ancient times it played an important part as a trading centre and was distinguished in the Hellenistic period for the activity of its intellectual life. Christianity spread early there and bishops and metropolitans of Ṭarsūs are mentioned in the Acts of the Councils. When the Arabs had conquered these regions, the Umaiy…

Ṭarṭūs

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, earlier Anṭarṭūs, frequently Anṭarsūs (by analogy with Ṭarsūs), a town on the Syrian coast; the ancient Antarados opposite the island of Arados (Arabic Ḏj̲azīrat Arwād, also written Arwād̲h̲; now Ruwād). Under the Roman empire, Antarados was called Constantia but the old name remained alongside of this and in the end drove the latter out again. The Muslims took the fortress of Ṭarṭūs under ¶ ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit in 17 (638). The town was destroyed and remained for a lung time uninhabited. Muʿāwiya rebuilt it, fortified it and settled there and in Maraḳīya an…

Tārūdānt

(81 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal t own in the district of Sūs, to the south of Morocco on the right bank of the Wādī Sūs, about 100 miles S. W. of Marrākus̲h̲ and 45 E of Āgādir on the Atlantic. These two towns may be reached from Tārūdānt by tracks passable by vehicles. It is a little town with about 7,000 inhabitants. For further details and the history of the town see the article al-sūs al-aḳṣā, especially p. 569b. (E. Lévi-Provençal)

Tarwiya

(361 words)

Author(s): Paket, R.
is the name for the 8th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a ( yawm al-tarwiya). The Muslim Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ begins on this day; on it the pilgrims go from Mecca to Minā and as a rule after a short stay there go on again to be able to pass the night in ʿArafā. In Muḥammadan works the term vawm al-tarwiya is usually explained from the fact that the pilgrims on this day give their animals a plentiful supply of water in preparation for the ride through the waterless area or from their taking a supply of water with them themselves. But as tarwiya properly means rather “pouring” than “watering” animals or “taking wate…
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