Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(162 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl Abū ʿAbd Allāh, Mag̲h̲ribī author of the xvth century, lived at the court of the Zaiyānid rulers of Tlemcen whose historiographer he became and died in Ḏj̲umādā II 899 (Feb. 1494). Besides several small works now lost and fatwās given by al-Wans̲h̲arīs̲h̲ī in his Miʿyār, we have from the pen of al-Tanasī a history of his patrons, Naẓm al-Durr wa ’l-ʿIḳyān fī S̲h̲araf Banī Zaiyān, ed. and partly transl. by Bargès, Histoire des Beni Zayan, rois de Tlemcen, Paris 1852 and Complément de Phistoire des Beni Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen, ouvrage du cheîkhal-Ten…


(850 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, transmigration, metempsychosis; a belief widespread in India and among several sects of the Muslim world. Muḥammadan authors who deal with it attribute it to the Indians rather than to the Pythagoreans. S̲h̲ahrastānī in his article on the “people of metempsychosis” takes the word in a wide sense: to him it means the doctrine of the successive lives and rebirths of the world. The Indians, he says, are of all nations that which believes most in metempsychosis. They tell the story of the phoenix and then say it is the same with…


(687 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Abāḍīs [q.v.]. To the fifth (eleventh) century belongs: Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī who often appears in later tradition. His son Ismāʿīl but still more his grandson Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Wārd̲j̲alānī. He came of a wealthy family and had an allowance of 1,000 d…


(176 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(or Tangča), the name of the small silver coin which formed the main currency of the Mongol world from the end of the viiith/ xivth to the beginning of the xth/xvith century. It varied in weight from 20 to 35 grains (1.3—1.95 grammes) and was struck by the later Īlk̲h̲āns, the Ḵh̲āns of the Golden Horde, the earlier Ḵh̲āns of the Crimea and the early Tīmūrids. The Russians borrowed the denomination and the name in the form denga at the end of the xivth century from the Mongols: dengas, latterly of copper, were struck in Russia down to the first half of the xviiith century. The word tanga has survived…


(2,433 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the ancient Tingis, Arabic Ṭand̲j̲a (old ethnic: Ṭand̲j̲i; modern ethnic: Ṭand̲j̲āwī), a town in Morocco, situated on the Strait of Gibraltar, 7 miles to the east of Cape Spartel [q. v.] at the point where the Atlantic coast begins. The town dominates a magnificent bay terminated on the East by Cape Malabata (Rās al-Manār) and on the West by the citadel ( ḳaṣba) and it slopes, at times fairly steeply, towards the sea. The town is divided into a number of quarters within the walls and others without. The former, fourteen in number, form the town properly speaking ( Madīna, popularly Mdīna). Amo…


(362 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, (Sanskrit ṭaṅka, a weight of silver = 4 māṣas): an Indian coin. When Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna conquered northwestern India and struck bilingual coins for the convenience of his Hindu subjects, ṭaṅka was used in the Nāgarī legend as the translation of dirham in the Arabic legend. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Iltutmis̲h̲, Sulṭān of Dehli (1210—1235 = 607—633) introduced a heavy silver coin of 175 grains (= 11.3 grammes) and gave it the name of tanka (although tola would have been more accurate); a gold tanka of the same weight was first introduced by Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd (1246—1265 = 646—6…


(1,954 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(t.), Heaven; God. In the eastern dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atāi, tängri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri) are worthy of note; the Kasan dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi, where täri of course means God). Ottoman Turkish has a non-palatal vocalisation ( tañri̊) as has Yakutic which has also in addition a trisyllabic form ( tañara). For the lexicographical material cf. Pavet de Cou…


(224 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, of whom S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abu ’l-Faḍl said: “A singer like him has not been in India for a thousand years”, was a native of Gwāliyār, and was at first in the service of Rām Čand the Bag̲h̲ela, Rād̲j̲ā of Pannā, who is said to have given him on one occasion ten million tankas. Ibrāhīm Sūr vainly endeavoured to entice him to Āgra, but Akbar, in 1562, sent a mission to Rām Čand at Kālind̲j̲ar to induce Tānsīn to come to his court, and Rām Čand, not daring to refuse the request, sent him with his musical instruments and many presents to the imperial court…


(359 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
, an important town in the Egyptian Delta between the Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile, capital of the G̲h̲arbīya province, and a busy railway junction, of unprepossessing appearance, about 75 miles from Alexandria. Its Coptic name of has assumed in Arabic the forms Tandiṭā, Ṭantā and Ṭanṭā. Formerly it was an episcopal city. Nowadays the place is famous for the tomb and mosque of the most celebrated of the Muslim saints in Egypt, Aḥmad al-Badawī [q. v.]. Throughout the year no fewer than three Mawālid or birthdays of this Saint are made the occasion of great fairs to wh…


(922 words)

Author(s): Kratschkovsky, Ign.
, Muḥammad ʿAiyād (with his full name: al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad b. Saʿd b. Sulaimān ʿAiyād al-Marḥūmī al-Ṭanditāʾī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī), an Arabic scholar of the xixth century, born in 1225 (1810) at Nid̲j̲rīd (a small village near Ṭanṭā in Egypt), died Oct. 29, 1861 in St, Peterburg. His father, a travelling merchant, was born in Maḥallat Marḥūm, hence his nisba: al-Marḥūmī. At the age of six he went to a maktab in Ṭanṭā. At 13, he moved to his uncle in Cairo and studied at al-Azhar. Of his teachers the celebrated Ibrāhīm al-Bād̲j̲urī (d. c. 1276; Brockelmann, G. A. L., ii. 487) had a particular i…


(3,721 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, an old Arab confederacy which adopted a common genealogy and so is usually regarded as a tribe. The origin of the name and the early history of the Tanūk̲h̲ is so enveloped in fable that it is impossible to disentangle it, and nothing really historical can be gleaned out of the traditions, which differ among themselves very much in detail. If we take the version in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xi. 159 sq. as the basis (corresponding: Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ʿIbar, ii. 240 sq.; Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 16—17 and Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 444—445) we get the following picture: At the separation of the Ḳ…


(452 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Muḥassin, an Arab writer, was born in 939 or (according to Yāḳūt) in 940—941 a. d., the son of a learned ḳāḍī in Baṣra, and received his early education ¶ there, from al-Ṣūlī [q. v.] and Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī [q.v.] and others. He chose a judicial career and rose to be ḳāḍī, first in Bag̲h̲dād and then in Ahwāz; as a result of a change in the vizierate in Bag̲h̲dād his office was taken from him in 969—970 and his property confiscated. He was not allowed to follow his profession for three years.” During this…


(2,962 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or rather tanhẓīmāt-i k̲h̲airīye (“beneficent legislation” from the expression: ḳānūn tanẓīm etmek = “to draft a law”) is the term used to denote the reforms introduced into the government and administration of the Ottoman empire from the beginning of the reign of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and inaugurated by the charter generally called the k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf of Gülk̲h̲āne. The expression tanẓīmāt k̲h̲airīye is first found in the latter years of the reign of Maḥmūd II. The other end of the period of the tanẓīmāt is put about 1880, when the absolute rule of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II began. The tanẓīmā…


(4 words)

[See Mūsīḳī.]


(990 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Aṭrābulus, the Greek Tripolis, a town in Syria near the coast of the Mediterranean, north of Ḏj̲ubail. It lies partly on and partly beside a hill at the exit of a deep ravine through which flows a river, the Nahr Ḳadīs̲h̲a (Arabic Abū ʿAlī). West of it stretches a very fertile plain covered with woods, which terminate in a peninsula on which lies the port of al-Minā. The harbour is protected by a series of rocky islets lying in front of it and by the remains of an old wall. The old Phoenician …


(2,220 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the Turkish form of the name of the town of Trebizond, in Greek ΤραπεζοῦΣ. Situated at the southeast cerner of the Black Sea on a very hilly coast which is separated from the rest of Asia Minor and Armenia by a high range of mountains, this town, like the population of the country immediately around it, has always led a more or less isolated existence, from which it only emerged in those periods when ¶ its geographical position made it become an important point on the great trade-routes. Trebizond is mentioned for the first time by Xenophon ( Anabasis, iv. 8) and is said to have been a very…


(1,679 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. ʿAbd al-Bakrī is unanimously considered by Arab critics one of the foremost poets of the period before Islām and is the author of the longest of the poems known by the name of Muʿallaḳāt. He is at the same time one of the earliest poets of that period of whom poems are preserved. The editors of the Muʿallaḳa and of his collected poems generally give a full genealogy from which however we can gain with certainty only that he belonged to the section of Bakr of the Wāʾil tribes His father’s name is given as al-ʿAbd b. Sufyān, the name ʿAbd being probab…


(637 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Eastern Turkī word for agriculturists; as the name of a people, applied to the colonists transported by the Chinese government in the middle of the xviiith century from Kās̲h̲g̲h̲aria to the Ili valley; cf. Radloff, Wörterbuch, iv. 841. The Taranči are said however, even in the Ili valley, to have described themselves as the native population ( Yärlik, cf. Radloff, it. 343). They numbered 6,000 families of whom 4,100 were settled on the right and 1,900 on the left bank of the Ili; for further particulars see Radloff, Aus Sibirien, ii. 331 sq. According to a census of the year 1834 the…


(444 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), plural of the unusual sing. tarwīḥa, the ṣalāts which are performed in the nights of the month of Ramaḍān. Tradition says that Muḥammad held these ṣalāts in high esteem, with the precaution, however, that their performance should not become obligatory (Buk̲h̲ārī, Tarāwīḥ, trad. 3). ʿUmar is said to have ¶ been the first to assemble behind one ḳāriʾ, those who performed their prayers in the mosque of al-Madīna singly or in groups ( loc. cit., trad. 2); he is also said to have preferred the first part of the night for these pious exercises. Canon law recommends the performance of the …
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