Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(606 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. Rūzzīk al-Mālik al-Ṣāliḥ, Fāṭimid wazīr (495—556 = 1101—1161). The events immediately attendant on the treacherous murder of the 12th Fāṭimid caliph al-Ẓāfir (1154) called him forth, at the request of the ladies of the royal household, from his governorship at Us̲h̲mūnain to play the rôle of strong man essential in the circumstances. Success crowned his march on Cairo with his followers from Upper Egypt. Then, following the deposition of ʿAbbās, he was appointed wazīr to the child caliph al-Fāʾiz in 549 (1154) with the title of al-Ṣāliḥ bi ’llāh. His traitorous predecessor in off…


(4,826 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), repudiation of a wife by a husband, a form of divorce, effected by his pronouncing the words anti ṭāliḳ. The root idea of the verb ṭalaka is: to be freed from a tether etc. (of a camel), to be repudiated by a man (of a wife; in this sense also ṭaluḳa), hence ṭallaḳa, to release (a camel) from a tether, to repudiate (a wife); ṭāliḳ means a camel untethered or a woman repudiated by a man (cf. Lane, Arab. Eyl. Lexicon s. v.). I. The right to a one-sided dissolution of a marriage belonged to the man exclusively, among the pre-Muḥammadan Arabs. Long before Muḥammad this ṭalāḳ was in general use amon…


(265 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(ṭālḳān; Samʿānī, Ansāb, f. 363b), name of two towns in Persia. 1. A town in Ṭuk̲h̲āristān, between Balk̲h̲ and Merw al-Rūd̲h̲, three days’ march from the latter. Situated in a plain, but quite close to the mountains (an arrow-shot, g̲h̲alwa), it was the largest town of the province and had a large market; it was divided into several parts by two rivers: Ḵh̲uṭṭal-āb (correction of de Goeje) and Bar-āb. It was destroyed in 617 (1220) by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān; ruins near Čāčaktū. 2. A town in Dailam, between Ḳazwīn and Abhar, capital of a district of the same name including several sm…


(151 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of several places in Spain; the Arabic form is Ṭalabīra. They are the following: 1. Talavera de la Reina, a town of 10,600 inhabitants, the Caesarobriga of the Romans, on a fertile plain on the banks of the Tagus about 100 miles below Toledo, at the entrance to the Sierra de Gredos: Towers dating from the period of Arab occupations may still be seen there: “the Torres Albarranas”. The Arab geographers boast of the solidity of the ḥiṣn of this town; 2. ca. 20 miles south of the latter: Talavera la Vieja, the ancient Augustobriga; 3. Talavera la Real, a little village ¶ on the south bank o…


(363 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive of form II of the verb labbā, which is formed from the term labbaika to mean “to pronounce the formula labbaika” etc. Labbaika is connected — and probably rightly — by the Arab lexicographers with labb un which means “offering devoted service” as labbaika does “at your service”. According to the native grammarians labbai is a „frequentative” dual. It is difficult to say what is the significance of the element ai in this and similar forms like saʿdaika. The explanation from the Hebrew proposed by Dozy ( De Isrdëliten te Mekka, Haarlem 1864, p. 120) may be said to be now…


(1,074 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. ʿUbaidallāh, companion of the Prophet, one of the ten mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ara, i. e. those to whom the Prophet had promised Paradise. He belonged to the Ḳurais̲h̲ clan of the Banū Taim b. Murra [q.v.]; his genealogy was: Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbaidallāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAmr b. Kaʿb b. Saʿd b. Taim b. Murra and his kunya, Abū Muḥammad, from his son, celebrated for his piety and one of the first readers of the Ḳurʾān; both father and son were killed in the battle of the camel in 36 a. h. Ṭalḥa was one of the earliest converts to Islām. According to tradition he had suffered along with Abū Bakr the th…


(7 words)

[See arabia , i. 387a.]


(432 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district and people in the north of the Persian province of Gīlān [q. v.], which since the peace of Gulistān (12/24th Oct. 1813) has belonged to Russia. The name according to Marquart, Osteuropäische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge, Leipzig 1903, p. 278 sq., is first found in the form T’alis̲h̲ in the Armenian translation of the romance of Alexander, Ch. 194 = ii. 19, p. 76 (ed. C. Müller). In the history of the Arab conquest (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 327; al-Ṭabarī, i. 2805) the country is called al-Ṭailasān; according to al-Aṣma…


(4 words)

[See Ẓamāʾil.]


(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)


(129 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or in the official style, Talk̲h̲īṣī, was the individual appointed to prepare the précis called talk̲h̲īṣ [q. v.] and to take it to the palace where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the grand vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the talk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām was not — at least in the later period — in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first of all through th…


(884 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
is the name of king Saul of the Bible in the Ḳurʾān (ii. 248, 250). The name is explained as early as T̲h̲aʿlabī from the height ( ṭūl) of Ṭālūt. Ṭālūt recalls Ḏj̲ālūt (Goliath), an assonance of pairs of names, like Hārūt-Mārūt, Hābil-Ḳābil, Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ (Goldziher). Ḏj̲ālūt itself is explained from the Hebrew (Horovitz). In the Ḳurʾān (ii. 247—253) the following is told of Ṭālūt. After the time of Moses Israel demanded a king. God appointed Ṭālūt king but the people did not find him worthy of the throne. Ṭālūt was distinguished for the…


(6 words)

[See Iḥrām , Mutaʿ.]


(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra [q. v.]), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother- zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣirīya [q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet broad but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam = mouth) al-Sūḳ, in the N. E., Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the S. W., Bāb al-Rizḳ and to the east, Fumm al-Sūr. An import…


(222 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, a Moroccan writer, a native of Tamgrūt [q. v.], died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 1003 (1594—1595) and was buried in the sanctuary of Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ. He held an official position at the court of the Saʿdian Sulṭān Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī (986—1012 = 1578—1602). He was placed by this ruler in charge of the embassy to Sulṭān Murād III in Constantinople along with another court dignitary Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Fis̲h̲tālī, d. 1021 (1612—1613). Al-Tamgrūtī prepared an account of his journey ( riḥla) which he called al-Nafaḥat al-…


(2,604 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. Murr, an Arab tribe; their genealogy (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, K. L.) Tamīm b. Murr b. Udd b. Ṭābik̲h̲a b. al-Yās b. Muḍar, puts them among the Muḍarī tribes where they take first place; indeed their name is often used as a synonym of the whole Muḍarī branch in contrast to the Ḳais and the Rabīʿa. Of the two latter, the Rabīʿa are most closely delated to them, which is not apparent in the systematic genealogies (where on the contrary the Ḳais are descended from the Muḍar while the Rabīʿa are not), but from expressions like the dual al-Ḏj̲uffān (Lisān al-ʿArab, x. 373) meaning the Tamīm…


(198 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. al-Muʿizz, brother of the fifth Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz, is said to have been born c. 337 (948—949). He was noted in his day for his liberality and interest in belles lettres. A prince of culture and elegance with a reputation amongst his contemporaries as a poet of refinement and skill. He missed nomination as heir apparent, his brother al-ʿAzīz being preferred to him. Al-ʿAzīz seems to have been very fond of him, judging from his grief at the latter’s death, which is stated to have taken place at Cairo in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 3…

Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz

(605 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
, fifthrulerofthe Ṣanhād̲j̲a family of the Banū Zīrī, who reigned in eastern Barbary from 454-501 (1062—1108). He was born at Ṣabra—Man-Ṣūrīya near al-Ḳairawān. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī described him as a man of tall stature and handsome appearance, and gives some curious details about his way of living. He was a very highly cultured man and reckoned among the most distinguished poets who have occupied a throne. He was 23 in 445 (1053) when al-Muʿizz, his father, appointed him governor of al-Mahdīya [q. v.]. It was just after the appearance of the Banū Hilāl Arabs, who …

Tamīm al-Dārī

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, a companion of the Prophet. His nisba al-Dārī is said to be derived from the clan of the Banū ’l-Dār (for ʿAbd al-Dār, according to Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, iv. 108, note 4), a section of the tribe of Lak̲h̲m [q.v.]. Al-Nawawī however ( Tahd̲h̲īb al-Asmāʾ, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 178) gives him the nisba of al-Dairī, said to be derived from the convent ( dair) in which he was a monk before his conversion to Islām. His genealogy was: Tamīm b. Aws b. Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲a b. Sawād (var. Sūd) b. Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma b. Darāʿ (var. Ḏh̲irāʿ, Widāʿ) b. ʿAdī b. al-Dār b. Hāni…


(187 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the tenth month in the Syriac calender. Its name is derived from that of the fourth Jewish month with which it roughly coincides. It corresponds to July in the Roman calendar and like it has 31 days. According to al-Bīrūnī, in Tammūz the lunar stations 8 and 9 rise and 22 and 23 set; the days on which one rose and the other, 14 days apart from it, set were the 10th and 23rd. According to al-Ḳazwīnī on the other hand, stations 7 and 8 rise, 21 and 22 set, on the 4th and 17th respectively. In the year 1300 of the Seleucid era (989 a. d.) according to al-Bīrūnī the stars of the stations mentioned by a…


(162 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl Abū ʿAbd Allāh, Mag̲h̲ribī author of the xvth century, lived at the court of the Zaiyānid rulers of Tlemcen whose historiographer he became and died in Ḏj̲umādā II 899 (Feb. 1494). Besides several small works now lost and fatwās given by al-Wans̲h̲arīs̲h̲ī in his Miʿyār, we have from the pen of al-Tanasī a history of his patrons, Naẓm al-Durr wa ’l-ʿIḳyān fī S̲h̲araf Banī Zaiyān, ed. and partly transl. by Bargès, Histoire des Beni Zayan, rois de Tlemcen, Paris 1852 and Complément de Phistoire des Beni Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen, ouvrage du cheîkhal-Ten…


(850 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, transmigration, metempsychosis; a belief widespread in India and among several sects of the Muslim world. Muḥammadan authors who deal with it attribute it to the Indians rather than to the Pythagoreans. S̲h̲ahrastānī in his article on the “people of metempsychosis” takes the word in a wide sense: to him it means the doctrine of the successive lives and rebirths of the world. The Indians, he says, are of all nations that which believes most in metempsychosis. They tell the story of the phoenix and then say it is the same with…


(687 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Abāḍīs [q.v.]. To the fifth (eleventh) century belongs: Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī who often appears in later tradition. His son Ismāʿīl but still more his grandson Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Wārd̲j̲alānī. He came of a wealthy family and had an allowance of 1,000 d…


(176 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(or Tangča), the name of the small silver coin which formed the main currency of the Mongol world from the end of the viiith/ xivth to the beginning of the xth/xvith century. It varied in weight from 20 to 35 grains (1.3—1.95 grammes) and was struck by the later Īlk̲h̲āns, the Ḵh̲āns of the Golden Horde, the earlier Ḵh̲āns of the Crimea and the early Tīmūrids. The Russians borrowed the denomination and the name in the form denga at the end of the xivth century from the Mongols: dengas, latterly of copper, were struck in Russia down to the first half of the xviiith century. The word tanga has survived…


(2,433 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the ancient Tingis, Arabic Ṭand̲j̲a (old ethnic: Ṭand̲j̲i; modern ethnic: Ṭand̲j̲āwī), a town in Morocco, situated on the Strait of Gibraltar, 7 miles to the east of Cape Spartel [q. v.] at the point where the Atlantic coast begins. The town dominates a magnificent bay terminated on the East by Cape Malabata (Rās al-Manār) and on the West by the citadel ( ḳaṣba) and it slopes, at times fairly steeply, towards the sea. The town is divided into a number of quarters within the walls and others without. The former, fourteen in number, form the town properly speaking ( Madīna, popularly Mdīna). Amo…


(362 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, (Sanskrit ṭaṅka, a weight of silver = 4 māṣas): an Indian coin. When Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna conquered northwestern India and struck bilingual coins for the convenience of his Hindu subjects, ṭaṅka was used in the Nāgarī legend as the translation of dirham in the Arabic legend. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Iltutmis̲h̲, Sulṭān of Dehli (1210—1235 = 607—633) introduced a heavy silver coin of 175 grains (= 11.3 grammes) and gave it the name of tanka (although tola would have been more accurate); a gold tanka of the same weight was first introduced by Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd (1246—1265 = 646—6…


(1,954 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(t.), Heaven; God. In the eastern dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atāi, tängri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri) are worthy of note; the Kasan dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi, where täri of course means God). Ottoman Turkish has a non-palatal vocalisation ( tañri̊) as has Yakutic which has also in addition a trisyllabic form ( tañara). For the lexicographical material cf. Pavet de Cou…


(224 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, of whom S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abu ’l-Faḍl said: “A singer like him has not been in India for a thousand years”, was a native of Gwāliyār, and was at first in the service of Rām Čand the Bag̲h̲ela, Rād̲j̲ā of Pannā, who is said to have given him on one occasion ten million tankas. Ibrāhīm Sūr vainly endeavoured to entice him to Āgra, but Akbar, in 1562, sent a mission to Rām Čand at Kālind̲j̲ar to induce Tānsīn to come to his court, and Rām Čand, not daring to refuse the request, sent him with his musical instruments and many presents to the imperial court…


(359 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
, an important town in the Egyptian Delta between the Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile, capital of the G̲h̲arbīya province, and a busy railway junction, of unprepossessing appearance, about 75 miles from Alexandria. Its Coptic name of has assumed in Arabic the forms Tandiṭā, Ṭantā and Ṭanṭā. Formerly it was an episcopal city. Nowadays the place is famous for the tomb and mosque of the most celebrated of the Muslim saints in Egypt, Aḥmad al-Badawī [q. v.]. Throughout the year no fewer than three Mawālid or birthdays of this Saint are made the occasion of great fairs to wh…


(922 words)

Author(s): Kratschkovsky, Ign.
, Muḥammad ʿAiyād (with his full name: al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad b. Saʿd b. Sulaimān ʿAiyād al-Marḥūmī al-Ṭanditāʾī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī), an Arabic scholar of the xixth century, born in 1225 (1810) at Nid̲j̲rīd (a small village near Ṭanṭā in Egypt), died Oct. 29, 1861 in St, Peterburg. His father, a travelling merchant, was born in Maḥallat Marḥūm, hence his nisba: al-Marḥūmī. At the age of six he went to a maktab in Ṭanṭā. At 13, he moved to his uncle in Cairo and studied at al-Azhar. Of his teachers the celebrated Ibrāhīm al-Bād̲j̲urī (d. c. 1276; Brockelmann, G. A. L., ii. 487) had a particular i…


(3,721 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, an old Arab confederacy which adopted a common genealogy and so is usually regarded as a tribe. The origin of the name and the early history of the Tanūk̲h̲ is so enveloped in fable that it is impossible to disentangle it, and nothing really historical can be gleaned out of the traditions, which differ among themselves very much in detail. If we take the version in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xi. 159 sq. as the basis (corresponding: Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ʿIbar, ii. 240 sq.; Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 16—17 and Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 444—445) we get the following picture: At the separation of the Ḳ…


(452 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Muḥassin, an Arab writer, was born in 939 or (according to Yāḳūt) in 940—941 a. d., the son of a learned ḳāḍī in Baṣra, and received his early education ¶ there, from al-Ṣūlī [q. v.] and Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī [q.v.] and others. He chose a judicial career and rose to be ḳāḍī, first in Bag̲h̲dād and then in Ahwāz; as a result of a change in the vizierate in Bag̲h̲dād his office was taken from him in 969—970 and his property confiscated. He was not allowed to follow his profession for three years.” During this…


(2,962 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or rather tanhẓīmāt-i k̲h̲airīye (“beneficent legislation” from the expression: ḳānūn tanẓīm etmek = “to draft a law”) is the term used to denote the reforms introduced into the government and administration of the Ottoman empire from the beginning of the reign of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and inaugurated by the charter generally called the k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf of Gülk̲h̲āne. The expression tanẓīmāt k̲h̲airīye is first found in the latter years of the reign of Maḥmūd II. The other end of the period of the tanẓīmāt is put about 1880, when the absolute rule of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II began. The tanẓīmā…


(4 words)

[See Mūsīḳī.]


(990 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Aṭrābulus, the Greek Tripolis, a town in Syria near the coast of the Mediterranean, north of Ḏj̲ubail. It lies partly on and partly beside a hill at the exit of a deep ravine through which flows a river, the Nahr Ḳadīs̲h̲a (Arabic Abū ʿAlī). West of it stretches a very fertile plain covered with woods, which terminate in a peninsula on which lies the port of al-Minā. The harbour is protected by a series of rocky islets lying in front of it and by the remains of an old wall. The old Phoenician …


(2,220 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the Turkish form of the name of the town of Trebizond, in Greek ΤραπεζοῦΣ. Situated at the southeast cerner of the Black Sea on a very hilly coast which is separated from the rest of Asia Minor and Armenia by a high range of mountains, this town, like the population of the country immediately around it, has always led a more or less isolated existence, from which it only emerged in those periods when ¶ its geographical position made it become an important point on the great trade-routes. Trebizond is mentioned for the first time by Xenophon ( Anabasis, iv. 8) and is said to have been a very…


(1,679 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. ʿAbd al-Bakrī is unanimously considered by Arab critics one of the foremost poets of the period before Islām and is the author of the longest of the poems known by the name of Muʿallaḳāt. He is at the same time one of the earliest poets of that period of whom poems are preserved. The editors of the Muʿallaḳa and of his collected poems generally give a full genealogy from which however we can gain with certainty only that he belonged to the section of Bakr of the Wāʾil tribes His father’s name is given as al-ʿAbd b. Sufyān, the name ʿAbd being probab…


(637 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Eastern Turkī word for agriculturists; as the name of a people, applied to the colonists transported by the Chinese government in the middle of the xviiith century from Kās̲h̲g̲h̲aria to the Ili valley; cf. Radloff, Wörterbuch, iv. 841. The Taranči are said however, even in the Ili valley, to have described themselves as the native population ( Yärlik, cf. Radloff, it. 343). They numbered 6,000 families of whom 4,100 were settled on the right and 1,900 on the left bank of the Ili; for further particulars see Radloff, Aus Sibirien, ii. 331 sq. According to a census of the year 1834 the…


(444 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), plural of the unusual sing. tarwīḥa, the ṣalāts which are performed in the nights of the month of Ramaḍān. Tradition says that Muḥammad held these ṣalāts in high esteem, with the precaution, however, that their performance should not become obligatory (Buk̲h̲ārī, Tarāwīḥ, trad. 3). ʿUmar is said to have ¶ been the first to assemble behind one ḳāriʾ, those who performed their prayers in the mosque of al-Madīna singly or in groups ( loc. cit., trad. 2); he is also said to have preferred the first part of the night for these pious exercises. Canon law recommends the performance of the …


(454 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Arabic name for Talas, a river in Central Asia and the town on it probably near the modern Awliyā Atā [q. v.]. The town was of pre-Muḥammadan, presumably Sog̲h̲dian origin [cf. sog̲h̲d]; Sog̲h̲dian and Turkī were spoken in Ṭarāz and in Balāsāg̲h̲ūn [q.v.] as late as the fifth (eleventh) century (Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk, i. 31). As a town ( k̲h̲ōron) Talas is first mentioned in the report of the embassy of the Greek Zēmark̲h̲os ( Fragm. Hist. Greac., iv. 228) in 568. About 630 Talas (Chin. Ta-lo-sse) was described by Hiuen-Thsang as an important commercial town ( Mémoires…


(127 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a gold coin, a quarter-dīnār. When the Fāṭimids conquered Sicily in the second decade of the fourth (tenth) century they struck quarter-dīnārs ( rubaʿ) there in large numbers. This denomination was new to Muḥammadan coinage and the fact that it was also introduced into Syria by the Fāṭimids suggests that it was intended to take the place of the Byzantine tremissis. The issue of this denomination was continued by the Norman Dukes who succeeded the Fāṭimids. For the history of the tari as an Italian denomination, which does not concern us here, see the article tareno in E. Martinori, La Moneta…


(106 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), explanation, definition, description, from ʿarafa, to know; e.g. taʿrīf Ayā Ṣūfiyā, description of St. Sophia; Kitāb al-Taʿrīfāt, book of definitions, a well-known treatise of Saiyid S̲h̲arīf Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī on the explanation of Ṣūfī terms. In administrative language, in the feminine form, taʿrīfa or taʿrifa with a short i, the word has the meaning of tariff, tax, price of food, of transport, etc.; e. g. in Turkish: gumruk taʿrīfèsi, customs duties; démir yol tarifèlèri, railway charges. In grammar this word means the Arabic definite article al, which is called the particle…


(296 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, leader of the first Muslim forces to land in Spain in 91 (710). The Arab historians are not agreed as to the origin of this client of the famous general Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.]: some say he was a Berber, others an Arab. Al-Rāzī calls him: Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Maʿāfirī and Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn: Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Nak̲h̲aʿī. He has also occasionally been confused with the other client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād [q. v.]. We know that when Mūsā b. Nuṣair was urged by Count Julian to cross to Spain with an army he consulted his master, the Caliph al-Walīd; the latter order…


(220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabie Ḏj̲azīrat Ṭarīf, “island of Ṭarīf”, from the name of the client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf [q. v.] who landed there with the first Muslim force at the beginning of the conquest of Spain, a small town in Andalusia on the north shore of the Straits of Gibraltar, at the foot of a mountain range called the Sierra de la Luna, and almost the most southern part of the European continent. Tarifa, with Algeciras ( al-Ḏj̲azīrat al-Ḵh̲aḍrāʾ; cf. i., p. 277a) and Gibraltar (Ḏj̲abal Ṭāriḳ; cf. ii., p. 169 sq.) under Muslim rule had always considerable trade with the Moroccan ports…


(774 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Ziyād b. ʿAbd Allāh, a Berber chief and leader of the Muslim forces in the conquest of al-Andalus. Ibn Id̲h̲ārī gives a complete genealogy of him and connects him with the tribe of the Nafza. Idrīsī says he was a Berber of the Zanāta; Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn calls him Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād al-Lait̲h̲ī. Others again say he was a Persian, a native of Hamadān. After the reconnaissance undertaken by Ṭarīf ¶ [q. v.] in the south of Spain in Ramaḍān 96 (July 710), Mūsā b. Nuṣair, emboldened by its success, entrusted the command of an expedition on a larger scale to his client Ṭāriḳ b.…


(4,650 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
(pl. ṭuruḳ). This Arabie term, meaning “road, way, path”, has acquired two successive technical meanings in Muslim mysticism: 1. In the ninth and tenth centuries a. d. it was a method of moral psychology for the practical guidance of individuals who had a mystic call; 2. after the xith century, it becomes the whole system of rites for spiritual training laid down for the common life in the various Muslim religious orders which began to be founded at this time. Muslim mysticism itself in its origins, ideas and tendencies will be examined elsewhere [cf. the article taṣawwuf]; here we only de…


(13,272 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
(ʿIlm al-Taʾrīk̲h̲), Historiography, as a term of literature, embraces both annalistic and biography (but not as a rule literary history). The development of Arabic and Persian historiography is summarized below in four sections: A. From the origins to the third century of the Hid̲j̲ra; B. From the third to the sixth centuries; C. From the end of the sixth to the beginning of the tenth century; D. From the tenth to the thirteenth centuries. For the historical literature of the Ottoman Turks see the article turks (vol. iv. 947 sqq.), and for that written in Malay the article malays (vol. iii.…


(3,525 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.) era, computation, date. The article in vol. iv. received a much needed supplement in the article zamān and is only of value along with it. Here we give supplements to both these articles and shall refer from time to time to the numerous other articles which are essential to the subject. The root of the word is w-r-k̲h̲ common to the Semitic languages, which we find for example in the Hebrew yārēaḥ “moon”, yeraḥ “month”. The meaning of taʾrīk̲h̲ on this analogy would therefore be “fixing of the month”; the meaning has developed on the one hand into “fixing the per…


(804 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), 1. history in general, annals, chronicles. It is the title of a great many historical works, like the Takmilat Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ṭabarī, supplement to the Annals of Ṭabarī; Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, Mekka etc., history of Bag̲h̲dād, of Mecca etc.; Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Andalus, history of Andalusia. The word has also been applied to works of a very different kind, like that of al-Birūnī on India, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Hind, which is rather a study of the state of learning in India, or to special dictionaries like the Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Hukamāʾ of Ibn al-Ḳiftī, a biographical and bibliographical dictionar…
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