Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Tāʾ

(27 words)

, third letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 400. For palaeographical details see Arabia , i. 382b, 383b and plate I.

Ṭāʾ

(24 words)

, sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 9. For palaeographical details see Arabia , i., plate I.

Taʾabbaṭa S̲h̲arran

(362 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, a nickname of the old Arab poet and Beduin hero, famed in legend, T̲h̲ābit b. Ḏj̲ābir b. Sufyān of the tribe of Fahm. Various explanations of it are given by the sources: “he carried mischief under his arm”, namely a sword, a knife ( ḥamāsa), a ram which proved to be a g̲h̲ūl. or a skin full of poisonous snakes ( Ag̲h̲ānī). His mother was according to one statement (in Fresnel) a negress, according to the Ag̲h̲ānī a woman of the Fahm tribe called Amīna, who afterwards married the Hud̲h̲ailī Abū Kabīr, who sought to take his step-son’s life. Taʿabbaṭa S̲h̲arrān was thro…

Ṭabaḳāt

(922 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, “book of categories”. The word means when used of place: “similar, lying above one another” and with regard to time: “similar, following one another”; e.g. Sūra lxvii. 3; lxxi. 14, of the seven heavens placed one above the other; also the “storey” of a house (glossary to Idrīsī, Description de l’Afrique, ed. Dozy and de Goeje, Leyden 1866, p. 338; Sobernheim, inscr. N°. 41, in M. I. F.A.O., xxv.; Fagnan, Additions, s. v.); ṭabaḳāt al-ʿain “the successive skins of the eye” (Ḵh̲wārizmī, Mafātīḥ, p. 154). With reference to time, it means especially “generation” (the lexicographers give ḳarn

Tabāla

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, a place in the west of northern Yaman, in the interior of ʿAsīr, about seven days’ journey S. E. of Mecca, Its fertility was¶ proverbial among the Arabs. The basin of Tabāla and Taraba is often called ak̲h̲ḍar (“green”; cf. al-Hamdānī, Ḏj̲azira, ed. D. H. Müller, Leiden 1884, p. 165; Yāḳūt Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 164). The itinerary of the pilgrim caravans from Mecca through the frontier lands of the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Y aman to Ṣanʿāʾ given in Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, London 1829, i. 445 was marked on the map as early as Berghaus, Arabien und das Nilland (Gotha 1835, cf. esp. p. 69; …

al-Ṭabarī

(967 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, nisba from Ṭabaristān; most of the bearers of the nisba have come from Āmul, the capital of this province. This nisba is also wrongly referred to Ṭabarīya (Tiberias) in place of the correct al-Ṭabarānī (cf. Samʿānī, Ansāb, fol. 366b; Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, iii. 355). 1. Abu ’l-Ṭaiyib al-Ṭabarī, Ṭāhir b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir, a S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, teacher of Abū Isḥāḳ al-S̲h̲īrāzī and of al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī; al-S̲h̲īrāzī who attended his lectures for over ten years, praises him as his best teacher. Al-Ṭabarī was born in Āmul in the year 348 (959/960). At the age of 14 he began his studies in fiḳh

al-Ṭabarī

(1,496 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Mūḥammad b. Ḏj̲arīr, the Arab historian, was born probably in 839 (end of 224 or beg. 225 a. h.) at Āmul in the province of Ṭabaristān. He began to devote himself to study at a precociously early age, and is said to have known the Ḳurʾān by heart by the time he was seven. After receiving his early education in his native town, he received from his father who was quite well off the necessary means of visiting the centres of the Muslim learned world. He thus visited Raiy and its vicinity, then Bag̲h̲dād…

Ṭabaristān

(962 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Pahlavi inscriptions on coins: Tapūristān, land of the Ταπυροι), the name applied by the Arabs to Māzandarān, a province of Persia, north of mount Alburz; the name is explained by a popular etymology to mean “land of the ṭabar” (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, Geography, text p. 432; Mehren, Cosmography, p. 314) on account of the thick forests which cover the country and the principal industry of the inhabitants (woodcutting). It is bordered on the north by the Caspian Sea, on the south by the chain of the Alburz, on the east by Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān and on the wes…

Ṭabarīya

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Tiberias, a town on the western side of the lake of Tiberias (sea of Galilee) ( Buḥairat Ṭabarīya) through which the Jordan flows to the south; the lake is rich in fishes, is 13 miles long, 6 broad and lies 700 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; the town is long and narrow as it is shut in by the steep hills on the west which come right down to the water, north and south of the town. S.S.W. of the town is the Mount of Herod. Ṭabarīya had probably a predecessor in a little town in this ¶ region mentioned in the Old Testament (on account of the hot springs some identify it with Hammat,…

Tabarka

(876 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town on the Tunisian coast, 75 miles W.N.W. of Tunis and 10 miles E. of the Algerian frontier. It is built on a sandy bay surrounded by hills at the mouth of a rather narrow fertile valley watered by the Wād al-Kabīr, which descends from the mountains of Ain-Draham (Ḵh̲umiria). Three quarters of a mile from the shore lies a rocky islet, 2,000 yards long and 500 broad. A roadstead lies between this island and the mainland accessible on the east side to ships of medium tonnage but only possibl…

Ṭabas

(298 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in the province of Ḵh̲nrāsān. in reality two towns whence the dual form used by the Arab geographers: Ṭabasāni. The first is called Ṭabas al-ʿUnnāb, “T. of the jujube-trees” (in Persian Ṭabas-Masīnān), and the second Ṭabas al-Tamr, “T. of the date-palms” ( al-sufla, Muḳaddasī), in Persian Ṭabas-Gilakī (Kurī, Kurīn). The first has walls now in ruins and no citadel. The second is commanded by a fortress; it has a small market and a graceful mosque; it gets its water-supply from reservoirs fed by open canals ( ẓāhira). These two towns are under Ḳāin, the capital of th…

Ṭabās̲h̲īr

(107 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, a drug highly esteemed in the east, consisting of pebble-like accretions, which are formed in the nodes of Bambusa arundinaria Wild. The substance is obtained, according to Ḳazwīnī (ii. 82) or Ibn Muhalhil, by burning the reed and from ancient times it has always been a valuable article of commerce which the Greeks called τάβασιΣ. (J. Ruska) Bibliography E. O. von Lippmann, Geschichte des Zuckers, Leipzig 1890, p. 76—80 B. Laufer, Sino-Iranica, Chicago 1919, p. 350—352 E. Wiedemann, Beitr., xl., p. 187 Ibn al-Baiṭār, transl. Leclerc, N. E., xxv. 1, 399—401 Seligmann, Abu Mansur Mwwaff…

Tābiʿ

(265 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), pl. tābiʿūn, follower, follower of a prince, disciple of a teacher, adherent of a doctrine; the verbal form is tābaʿa, e. g. tābaʿa Ḏj̲ālīnūs, he followed Galen (in medicine). The word is of special significance in Tradition where the name tābiʿ is given to those who came after the Companions of the Prophet, the Aṣḥāb. The aṣḥāb are the people who saw and were directly acquainted with the Prophet; the tābiʿūn are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions. The “followers” of the second generation ( tābiʿu…

Ṭabl

(2,246 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, the generic name for any instrument of the drum family. Islāmic tradition attributes its “invention” to Tūbal b. Lamak (Masʿūdī, ed. Paris, viii. 88—89), whilst another piece of gossip says that Ismāʿīl, the founder of the mustaʿriba [q. v.], was the first to sound it (Ewliyā Čelebi, Travels, I/ii. 239). The word may be equated with the Assyrian ṭabbalu and perhaps the Egyptian tabn. According to al-Faiyūmī (1333—1334), the term ṭabl was applied to a drum with a single membrane ( d̲j̲ild) as well as to that with two membranes. This, however, does not include the duff or tambourine [q. v.]…

Ṭabl K̲h̲āna

(4,933 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
(Naḳḳār Ḵh̲āna, Naḳḳāra Ḵh̲āna, Nawba Ḵh̲āna),literally the “Drum House”, “Kettledrum House”, “Military Band House”, is the name given in Islāmic lands to the military band and its quarters in camp or town. These names are derived from the drums ( ṭabl, naḳḳāra) which formed the chief instruments of the military band, and from the name given to the special type of music ( nawba) performed by this band. Originally the naḳḳāra k̲h̲āna or ṭabl k̲h̲āna consisted of drums only, and in some instances of particular kinds of drums. This we know from several authorities. Ibn T…

Tabrīz

(11,636 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, capital of the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān [q. v.]. Geographical position. The town lies in the eastern corner of the alluvial plain (measuring about 30 × 20 miles) sloping slightly towards the north-east bank of Lake Urmiya. The plain is watered by several streams, the chief of which is the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai (“bitter river”) which, rising in the south-west face of Mount Sawalān runs along the Ḳarad̲j̲a-dag̲h̲ which forms a barrier on the south and entering the plain runs around on the northwest suburbs of the town. The left bank tributary ¶ of the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai, Mihrān-rūd (now th…

Tabūk

(299 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the pilgrim road and on the railway from Damascus to Medīna (according to Yāḳūt four days’ journey from al-Ḥid̲j̲r and 12 from Medīna). It lies on a slight undulation of the sandy plain and has a very good well, probably the one mentioned in Arab legend. ¶ The most important building is the pilgrim’s fort built according to the inscription in 1064 (1654), the oldest parts of which can easily be distinguished from the later restorations. Beside it is a modern mosque built of beautifully hewn stones. Euting found the place empty excep…

Tabula Smaragdina

(265 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the revelation of secret alchemistic teaching ascribed to Hermes Trismegistos. Known in a later version in the west since the middle of the xiith century, the origin of the text was until recently an unsolved problem in the history of chemistry. Since R. Steele in his edition of Bacon (1920) showed that the text of the Tabula existed in Arabic and Latin in the Sirr al-Asrār of Pseudo-Aristotle, and E. J. Holmyard in 1923 discovered a more primitive form of the text in the Kitāb al-Uṣṭuḳuss al-t̲h̲ānī of Ḏj̲ābir b. Ḥaiyān, J. Ruska has been able to show that the original source o…

Ṭabūr

(80 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (Eastern Turkī: tapḳūr, a palisade formed of wagons arranged in a circle or square; a body of men sent out to reconnoitre), a battalion, a corps of about a thousand men, commanded by a biñ-bas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). ¶ (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Radlof, Opyt, iii. 953, 978 Pavet de Courteille, Dict. turk-oriental, p. 192 Sulaimān Efendi, Lug̲h̲āt-i Ḏj̲ag̲h̲atai, p. 97 Aḥmad Wafīḳ-Pas̲h̲a, Lehd̲j̲è-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, ii. 739 Barbier de Meynard, Dict. turc-français, ii. 250 Vámbéry, Čag̲h̲ataische Sprachstudien, p. 253.

Tadallīs

(717 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Tedellēs (Dellys), a town on the Algerian coast, 70 miles east of Algiers and 4 miles E. of the mouth of the Sebau, the principal river of Kabylia, from which it is separated by the mountainous mass which ends in Cape Beugut. — It lies in 55° 20′ N. Lat. and 3° 55′ E. Long (Greenwich). — The town consists of two distinct quarters: the native quarter with its narrow streets and the European quarter regularly built on a plateau about 175 feet above sea-level. Below, the harbour, sheltered against…

Tadbīr

(898 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), Maṣdar of the second stem of the root d-b-r. 1. With the meaning of „direction, administration”. The Arabic lexicographers explain dabbara as a verb from the noun dubur “the hindmost, the end” (opposite: ḳubul); thus we read in the Lisān, v. 358: an tanẓura ilā mā taʾūlu ilaihi ʿāḳibatahu, “to heed what one attains at the end of a matter”, or yanẓuru fī ʿawāḳibihi, “to heed the end of a matter”. This verb has now a double application: a. in the sense of government, administration (e. g. in the title of a work by Ibn Abi ’l-Rabīʿ, Sulūk al-Mālik fī Tadbīr ’l-Mamālik [cf. siyāsa]) and b. which c…

Tad̲h̲kira

(172 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), memorial, memorandum, from d̲h̲akara “to record”. The word appears in the titles of many famous works: the Memorandum of Astronomy of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, the Tad̲h̲kirat al-Awliyāʾ, “Memorial of the Saints” of Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, the Tad̲h̲kirat al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ. “memorial of the poets”, a biography of the poets, popular in Persia. In administrative language it means: ticket, memorandum, permit. It is the name given to travellers’ passports, yol tad̲h̲kirèsi, to the custom house office’s exeat: murūr tad̲h̲kirèsi. It is also more especially applied to the diplomas of…

Tād̲j̲

(2,041 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), Crown. A Persian loanword in Arabie going back to the Old Persian * tag; cf. Armenian ʿtag, Aramaic taga. From it are formed in Arabic the broken plural tīd̲j̲ān and the corresponding verb t-w-d̲j̲ II “to crown”, V “to be crowned”, and tāʾid̲j̲, “crowned” (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologic, Strassburg 1893, p. 81; Siddiqi, Studien über die per she hen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch, Göttingen 1919, p. 74, 84; Fraenkel, Die aramāischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, Ley den 1886, p. 62). Like the name, the thing itself comes from old Persia. The form o…

Tād̲j̲īk

(774 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, older form tāzīk or tāžīk (in Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, i., 324: Težik), the name of a people originally used with the meaning “Arab” (later this meaning became confined to the form Tāzī), afterwards “Iranian” in contrast to “Turk”. The word is derived from the Arab tribal name of Ṭaiy. The nearest Arab tribe to the Iranians was the Ṭaiy, hence the name of this tribe came to be applied to the whole Arab people. The Ṭaiy are “mentioned as early as the beginning of the third century by an Edessene along with the Saracens as representatives of all the Beduins” (Cureton, Spicil. Syr., p. 16 ult. in Nö…

Tād̲j̲īkī

(176 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the language of the Tād̲j̲īk [q. v.]. As a literary language Tād̲j̲īkī seems to be “more or less remote from modern Persian according to the degree of education of the person writing or speaking it”. In this sense (aiming at the elegance of the “Persian literati” but without “denying a dialectical colouring”), the Tād̲j̲īkī was the official and business language under the rule of the Özbegs of Buk̲h̲ārā [q. v] and remained so after the revolution of 1920; since 1924 however Tād̲j̲īkī has been …

Tād̲j̲ Maḥall

(734 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, the beautiful mausoleum erected at Āgra by the emperor S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān [q.v.] for his dearly loved wife, Ad̲j̲umand Bānū Begum, of whose title, Mumtāz Maḥall, the name is a corruption. She was the daughter of Āṣaf Ḵh̲ān, brother of the famous Nūr Ḏj̲ahān [q. v.], and was married to S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān on May 10, 1612, at the age of nineteen. She bore him ¶ fourteen children, and died in June, 1631, at Burhānpūr, after giving birth to a daughter. She was buried temporarily at Zainābād, a suburb of Burhānpūr, but her husband, who mourned her deeply, resolved to co…

Tad̲j̲nīs

(1,662 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
or Ḏj̲inās (a.), paronomasia, play upon words, is a figure of rhetoric ( badīʿ) which consists in using in the same phrase two words of a similar or almost similar sound but of different meanings, e. g. amantes sunt amentes. I. 1. The tad̲j̲nīs is complete ( tāmm) when the two words resemble one another in kind, number, vocalisation (or form) and in the order of the consonants. ¶ a. If the two words are of the same kind (e. g. two substantives, two verbs or two particles), it is called identical ( mumāt̲h̲il), e. g. “The day and the Hour ( al-sāʿa) will dawn, the guilty will swear that they have…

Tad̲j̲wīd

(950 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.) is the art of reciting the Ḳurʾān, giving each consonant its full value, as much as it requires to be well pronounced without difficulty or exaggeration: strength, weakness, tonality, softness, emphasis, simplicity ( tarḳīḳ). There are three kinds of tad̲j̲wīd: 1. tartīl, slow recitation; 2. ḥadr, rapid recitation; 3. tadwīr, medium recitation. — Tad̲j̲wīd, “ the adornment of recitation”, has for its object to prevent the tongue making any mistake in the recitation of the divine words. Besides the study of the articulation of consonants it…

Tādlā

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Colin, G. S.
(or Tādilā), the Tedle of Leo Africanus, a district of Morocco comprising the plateaus which stretch to the west of the high valley of ¶ the Wādī Umm al-Rabīʿ, as well as the western slopes of the Central Atlas, from Wādī ’l-ʿAbīd to the sources of the Moluya. The classical ethnic Tādilī is no longer used except for the S̲h̲orfā of the district; the popular ethnic is Tādlāwī. The region of the plateaus is occupied by six semi-nomad tribes of Arab origin: Urdīg̲h̲a, Bnī Ḵh̲īrān. Bnī Zemmūr, Smāʿla, Bnī ʿĀmer, Bnī Mūsā, whose centres are Wād Zem, Bujad (= Bed̲j̲d̲…

Tadlīs

(927 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, according to the Arabic lexicon, means “to conceal a fault or defect in an article of merchandise from the purchaser”, and according to the traditionists, “to conceal the defects of the ḥadīt̲h̲, either in the text, in the chain of narrators or in the source”, i. e. the teacher from whom it is learnt. Tadlīs is of three kinds. They are: 1. tadlīs fi’l-isnād (tadlīs in the chain of narrators); 2. tadlīs fi ’l-matn (tadlīs in the text) and 3. tadlīs fi ’l-s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ (tadlīs in the teacher from whom the tradition is learnt). a. Tadlīs in the chain of narrators. It is classified under sev…

Tafḍīl

(100 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is the nomen actionis of the second formation of faḍala, it “exceeded”, or “was”, or “became redundant”, or “superfluous”. In grammar it is applied to the comparison of adjectives. Ism al-tafḍīl, “the noun of the attribution of excess, or excellence”, is the noun adjective in the comparative and superlative, or, as it is now usually called, the elative degree. This is also called afʿal al-tafḍīl because it is regularly of the measure afʿal. (T. W. Haig) Bibliography The standard Arabic lexica Wright-de Goeje, A Grammar of the Arabic Language, Cambridge 1896—1898, i. 140-141 de Sacy, Gramm…

al-Ṭaff

(233 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the desert region that lies west of Kūfa along the alluvial plain of the Euphrates. It is higher than the low-lying ground by the river and forms the transition to the central Arabian plateau. According to the authorities quoted by Yāḳūt (iii. 359), al-ṭaff means an area raised above the surrounding country; the name is not found after the xiiith century. The district contains a number of springs, the waters of which run southwest (cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh, p. 187). The best known of these wells was al-ʿUd̲h̲air. From its geographical position al-Ṭaff was the …

Tāfīlālt

(290 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, ethnic Fīlālī, the name of a district in S.E. Morocco, formed by the broadening of the valley of the Wādī Zīz. It consists of an alluvial plain 12 miles long and 10 broad, over which are scattered 200 ḳṣūr (or fortified dwellings of clay) surrounded by gardens and cultivated fields. Where irrigation from wells is possible, the soil is wonderfully fertile. The chief product of Tāfīlālt is the palm-tree and the most developed industry is the preparation of goat-skins by the use of the bark of the mimosa which yields a tanning gall. F…

Tafsīr

(663 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), pl. tafāsīr, ex pl a n a t i o n, commentary, verbal form: fassara to explain. The name is applied to commentaries on scientific and philosophical works and is an alternative to s̲h̲arḥ; it is regularly applied to the Greek and Arabic commentaries on Aristotle: the following are examples taken from Ibn al-Ḳifṭī’s History of Scholars: Banas al-Rūmī wrote a Tafsīr on the Al-magesta and another on the tenth book of Euclid; Abu ’l-Wafāʾ al-Buzd̲j̲ānī, the famous astronomer, wrote a tafsīr on the works of Diophantes and of al-Ḵh̲wārizmī on Algebra; Muḥammad b. Zakarīyā al-Rāzī, the …

Tāfta

(81 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. “twisted”), a kind of silk, taffeta. Clavijo, ambassador of Henry III of Castile, found in the markets of Tabrīz, of Sulṭānīya and of Samarḳand, tafetanes woven in the country itself. This material spread more and more in the West towards the end of the Middle Ages. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. Devic, Dict, des mots français aborigine orientale, p. 214 Clavijo, Narrative, p. 109, 114, 190 W. Heyd, Hist. du commerce du Levant, French ed. by Raynaud, Leipzig 1886, Index.

al-Taftāzānī

(2,526 words)

Author(s): Storey, C. A.
(Saʿd al-Dīn Masʿūd b. ʿUmar), a celebrated authority on rhetoric, logic, metaphysics, theology, law and other subjects and the author of several text-books used to this day in the madrasas of the East, was born in Ṣafar 722 (Feb.-March 1322) at Taftāzān, a large village near Nasā in Ḵh̲urāsān. He is said to have been a pupil of ʿAḍud al-Dīn al-Īd̲j̲ī (see above, ii. 447 and Brockelmann, G. A. L., ii. 208) and of Ḳuṭb al-Dīn [al-Rāzī al-Taḥtānī presumably, ¶ see Brockelmann, ii. 209]. Lists of his chief works, giving, with variations, their dates and places of composition, are extant ( Mud̲j̲ma…

Tag̲h̲laḳ

(696 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, or, more properly, Tug̲h̲luḳ, the correct vocalization being given by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, is the name of a dynasty which reigned at Dihlī from 1320 until 1413, and is taken from the personal name of its founder, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲. al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ, a Ḳarawniya Turk, that is to say, the offspring of a Turkish father and an Indian mother. When Mubārak, the last of the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲īs [q.v.], was murdered by his vile favourite, Ḵh̲usraw, Tug̲h̲luḳ, who was employed on the northwestern frontier, where his numerous suc…

Tag̲h̲lib

(5,118 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, along with the Bakr the most important tribe of the Rabīʿa group in early Arabia. The real name of the founder of the tribe is said to have been Dit̲h̲ār; when one day his father wished him success in the words tag̲h̲lib “thou shalt conquer”, this name remained attached to him, but “according to all Semitic analogy” (cf. Yas̲h̲kur, Yad̲h̲kur, Jacob, Isaac etc.) it is not to be interpreted as 2nd pers. masc. but as 3rd pers. fern, imperf. The gender shows that the tribal name is older than the fable about the mythical ancestor; besides the older poets down to al-Farazd…

Tagus

(166 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arabie Wādī Tād̲j̲oh, Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula, rises in the Serrania de Cuenca at about 6,000 ft. Its length to its estuary at Lisbon is 550 miles (of which 190 are in Portuguese terrytory). Among the numerous places on its banks one may mention going down stream: Aranjuez, Algodor, Toledo and Talavera de la Reina, in Spain; Abrantès, Santarem and Lisbon, in Portugal. The Arab geographers describe the Tagus as an important river and mention it especially in their descriptions of Toledo and Lisbon. They …

Ṭā-hā

(288 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L.
, two isolated letters at the head of Sūra xx. in the Ḳurʾān. — It has been proposed to explain them as an abbreviation, either of an imperative (from the root w-ṭ-ʾ; Ḥasan Baṣrī) or from a proper name (Ṭalḥa, Abū Huraira) meaning the ṣaḥābīs, who supplied this Sūra to the first editors of the Ḳurʾān. The important thing to note is that Muslim tradition since the third century has made Ṭā-Hā one of the names of the Prophet and as a result to this day we find boys in Egypt and the ʿIrāḳ given the name “Muḥammad Ṭā-Hā”. From the ¶ ivth century a. h., mystics unanimously see in Ṭā-Hā the purity ( ṭahāra) and r…

Tahad̲j̲d̲j̲ud

(763 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive V from the root h-d̲j̲-d which is one of the roots with opposed meanings ( aḍdād), as it signifies “sleep” and also “to be awake”, “to keep a vigil”, “to perform the night ṣalāt or the nightly recitation of the Ḳurʾān”. The latter two meanings have become the usual ones in Islām. The word occurs only once in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xvii. 81: “And in a part of the night, perform a ṣalāt as a voluntary effort” etc., but the thing itself is often referred to. We are told of the pious (li. 17) that they sl…

Ṭahāra

(539 words)

Author(s): Tritton, A. S.
(a.); grammatically ṭahāra is a maṣdar and means purity; it has also the technical sense of ceremonial, levitical purity and purification. It holds an important place in Islām, ¶ for “purity is half the faith”, a saying attributed to Muḥammad. Theologians divide defilements into material and mental; lawyers divide them into actual ( ḥaḳīḳī) and religious ( ḥukmī). Fiḳh deals with bodily, material impurity only. Sexual intercourse, menstruation, and child-birth are religious impurities. Actual impurities ( nad̲j̲is, q. v.) have a perceptible body. They are wine, pigs and…

Ṭaḥāwī

(1,538 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Salāma b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Azdī al-Ṭaḥāwī al-Had̲j̲rī. His nisba Ṭaḥāwī is derived from the name of a village in Upper Egypt named Ṭaḥā. He is considered the greatest Ḥanafī lawyer which Egypt has produced. His ancestors had settled in Upper Egypt and his grandfather Salāma when the news of the rebellion ¶ of Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī reached Egypt threw off, with others, the allegiance to the caliph al-Maʾmūn. The rebels appointed ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Azdī in place of al-Sarī b. al-Ḥakam, who fled at first, …

Tāhert

(506 words)

Author(s): Marçais, Georges
(we also have tīhkrt), amediaeval town of Algeria, on the eastern border of the present departement of Oran. According to Idrīsī there used to be two large towns of this name: the one, Old Tāhert, an old Roman site, perhaps the capital of a native dynasty, vassals or allies of the Byzantines (Gsell), rose from its ruins in the modern period and became the capital of Tiaret; the other, New Tāhert, lies 6 miles w. s. w. of Tiaret, not far from Tagdempt which was one of the strongholds of the amīr ʿAbd al-Ḳādir [q. v.]. It no longer has more than a few almost obliterated traces of its past grandeur. New Tāh…
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