Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ṭalāʾiʿ

(606 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. Rūzzīk al-Mālik al-Ṣāliḥ, Fāṭimid wazīr (495—556 = 1101—1161). The events immediately attendant on the treacherous murder of the 12th Fāṭimid caliph al-Ẓāfir (1154) called him forth, at the request of the ladies of the royal household, from his governorship at Us̲h̲mūnain to play the rôle of strong man essential in the circumstances. Success crowned his march on Cairo with his followers from Upper Egypt. Then, following the deposition of ʿAbbās, he was appointed wazīr to the child caliph al-Fāʾiz in 549 (1154) with the title of al-Ṣāliḥ bi ’llāh. His traitorous predecessor in off…

Ṭalāḳ

(4,826 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), repudiation of a wife by a husband, a form of divorce, effected by his pronouncing the words anti ṭāliḳ. The root idea of the verb ṭalaka is: to be freed from a tether etc. (of a camel), to be repudiated by a man (of a wife; in this sense also ṭaluḳa), hence ṭallaḳa, to release (a camel) from a tether, to repudiate (a wife); ṭāliḳ means a camel untethered or a woman repudiated by a man (cf. Lane, Arab. Eyl. Lexicon s. v.). I. The right to a one-sided dissolution of a marriage belonged to the man exclusively, among the pre-Muḥammadan Arabs. Long before Muḥammad this ṭalāḳ was in general use amon…

Ṭālaḳān

(265 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(ṭālḳān; Samʿānī, Ansāb, f. 363b), name of two towns in Persia. 1. A town in Ṭuk̲h̲āristān, between Balk̲h̲ and Merw al-Rūd̲h̲, three days’ march from the latter. Situated in a plain, but quite close to the mountains (an arrow-shot, g̲h̲alwa), it was the largest town of the province and had a large market; it was divided into several parts by two rivers: Ḵh̲uṭṭal-āb (correction of de Goeje) and Bar-āb. It was destroyed in 617 (1220) by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān; ruins near Čāčaktū. 2. A town in Dailam, between Ḳazwīn and Abhar, capital of a district of the same name including several sm…

Talavera

(151 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of several places in Spain; the Arabic form is Ṭalabīra. They are the following: 1. Talavera de la Reina, a town of 10,600 inhabitants, the Caesarobriga of the Romans, on a fertile plain on the banks of the Tagus about 100 miles below Toledo, at the entrance to the Sierra de Gredos: Towers dating from the period of Arab occupations may still be seen there: “the Torres Albarranas”. The Arab geographers boast of the solidity of the ḥiṣn of this town; 2. ca. 20 miles south of the latter: Talavera la Vieja, the ancient Augustobriga; 3. Talavera la Real, a little village ¶ on the south bank o…

Talbiya

(363 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive of form II of the verb labbā, which is formed from the term labbaika to mean “to pronounce the formula labbaika” etc. Labbaika is connected — and probably rightly — by the Arab lexicographers with labb un which means “offering devoted service” as labbaika does “at your service”. According to the native grammarians labbai is a „frequentative” dual. It is difficult to say what is the significance of the element ai in this and similar forms like saʿdaika. The explanation from the Hebrew proposed by Dozy ( De Isrdëliten te Mekka, Haarlem 1864, p. 120) may be said to be now…

Ṭalḥa

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. ʿUbaidallāh, companion of the Prophet, one of the ten mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ara, i. e. those to whom the Prophet had promised Paradise. He belonged to the Ḳurais̲h̲ clan of the Banū Taim b. Murra [q.v.]; his genealogy was: Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbaidallāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAmr b. Kaʿb b. Saʿd b. Taim b. Murra and his kunya, Abū Muḥammad, from his son, celebrated for his piety and one of the first readers of the Ḳurʾān; both father and son were killed in the battle of the camel in 36 a. h. Ṭalḥa was one of the earliest converts to Islām. According to tradition he had suffered along with Abū Bakr the th…

Taʿlīḳ

(7 words)

[See arabia , i. 387a.]

Tali̊s̲h̲

(432 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district and people in the north of the Persian province of Gīlān [q. v.], which since the peace of Gulistān (12/24th Oct. 1813) has belonged to Russia. The name according to Marquart, Osteuropäische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge, Leipzig 1903, p. 278 sq., is first found in the form T’alis̲h̲ in the Armenian translation of the romance of Alexander, Ch. 194 = ii. 19, p. 76 (ed. C. Müller). In the history of the Arab conquest (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 327; al-Ṭabarī, i. 2805) the country is called al-Ṭailasān; according to al-Aṣma…

Talisman

(4 words)

[See Ẓamāʾil.]

Talk̲h̲īṣ

(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)

Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i

(129 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or in the official style, Talk̲h̲īṣī, was the individual appointed to prepare the précis called talk̲h̲īṣ [q. v.] and to take it to the palace where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the grand vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the talk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām was not — at least in the later period — in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first of all through th…

Ṭālūt

(884 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
is the name of king Saul of the Bible in the Ḳurʾān (ii. 248, 250). The name is explained as early as T̲h̲aʿlabī from the height ( ṭūl) of Ṭālūt. Ṭālūt recalls Ḏj̲ālūt (Goliath), an assonance of pairs of names, like Hārūt-Mārūt, Hābil-Ḳābil, Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ (Goldziher). Ḏj̲ālūt itself is explained from the Hebrew (Horovitz). In the Ḳurʾān (ii. 247—253) the following is told of Ṭālūt. After the time of Moses Israel demanded a king. God appointed Ṭālūt king but the people did not find him worthy of the throne. Ṭālūt was distinguished for the…

Tamattuʿ

(6 words)

[See Iḥrām , Mutaʿ.]

Tamgrūt

(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra [q. v.]), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother- zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣirīya [q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet broad but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam = mouth) al-Sūḳ, in the N. E., Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the S. W., Bāb al-Rizḳ and to the east, Fumm al-Sūr. An import…

al-Tamgrūtī

(222 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, a Moroccan writer, a native of Tamgrūt [q. v.], died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 1003 (1594—1595) and was buried in the sanctuary of Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ. He held an official position at the court of the Saʿdian Sulṭān Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī (986—1012 = 1578—1602). He was placed by this ruler in charge of the embassy to Sulṭān Murād III in Constantinople along with another court dignitary Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Fis̲h̲tālī, d. 1021 (1612—1613). Al-Tamgrūtī prepared an account of his journey ( riḥla) which he called al-Nafaḥat al-…

Tamīm

(2,604 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. Murr, an Arab tribe; their genealogy (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, K. L.) Tamīm b. Murr b. Udd b. Ṭābik̲h̲a b. al-Yās b. Muḍar, puts them among the Muḍarī tribes where they take first place; indeed their name is often used as a synonym of the whole Muḍarī branch in contrast to the Ḳais and the Rabīʿa. Of the two latter, the Rabīʿa are most closely delated to them, which is not apparent in the systematic genealogies (where on the contrary the Ḳais are descended from the Muḍar while the Rabīʿa are not), but from expressions like the dual al-Ḏj̲uffān (Lisān al-ʿArab, x. 373) meaning the Tamīm…

Tamīm

(198 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. al-Muʿizz, brother of the fifth Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz, is said to have been born c. 337 (948—949). He was noted in his day for his liberality and interest in belles lettres. A prince of culture and elegance with a reputation amongst his contemporaries as a poet of refinement and skill. He missed nomination as heir apparent, his brother al-ʿAzīz being preferred to him. Al-ʿAzīz seems to have been very fond of him, judging from his grief at the latter’s death, which is stated to have taken place at Cairo in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 3…

Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz

(605 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
, fifthrulerofthe Ṣanhād̲j̲a family of the Banū Zīrī, who reigned in eastern Barbary from 454-501 (1062—1108). He was born at Ṣabra—Man-Ṣūrīya near al-Ḳairawān. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī described him as a man of tall stature and handsome appearance, and gives some curious details about his way of living. He was a very highly cultured man and reckoned among the most distinguished poets who have occupied a throne. He was 23 in 445 (1053) when al-Muʿizz, his father, appointed him governor of al-Mahdīya [q. v.]. It was just after the appearance of the Banū Hilāl Arabs, who …

Tamīm al-Dārī

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, a companion of the Prophet. His nisba al-Dārī is said to be derived from the clan of the Banū ’l-Dār (for ʿAbd al-Dār, according to Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, iv. 108, note 4), a section of the tribe of Lak̲h̲m [q.v.]. Al-Nawawī however ( Tahd̲h̲īb al-Asmāʾ, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 178) gives him the nisba of al-Dairī, said to be derived from the convent ( dair) in which he was a monk before his conversion to Islām. His genealogy was: Tamīm b. Aws b. Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲a b. Sawād (var. Sūd) b. Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma b. Darāʿ (var. Ḏh̲irāʿ, Widāʿ) b. ʿAdī b. al-Dār b. Hāni…

Tammūz

(187 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the tenth month in the Syriac calender. Its name is derived from that of the fourth Jewish month with which it roughly coincides. It corresponds to July in the Roman calendar and like it has 31 days. According to al-Bīrūnī, in Tammūz the lunar stations 8 and 9 rise and 22 and 23 set; the days on which one rose and the other, 14 days apart from it, set were the 10th and 23rd. According to al-Ḳazwīnī on the other hand, stations 7 and 8 rise, 21 and 22 set, on the 4th and 17th respectively. In the year 1300 of the Seleucid era (989 a. d.) according to al-Bīrūnī the stars of the stations mentioned by a…

al-Tanasī

(162 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl Abū ʿAbd Allāh, Mag̲h̲ribī author of the xvth century, lived at the court of the Zaiyānid rulers of Tlemcen whose historiographer he became and died in Ḏj̲umādā II 899 (Feb. 1494). Besides several small works now lost and fatwās given by al-Wans̲h̲arīs̲h̲ī in his Miʿyār, we have from the pen of al-Tanasī a history of his patrons, Naẓm al-Durr wa ’l-ʿIḳyān fī S̲h̲araf Banī Zaiyān, ed. and partly transl. by Bargès, Histoire des Beni Zayan, rois de Tlemcen, Paris 1852 and Complément de Phistoire des Beni Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen, ouvrage du cheîkhal-Ten…

Tanāsuk̲h̲

(850 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, transmigration, metempsychosis; a belief widespread in India and among several sects of the Muslim world. Muḥammadan authors who deal with it attribute it to the Indians rather than to the Pythagoreans. S̲h̲ahrastānī in his article on the “people of metempsychosis” takes the word in a wide sense: to him it means the doctrine of the successive lives and rebirths of the world. The Indians, he says, are of all nations that which believes most in metempsychosis. They tell the story of the phoenix and then say it is the same with…

al-Tanāwutī

(687 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Abāḍīs [q.v.]. To the fifth (eleventh) century belongs: Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī who often appears in later tradition. His son Ismāʿīl but still more his grandson Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Wārd̲j̲alānī. He came of a wealthy family and had an allowance of 1,000 d…

Tanga

(176 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(or Tangča), the name of the small silver coin which formed the main currency of the Mongol world from the end of the viiith/ xivth to the beginning of the xth/xvith century. It varied in weight from 20 to 35 grains (1.3—1.95 grammes) and was struck by the later Īlk̲h̲āns, the Ḵh̲āns of the Golden Horde, the earlier Ḵh̲āns of the Crimea and the early Tīmūrids. The Russians borrowed the denomination and the name in the form denga at the end of the xivth century from the Mongols: dengas, latterly of copper, were struck in Russia down to the first half of the xviiith century. The word tanga has survived…

Tangier

(2,433 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the ancient Tingis, Arabic Ṭand̲j̲a (old ethnic: Ṭand̲j̲i; modern ethnic: Ṭand̲j̲āwī), a town in Morocco, situated on the Strait of Gibraltar, 7 miles to the east of Cape Spartel [q. v.] at the point where the Atlantic coast begins. The town dominates a magnificent bay terminated on the East by Cape Malabata (Rās al-Manār) and on the West by the citadel ( ḳaṣba) and it slopes, at times fairly steeply, towards the sea. The town is divided into a number of quarters within the walls and others without. The former, fourteen in number, form the town properly speaking ( Madīna, popularly Mdīna). Amo…

Tanka

(362 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, (Sanskrit ṭaṅka, a weight of silver = 4 māṣas): an Indian coin. When Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna conquered northwestern India and struck bilingual coins for the convenience of his Hindu subjects, ṭaṅka was used in the Nāgarī legend as the translation of dirham in the Arabic legend. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Iltutmis̲h̲, Sulṭān of Dehli (1210—1235 = 607—633) introduced a heavy silver coin of 175 grains (= 11.3 grammes) and gave it the name of tanka (although tola would have been more accurate); a gold tanka of the same weight was first introduced by Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd (1246—1265 = 646—6…

Tañri̊

(1,954 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(t.), Heaven; God. In the eastern dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atāi, tängri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri) are worthy of note; the Kasan dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi, where täri of course means God). Ottoman Turkish has a non-palatal vocalisation ( tañri̊) as has Yakutic which has also in addition a trisyllabic form ( tañara). For the lexicographical material cf. Pavet de Cou…

Tānsīn

(224 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, of whom S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abu ’l-Faḍl said: “A singer like him has not been in India for a thousand years”, was a native of Gwāliyār, and was at first in the service of Rām Čand the Bag̲h̲ela, Rād̲j̲ā of Pannā, who is said to have given him on one occasion ten million tankas. Ibrāhīm Sūr vainly endeavoured to entice him to Āgra, but Akbar, in 1562, sent a mission to Rām Čand at Kālind̲j̲ar to induce Tānsīn to come to his court, and Rām Čand, not daring to refuse the request, sent him with his musical instruments and many presents to the imperial court…

Ṭanṭā

(359 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
, an important town in the Egyptian Delta between the Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile, capital of the G̲h̲arbīya province, and a busy railway junction, of unprepossessing appearance, about 75 miles from Alexandria. Its Coptic name of has assumed in Arabic the forms Tandiṭā, Ṭantā and Ṭanṭā. Formerly it was an episcopal city. Nowadays the place is famous for the tomb and mosque of the most celebrated of the Muslim saints in Egypt, Aḥmad al-Badawī [q. v.]. Throughout the year no fewer than three Mawālid or birthdays of this Saint are made the occasion of great fairs to wh…

al-Ṭanṭāwī

(922 words)

Author(s): Kratschkovsky, Ign.
, Muḥammad ʿAiyād (with his full name: al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad b. Saʿd b. Sulaimān ʿAiyād al-Marḥūmī al-Ṭanditāʾī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī), an Arabic scholar of the xixth century, born in 1225 (1810) at Nid̲j̲rīd (a small village near Ṭanṭā in Egypt), died Oct. 29, 1861 in St, Peterburg. His father, a travelling merchant, was born in Maḥallat Marḥūm, hence his nisba: al-Marḥūmī. At the age of six he went to a maktab in Ṭanṭā. At 13, he moved to his uncle in Cairo and studied at al-Azhar. Of his teachers the celebrated Ibrāhīm al-Bād̲j̲urī (d. c. 1276; Brockelmann, G. A. L., ii. 487) had a particular i…

Tanūk̲h̲

(3,721 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, an old Arab confederacy which adopted a common genealogy and so is usually regarded as a tribe. The origin of the name and the early history of the Tanūk̲h̲ is so enveloped in fable that it is impossible to disentangle it, and nothing really historical can be gleaned out of the traditions, which differ among themselves very much in detail. If we take the version in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xi. 159 sq. as the basis (corresponding: Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ʿIbar, ii. 240 sq.; Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 16—17 and Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 444—445) we get the following picture: At the separation of the Ḳ…

al-Tanūk̲h̲ī

(452 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Muḥassin, an Arab writer, was born in 939 or (according to Yāḳūt) in 940—941 a. d., the son of a learned ḳāḍī in Baṣra, and received his early education ¶ there, from al-Ṣūlī [q. v.] and Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī [q.v.] and others. He chose a judicial career and rose to be ḳāḍī, first in Bag̲h̲dād and then in Ahwāz; as a result of a change in the vizierate in Bag̲h̲dād his office was taken from him in 969—970 and his property confiscated. He was not allowed to follow his profession for three years.” During this…

Tanẓīmāt

(2,962 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or rather tanhẓīmāt-i k̲h̲airīye (“beneficent legislation” from the expression: ḳānūn tanẓīm etmek = “to draft a law”) is the term used to denote the reforms introduced into the government and administration of the Ottoman empire from the beginning of the reign of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and inaugurated by the charter generally called the k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf of Gülk̲h̲āne. The expression tanẓīmāt k̲h̲airīye is first found in the latter years of the reign of Maḥmūd II. The other end of the period of the tanẓīmāt is put about 1880, when the absolute rule of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II began. The tanẓīmā…

Ṭarab

(4 words)

[See Mūsīḳī.]

Ṭarābulus

(990 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Aṭrābulus, the Greek Tripolis, a town in Syria near the coast of the Mediterranean, north of Ḏj̲ubail. It lies partly on and partly beside a hill at the exit of a deep ravine through which flows a river, the Nahr Ḳadīs̲h̲a (Arabic Abū ʿAlī). West of it stretches a very fertile plain covered with woods, which terminate in a peninsula on which lies the port of al-Minā. The harbour is protected by a series of rocky islets lying in front of it and by the remains of an old wall. The old Phoenician …

Ṭarabzun

(2,220 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the Turkish form of the name of the town of Trebizond, in Greek ΤραπεζοῦΣ. Situated at the southeast cerner of the Black Sea on a very hilly coast which is separated from the rest of Asia Minor and Armenia by a high range of mountains, this town, like the population of the country immediately around it, has always led a more or less isolated existence, from which it only emerged in those periods when ¶ its geographical position made it become an important point on the great trade-routes. Trebizond is mentioned for the first time by Xenophon ( Anabasis, iv. 8) and is said to have been a very…

Ṭarafa

(1,679 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. ʿAbd al-Bakrī is unanimously considered by Arab critics one of the foremost poets of the period before Islām and is the author of the longest of the poems known by the name of Muʿallaḳāt. He is at the same time one of the earliest poets of that period of whom poems are preserved. The editors of the Muʿallaḳa and of his collected poems generally give a full genealogy from which however we can gain with certainty only that he belonged to the section of Bakr of the Wāʾil tribes His father’s name is given as al-ʿAbd b. Sufyān, the name ʿAbd being probab…

Taranči

(637 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Eastern Turkī word for agriculturists; as the name of a people, applied to the colonists transported by the Chinese government in the middle of the xviiith century from Kās̲h̲g̲h̲aria to the Ili valley; cf. Radloff, Wörterbuch, iv. 841. The Taranči are said however, even in the Ili valley, to have described themselves as the native population ( Yärlik, cf. Radloff, it. 343). They numbered 6,000 families of whom 4,100 were settled on the right and 1,900 on the left bank of the Ili; for further particulars see Radloff, Aus Sibirien, ii. 331 sq. According to a census of the year 1834 the…

Tarāwīḥ

(444 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), plural of the unusual sing. tarwīḥa, the ṣalāts which are performed in the nights of the month of Ramaḍān. Tradition says that Muḥammad held these ṣalāts in high esteem, with the precaution, however, that their performance should not become obligatory (Buk̲h̲ārī, Tarāwīḥ, trad. 3). ʿUmar is said to have ¶ been the first to assemble behind one ḳāriʾ, those who performed their prayers in the mosque of al-Madīna singly or in groups ( loc. cit., trad. 2); he is also said to have preferred the first part of the night for these pious exercises. Canon law recommends the performance of the …

Ṭarāz

(454 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Arabic name for Talas, a river in Central Asia and the town on it probably near the modern Awliyā Atā [q. v.]. The town was of pre-Muḥammadan, presumably Sog̲h̲dian origin [cf. sog̲h̲d]; Sog̲h̲dian and Turkī were spoken in Ṭarāz and in Balāsāg̲h̲ūn [q.v.] as late as the fifth (eleventh) century (Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk, i. 31). As a town ( k̲h̲ōron) Talas is first mentioned in the report of the embassy of the Greek Zēmark̲h̲os ( Fragm. Hist. Greac., iv. 228) in 568. About 630 Talas (Chin. Ta-lo-sse) was described by Hiuen-Thsang as an important commercial town ( Mémoires…

Tari

(127 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a gold coin, a quarter-dīnār. When the Fāṭimids conquered Sicily in the second decade of the fourth (tenth) century they struck quarter-dīnārs ( rubaʿ) there in large numbers. This denomination was new to Muḥammadan coinage and the fact that it was also introduced into Syria by the Fāṭimids suggests that it was intended to take the place of the Byzantine tremissis. The issue of this denomination was continued by the Norman Dukes who succeeded the Fāṭimids. For the history of the tari as an Italian denomination, which does not concern us here, see the article tareno in E. Martinori, La Moneta…

Taʿrīf

(106 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), explanation, definition, description, from ʿarafa, to know; e.g. taʿrīf Ayā Ṣūfiyā, description of St. Sophia; Kitāb al-Taʿrīfāt, book of definitions, a well-known treatise of Saiyid S̲h̲arīf Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī on the explanation of Ṣūfī terms. In administrative language, in the feminine form, taʿrīfa or taʿrifa with a short i, the word has the meaning of tariff, tax, price of food, of transport, etc.; e. g. in Turkish: gumruk taʿrīfèsi, customs duties; démir yol tarifèlèri, railway charges. In grammar this word means the Arabic definite article al, which is called the particle…

Ṭarīf

(296 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, leader of the first Muslim forces to land in Spain in 91 (710). The Arab historians are not agreed as to the origin of this client of the famous general Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.]: some say he was a Berber, others an Arab. Al-Rāzī calls him: Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Maʿāfirī and Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn: Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Nak̲h̲aʿī. He has also occasionally been confused with the other client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād [q. v.]. We know that when Mūsā b. Nuṣair was urged by Count Julian to cross to Spain with an army he consulted his master, the Caliph al-Walīd; the latter order…

Tarifa

(220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabie Ḏj̲azīrat Ṭarīf, “island of Ṭarīf”, from the name of the client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf [q. v.] who landed there with the first Muslim force at the beginning of the conquest of Spain, a small town in Andalusia on the north shore of the Straits of Gibraltar, at the foot of a mountain range called the Sierra de la Luna, and almost the most southern part of the European continent. Tarifa, with Algeciras ( al-Ḏj̲azīrat al-Ḵh̲aḍrāʾ; cf. i., p. 277a) and Gibraltar (Ḏj̲abal Ṭāriḳ; cf. ii., p. 169 sq.) under Muslim rule had always considerable trade with the Moroccan ports…

Ṭāriḳ

(774 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Ziyād b. ʿAbd Allāh, a Berber chief and leader of the Muslim forces in the conquest of al-Andalus. Ibn Id̲h̲ārī gives a complete genealogy of him and connects him with the tribe of the Nafza. Idrīsī says he was a Berber of the Zanāta; Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn calls him Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād al-Lait̲h̲ī. Others again say he was a Persian, a native of Hamadān. After the reconnaissance undertaken by Ṭarīf ¶ [q. v.] in the south of Spain in Ramaḍān 96 (July 710), Mūsā b. Nuṣair, emboldened by its success, entrusted the command of an expedition on a larger scale to his client Ṭāriḳ b.…

Ṭarīḳa

(4,650 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
(pl. ṭuruḳ). This Arabie term, meaning “road, way, path”, has acquired two successive technical meanings in Muslim mysticism: 1. In the ninth and tenth centuries a. d. it was a method of moral psychology for the practical guidance of individuals who had a mystic call; 2. after the xith century, it becomes the whole system of rites for spiritual training laid down for the common life in the various Muslim religious orders which began to be founded at this time. Muslim mysticism itself in its origins, ideas and tendencies will be examined elsewhere [cf. the article taṣawwuf]; here we only de…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(13,272 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
(ʿIlm al-Taʾrīk̲h̲), Historiography, as a term of literature, embraces both annalistic and biography (but not as a rule literary history). The development of Arabic and Persian historiography is summarized below in four sections: A. From the origins to the third century of the Hid̲j̲ra; B. From the third to the sixth centuries; C. From the end of the sixth to the beginning of the tenth century; D. From the tenth to the thirteenth centuries. For the historical literature of the Ottoman Turks see the article turks (vol. iv. 947 sqq.), and for that written in Malay the article malays (vol. iii.…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(3,525 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.) era, computation, date. The article in vol. iv. received a much needed supplement in the article zamān and is only of value along with it. Here we give supplements to both these articles and shall refer from time to time to the numerous other articles which are essential to the subject. The root of the word is w-r-k̲h̲ common to the Semitic languages, which we find for example in the Hebrew yārēaḥ “moon”, yeraḥ “month”. The meaning of taʾrīk̲h̲ on this analogy would therefore be “fixing of the month”; the meaning has developed on the one hand into “fixing the per…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(804 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), 1. history in general, annals, chronicles. It is the title of a great many historical works, like the Takmilat Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ṭabarī, supplement to the Annals of Ṭabarī; Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, Mekka etc., history of Bag̲h̲dād, of Mecca etc.; Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Andalus, history of Andalusia. The word has also been applied to works of a very different kind, like that of al-Birūnī on India, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Hind, which is rather a study of the state of learning in India, or to special dictionaries like the Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Hukamāʾ of Ibn al-Ḳiftī, a biographical and bibliographical dictionar…

Tarīm

(1,724 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, 1. an old town and still one of the most important in northern Ḥaḍramōt, on the left side of the main wādī which traverses the whole of Ḥaḍramōt and is called Wādī Masīle east of S̲h̲ibām or Wādī Ḥaḍramōt or simply al-Wādī; others distinguish Wādī Masīle and Wādī Ḥaḍramōt, but are not agreed on the position of the confluence of the two (cf. Stieler’s map 60 in his Handatlas 9 [Gotha 1905] and the Map of Hadramut [surveyed by Imam Sharif Khan Bahadur] in Th. Bent, Southern Arabia, London 1900, p. 70). The statements of the Arab geographers regarding Ḥaḍramōt, especially the interi…

Tarim

(825 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, local (Turkish) pronunciation Terim, the principal river of modern Chinese Turkistān (length about 1,200 miles). It is probably the Oik̲h̲ardēs of Ptolemy (vi. 16). In the first (seventh) century the river is mentioned by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuan-Čuang (Hiouen-Thsang, Mémoires, transl. Stan Julien, ii. 220) under the name Si-to (Sanskrit Sîtâ). In the fifth (xith) century Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (i. 116). mentions the river Usmī Tarīm “which flows out of the land of Islām into the land of the Uig̲h̲urs and loses itself in thesand there”. According to the same source ( op. cit., p. 332),…

Tarīm

(716 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
2. According to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā, p. 490 (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, Über die Geographie Arabiens, Jahrbücher der Literatur, Vienna 1841, xciv., p. 93 and following him Ritter. xii. 727), a fortress on the road which runs from the coast-town of Ḏj̲izān on the Red Sea eastwards via “Newidije and the castle of Feleki” (according to v. Hammer’s transcription, which seems not quite certain) to Ṣaʿda; that is in the Upper Yemen. From the mention in the verse of Kut̲h̲aiyir referred to by al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat, p. 182 and quoted by al-Bakrī, p. 184 (cf. 107) and 196, the s…

Tarkīb Band

(185 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is a poem composed of stanzas of from five to eleven couplets. Each stanza, like a g̲h̲azal, has its own rhyme, the first two hemistichs and the second hemistich of each succeeding couplet rhyming with one another, but the rhyme of each stanza varies from that of the others, though the metre must be the same throughout the poem. After each stanza occurs a couplet in the same metie as the rest of the poem, but with its own rhyme, the two hemistichs rhyming with one another. When the same couplet is repeated after each stanza, as a refrain, the poem is called Tard̲j̲īʿ Band, but the older writers on…

Tārom

(3,214 words)

Author(s): Minorsky
(Tārum), 1º. district on the Ḳi̊zi̊l-Uzän [cf. safīd-rūd]. The name. The Arabs call it Ṭarm, Ṭirm (Mutanabbī), Ṭi̊rm ( B. G. A., vi. 404, 408). Yāḳūt mentions it on two occasions, under Ṭarm and Tāram. Mustawfī uses the Arabie dual Tārumain, the “two Tārums”. The modern Persian pronunciation is Tārǒm. Although Tārom is now the name of the district, there is also a little town ¶ named Tārom on the right bank of the Ḳi̊zi̊l-Uzän (between Wenisarā and Kallad̲j̲); another village of Tāri̊m (< Tārom) lies to the right of the direct road Irom Ardabīl to Miyāna outside of the district of Tārom. Tārom, l…

Tarragona

(247 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Arabie Tarrākūna), a little town in the north-east of Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the province of the same name. This town, which now has a population of 23,300, occupies the site of the ancient acropolis of Tarraco, which became one of the centres of Roman domination in Spain and from the time of Augustus, the capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Muslims when they occupied Tarragona retained its old name. They sacked it in 724, then occupied it for the whole of the Umaiyad Caliphate of Cordova, not without having twice to re…

Ṭarsūs

(988 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the frontier between Asia Minor and Syria, the birthplace of the apostle Paul. It lies in a very fertile plain through which flows a river (Cydnos, later Nahr Baradīn). Situated at the junction of several important roads and not far from the sea, even in ancient times it played an important part as a trading centre and was distinguished in the Hellenistic period for the activity of its intellectual life. Christianity spread early there and bishops and metropolitans of Ṭarsūs are mentioned in the Acts of the Councils. When the Arabs had conquered these regions, the Umaiy…

Ṭarṭūs

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, earlier Anṭarṭūs, frequently Anṭarsūs (by analogy with Ṭarsūs), a town on the Syrian coast; the ancient Antarados opposite the island of Arados (Arabic Ḏj̲azīrat Arwād, also written Arwād̲h̲; now Ruwād). Under the Roman empire, Antarados was called Constantia but the old name remained alongside of this and in the end drove the latter out again. The Muslims took the fortress of Ṭarṭūs under ¶ ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit in 17 (638). The town was destroyed and remained for a lung time uninhabited. Muʿāwiya rebuilt it, fortified it and settled there and in Maraḳīya an…

Tārūdānt

(81 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal t own in the district of Sūs, to the south of Morocco on the right bank of the Wādī Sūs, about 100 miles S. W. of Marrākus̲h̲ and 45 E of Āgādir on the Atlantic. These two towns may be reached from Tārūdānt by tracks passable by vehicles. It is a little town with about 7,000 inhabitants. For further details and the history of the town see the article al-sūs al-aḳṣā, especially p. 569b. (E. Lévi-Provençal)

Tarwiya

(361 words)

Author(s): Paket, R.
is the name for the 8th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a ( yawm al-tarwiya). The Muslim Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ begins on this day; on it the pilgrims go from Mecca to Minā and as a rule after a short stay there go on again to be able to pass the night in ʿArafā. In Muḥammadan works the term vawm al-tarwiya is usually explained from the fact that the pilgrims on this day give their animals a plentiful supply of water in preparation for the ride through the waterless area or from their taking a supply of water with them themselves. But as tarwiya properly means rather “pouring” than “watering” animals or “taking wate…

Taṣawwuf

(4,152 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
1. Etymology — maṣdar of form V, formed from the root ṣūf, meaning “wool” to denote “the practice of wearing the woollen robe ( labs al-ṣūf)” — hence the act of devoting oneself to the mystic life on becoming what is called in Islām a ṣūfī. The other etymologies, ancient and modern, proposed for this name of ṣūfī may be rejected: such are ahl al-ṣuffa (devotees seated on the “bench” of the mosque at Madīna in the time of the Pruphet), ṣaff awwal (first row of the faithful at prayer), banū Ṣūfa (a Beduin tribe), ṣawfāna (a kind of vegetable), ṣafwat al-ḳifā (a lock of hair on the nape of the neck), ṣūfīya

Tasbīḥ

(12 words)

(a.), infinitive II from s-b-ḥ, saying Subḥān Allāh [q. v.].

Tas̲h̲ahhud

(290 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infintive V of s̲h̲-h-d, the recitation of the s̲h̲ahāda [q.v.], especially in the ṣalāt. It must, however, be kept in mind that in this case s̲h̲ahāda comprises not only the kalimatāni, but l°. the following formula: “To Allāh belong the blessed salutations and the good prayers”; 2°. the formula: “Hail upon thee, O Prophet, and Allāh’s mercy and His blessing; hail ¶ upon us and upon Allāh’s pious servants”; 3°. the s̲h̲ahāda proper, consisting of the kalimatāni. The above form of tas̲h̲ahhud is in keeping with a tradition on the authority of Ibn ʿAbbās, beginning t…

Tas̲h̲bīh

(2,732 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
assimilating, comparing (God to man), anthropomorphism, and taʿṭīl, emptying, divesting (God of all attributes), are the names of two opposite views of the doctrine of the nature of God in Islām; both are regarded as heresies and grave sins in dogma. The fierce dispute over these conceptions, by which even the dogma of the Ḳurʾān is influenced, is explained by the central position of the doctrine of the nature of God in Islām. The formal cause is to ¶ be found in the Ḳurʾān, which strongly emphasises the absolute uniqueness nf God and yet at the same time naively describe…

Tās̲h̲fīn

(11 words)

b. ʿAlī, one of the Almoravid [q. v.] Sovereigns.

Tas̲h̲kent

(1,926 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, usually written Tās̲h̲kend in Arabic and Persian manuscripts, a large town in Central Asia, in the oasis of Čirčik, watered by one of the right bank tributaries of the Si̊r-Daryā [q. v.]. Nothing is known of the origin of the settlement on the Čirčik. According to the Greek and Roman sources there were only nomads on the other side of the Yaxartes. In the earliest Chinese sources (from the second century b. c.) mention is made of a land of Yu-ni, later identified with the territory of Tas̲h̲kent; this land is later called Čö-či or Čö-s̲h̲i or simply S̲h̲i. The corr…

Ṭas̲h̲köprüzāde

(835 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the name of a family of Turkish scholars, taken from the village ¶ of Ṭas̲h̲köprü near Ḳastamūnī [q. v.] in Anatolia (cf. Köprülüzāde, called after the adjacent village of [Wezīr-]Köprü). 1. Muṣṭafā b. Ḵh̲alīl al-Dīn, born at Ṭas̲h̲köprü in 857 (1453), studied at the high schools of Brussa and Stambul, became professor in Brussa, afterwards (901) in Angora, Üsküb and Adrianople, was for a time tutor to the prince, afterwards Sulṭān, Salīm I, then again professor in Amasia and Brussa. He never took up the office of judge in …

Tas̲h̲rīḥ

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), general sense: opening, exposition. It has two special meanings: I. exposition of a science, commentary on a book, like s̲h̲arḥ [q. v.]; 2. the science of anatomy which is the “opening” and exposition of the structure of the body. The two meanings are found in one sentence in Ibn al-Ḳifṭī: “Galen was the key of medicine, its bāsiṭ and its s̲h̲āriḥ, that is to say, it was he who expounded it and commented upon it… No one ever surpassed him in the science of tas̲h̲rīḥ and he wrote 17 books upon it.” The reference here is to anatomy. Anatomy was not a very popular science in Islām; the rep…

Tas̲h̲rīḳ

(311 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
is a special name for the last three days of the Muḥammadan Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ (11th-13th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a: Aiyām al-Tas̲h̲rīḳ), during which the pilgrims, having finished their regular rites, stay in Minā and have to throw seven stones daily on each of the three piles of stones there. In the early period of Islām the name tas̲h̲rīḳ was also given to the solemn ṣalāt on the morning of the 10th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a. The term is probably a survival from the pre-Islāmic period and therefore could no longer be explained by the Muslims with certainty. For example the obvi…

Ṭasm

(465 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
b. Lūd̲h̲ b. Sām b. Nūḥ, a legendary tribe of the prehistoric period of the Arabs, closely connected by descent, dwellingplace (in al-Yamāma), conditions of life (agriculturists and cattle-breeders) and history with the Ḏj̲adīs [q. v.] (with whom they are always numbered) b. Ḥat̲h̲ir b. Iram b. Sām b. Nūḥ. The story, frequently mentioned in Arabic literature, of the ¶ fall of the two sister-tribes is in its main outlines as follows: They were at one time under the tyranny of a Ṭasmī named ʿAmlīḳ (or ʿAmlūḳ). Appealed to in a matrimonial dispute of a Ḏj̲…

Tasnīm

(268 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, 1. name of a fountain in Paradise, occurring in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra lxxxiii. 27, where it is said, that its water will be drunk by the muḳarrabūn, “those who are admitted to the divine presence”, and that it will be mixed with the drink of the mass of the inhabitants of Paradise. The commentaries are uncertain, whether tasnīm is a proper name — which, according to the Lisān is inconsistent with its being a diptote — or a derivative from the root s-n-m, a root conveying the meaning of “being high”. In the latter case the meaning of the verse would be: “and it (viz. the drink of …

Tasūd̲j̲

(789 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(and Ṭassūd̲j̲), 1. Arabicised forms of the Persian word tasū (Phi. *tasūk, cf. Phi. tasum “fourth” <.*čaθruma; cf. Salemann, Manich. Studien, i. 128; Tedesco, Dialectologie der west-iranischen Turfantexte, p. 209) which means the 24th part of certains measures (Vullers, i. 445). According to the Farhang-i S̲h̲uʿūri, two d̲j̲aw = a ḥabba; two ḥabba = a tasūd̲j̲; four tasūd̲j̲ = a dāng; six dāng = a dīnār. In the Dīwān of Ḳāsim al-Anwār (Bib. Nat. de Paris, Sup. Pers. 717, fol. 174) is a verse giving to tasu some mystic sense. The word is found in Arménien thasu and in Aramaic ṭyswga; cf. Hübsc…

Taṣwīr

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T. W.
(A.), fashioning, forming; an image, a picture; for the prohibition of images and pictures of living beings by the Muslim jurists, see ṣūra; here an account will be given of the artistic activity in the Muslim world that has produced sculptures and pictures, despite the condemnation of the theologians. Examples of the former are rare e.g. in Egypt, Ḵh̲umārawaih [q.v.] had statues of himself, his wives and singing-girls made, and in Spain, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III [q.v.] set up a statue of his favourite wife al-Zahrāʾ, in t…

al-Tasyīr

(1,940 words)

Author(s): Schirmer, O.
(in the west: atazir, ataçir, athacir, directio, prorogatio, ἄΦεσιΣ, théorie aphétique) is a process used in astrology of artificial continuation of a planet or of an astrological house or any other definite part of the heavens to another star or its aspects, or other houses with the object of ascertaining the equatorial degree situated between these two places, the figure of which is used, by converting it into a definite period of time, to prognosticate the date of a future happening, either good or evil. The astrological magnitude ascertained by this process played a very pro…

Tāt

(3,338 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Tat), a Turkish word, meaning “the foreign elements included in the lands of the Turks” (Thomsen). 1. The term has a rather complicated history. Its occurrence in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions (viiith century) was first noticed by Vambéry ( Noten su d. alttürk. Inschriften Mém. Soc.Finno-Ougr, xii., Helsingfors 1899, p. 88—89). Thomsen ( Turcica, ibid., xxxvii., 1916, p. 15) proposed to translate the words on oḳ og̲h̲liña tatiña tägi, “up to the sons of the Ten Arrows (r= The Western Turks) and their tāt (= their subjects of foreign origin)”. Thomsen passes over the question of …

Tatar

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, written Tātār, Tatār and Tatar, the name of a people the significance of which varies in different periods. Two Tatar groups of tribes, the “thirty Tatars” and the “nine Tatars”, are mentioned in the Turkish Ork̲h̲on inscriptions of the eighth century a. d. As Thomsen ( Inscriptionsde l’Orkhon, Helsingfors 1896,” p. 140) supposes, even at this date the name was applied to the Mongols or a section of them but not to a Turkish people; according to Thomsen, these Tatars lived southwest of Baikal roughly as far as Kerulen. With the foundation of the empire of the Kitai [see ḳara k̲h̲itai] the Tu…

Taʿṭīl

(24 words)

a technical term used in dogmatics meaning the divesting of the conception of God of all attributes; see the article tas̲h̲bīh .

Ṭāʾūsī

(2,424 words)

Author(s): Nikitine, B.
, a heterodox S̲h̲īʿite sect, called after a certain Ag̲h̲ā Muḥammad Kāẓim Tonbākūforūs̲h̲ of Ispahān, known as Ṭāʾūs al-ʿUrafāʾ, who broke off from the Niʿmatullāhī (cf. Browne, Hist. of Pers. Lit., iii., p. 463—473, on Saiyid Niʿmatullāh of Kermān, founder of this sect). After the death of Raḥmat ʿAlī S̲h̲āh S̲h̲īrāzī (successor to Mustaʿlī S̲h̲āh, author of the Bustān al-Siyaḥat), who represented the sect in Ispahān, Ṭāʾūs refused to recognise his successor Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ag̲h̲ā S̲h̲āh. Expelled in 1281 from Ispahan by the clergy he settled in Ṭeherān with the help of his murīd (Riḍā Ḳ…

Tawaddud

(627 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the heroine of a story which is preserved in the 1001 Nights as well as in an independent form. Tawaddud (as a personal name not found elsewhere in Arabic literature — however frequent it is as a nomen verbi — is of similar formation to Tamannī, Tad̲j̲annī and similar women’s names) is the slave of a merchant who has fallen into poverty and, following her advice, offers her for sale to the caliph Hārūn to free him from his difficulties. Hārūn declares himself ready to pay the high price demanded on condition she shows by an examination tha…

Ṭawāf

(832 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.) from ṭāfa with bi of place) encircling; in the language of ritual the running round or circumambulation of a sacred object, a stone, altar, etc. There are traces of the rite having existed among the Israelites, cf. especially Ps. xxvi. 6 (xxvii. 6, lxx.) and the ceremony of the feast of booths in the time of the Second Temple, where the altar is circumambulated once on the first six days and seven times on the seventh. The rite however was also found among Persians, Indians, Buddhists, Romans a…

Tawakkul

(217 words)

Author(s): Nicholson, R. A.
, trust in God, is enjoined by the Ḳurʾān, but the mutawakkilūn whom God loves (iii. 153) do not form a special class of quietists like those known by the same designation in the iith and iiith centuries a. h. The doctrine of the latter, closely connected with that of tawḥīd [q. v.] and probably developed under Christian influence (cf. Matt. vi. 24—34), was sometimes carried in practice to such lengths that the comparison of the mutawakkil to a corpse in the hands of the washer who prepares it for burial (Ḳusiairī, Bāb al-Tawakkul) seems quite appropriate. According to these zealots, tawakkul i…

Tawakkul

(345 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
b. bazzāz (Tūklī [?] b. Ismāʿīl), a darwīs̲h̲, author of the Ṣifwat al-Ṣafā, which is a biography of the grand S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn of Ardabīl (650—735= 1252—1334), ancestor of the Ṣafawid dynasty. The book was written in 750 (1350) under the direction of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadr al-Dīn, son of Ṣafī al-Dīn, whom Tawakkul quotes as an authority. Later under S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp I the text of the work was revised by a certain Abu ’l-Fatḥ Ḥusainī. The Persian text was published in Calcutta in 1329 (1911). The Ṣifwat al-Ṣafā is a work of considerable length, about 216,000 words. It is purely hagi…

al-Tawʾamān

(156 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the Twins, the constellation Gemini. According to al-Ḳazwīnī, it contains 18 stars and seven which do not belong to the figure, and represents two men with their heads to the N. E. and their feet to the S. W. The two bright stars in the head are also called al-Dhirāʿ al-mabsūṭa, the outstretched arm, and form the seventh station of the moon; the two at the feet of the second twin form the station of the moon called al-Hanʿa. The whole constellation is also called al-Ḏj̲awzā, like Orion; hence the name Ras algeuse for the star β (Pollux). In Ptolemy the stars now known as Castor…

Ṭawās̲h̲ī

(164 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, one of the many words used as a euphemism for eunuch. According to al-Maḳrīzī, the word is Turkish and was originally ṭābūs̲h̲ī. The reference is clearly to the word which is tapug̲h̲či̊ in Ottoman Turkish and means “servant”. The word has therefore undergone the same change of meaning as k̲h̲ādim [q. v.] and refers not to the physiological peculiarity of a eunuch — k̲h̲aṣīy is used for this — but to a particular “servant”, an official in a definite position which was usually filled by a eunuch. Thus we find the word in the language of administration in Eg…

Tawba

(343 words)

Author(s): Nicholson, R. A.
(a.), repentance, originally meaning “return”, is a verbal noun derived from tāba; the verb is often used in the Ḳurʾān, either absolutely or with ilā, of one who turns to God with repentance, and also with ʿalā of God, who turns with forgiveness to the penitent, for He is tawwāb raḥīm, “very forgiving and merciful” (Ḳurʾān, ii. 35 sqq.). The validity of tawba depends on three things: 1. a conviction of sin, 2. remorse ( nadam), 3. a firm resolution to abstain from sin in the future (G̲h̲azzālī, Iḥyāʾ, book iv., where the subject is discussed in detail; Ḳurʾān, iv. 21, 22; ix. 105;…

Tawḥīd

(316 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
(a.), infinitive II of w-ḥ-d, means literally “making one” or “asserting oneness” (Lane, p. 2927a). In consequence, it is applied theologically to the oneness ( waḥdānīya, tawaḥḥud) ¶ of Allāh in all its meanings. The word does not occur in the Ḳurʾān, which has no verbal form from this root.nor from the kindred ʾ-ḥ-d, but in the Lisān (iv. 464, 16 to 465, 4 from below) there is an elaborate philological statement of the usages of the different forms from these roots as applied to Allāh and to men. Technically “the science of tawḥīd and of the Qualities” ( ʿilm al-tawḥīd wa ’l-ṣifāt) is a synony…

Ṭawīl

(139 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the first metre in Arabic prosody, has one ʿarūḍ and three ḍarb; the paradigm is: Faʿūlun mafāʿīlun faʿūlun mafāʿīlun in each hemistich. The ʿarūḍ, or last foot of the first hemistich, is always mafāʿilun. The first ḍarb, or last foot of the second hemistich, is mafāʿīlun; the second, mafāʿilun; the third, ( mafāʿī =) faʿūlun. The faʿūlun foot often loses its nūn; the dropping of this is recommended for the foot which immediately precedes the foot forming the third ḍarb. The first faʿūlun of the first hemistich of the first verse of a piece may lose its fa, and combined with the loss of the nūn, w…

Taʾwīl

(420 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
(a.), originally means quite generally interpretation, exposition. In some of the passages in which the word occurs in the Ḳurʾān it refers definitely to the revelation delivered by Muḥammad. The use of the word taʾwīl afterwards became more and more limited to this special meaning and it meant exposition of the Ḳurʾān, and was for a time synonymous with tafsīr. In time the term seems to have become more specialised although not yet confined to this one meaning; it became a technical term for the exposition of the subject matter of the Ḳurʾān. In this latter sense taʾwīl formed a valuable a…

Ṭawīla

(12 words)

, a South Arabian coin, see the article larin .

Ṭawīla

(210 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, formerly the headquarters of the Ḳāʾimmaḳām of the Ḳaḍā of Kawkabān, to which the town already belonged in Niebuhr’s time. It lies on a tongueshaped spur of the Ḏj̲ebel Ḍulāʿ on the left bank of the Wādī Lāʿa which forms a continuous chain of four rocky hills, the second (from the east) of which is called al-Ḥuṣn. In the SSW. of the town a little lower but not 500 yards away stands the Masd̲j̲id al-Ẓāhir, a mosque now in ruins with a fine cistern, from which a well-made paved road ( marḥal) leads eastwards towards the town. Barely 200 yards east of this ruin or rat…

Tawḳīʿ

(693 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
(a.), lit. “a document with the signature or device ( ʿalāma) equivalent to a signature of a ruler”; hence generally, edict, decree of a ruler, and its preparation in written form. Tawḳīʿ has the special meaning of the titles of the ruler (roughly equivalent to the tug̲h̲ra [q. v.] ¶ of the Ottomans) to be inscribed in the chancellery, which gives the document validity, in contrast to ʿalāma, the mark or device of the ruler put on it with his own hand, which was regarded as his signature. The use of the two words is however to some extent indiscriminate, for tawḳīʿ was also used for motto. In the Ins̲h…

Tawrāt

(1,996 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Hebr. Tōrā, is in the Ḳurʾān of the Medīna period (cf. also an alleged verse of the Jewish poet Sammāk in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659) the name of a holy scripture revealed after the time of Ibrāhīm (iii. 58) and Isrāʾīl (= Jacob; iii. 87) and afterwards confirmed by ʿĪsā (iii. 44; v. 50; lxi. 6) which contains the ḥukm Allāh (v. 48). While obedience to it brings a reward in Paradise to the “people of the book” (v. 70), those who do not take upon themselves the tawrāt imposed upon them are “like asses who carry books” (lxii. 5). The Tawrāt also contains a prophecy of the coming of the Nabī al-ummī (vii. 156) i.…

Tawriya

(524 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.), syllepsis in oratory, a figure of rhetoric ( badiʿ) which consists in using a word having two different meanings, one obvious and the other secondary, veiling the second sense by the first so that it is the first sense which strikes the listener first. Tawriya is called īhām (dissimulation) because he who uses it conceals the remoter meaning he had in view by the primary sense which is seized on first. It is sometimes called ibhām (“act of concealing or masking”). There are two kinds of tawriya: 1. that which is “deprived” of everything that might indicate the meaning one has in view ( mud̲h̲…

al-Ṭayālisī

(456 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
Sulaimān b. Dāwūd b. al-Ḏj̲ārūd Abū Dāwūd, a collector of traditions and author of a Musnad. The nisba is derived from al-ṭayālisa, the plural of ṭailasān, a piece of clothing that covers the head-dress and sometimes also the shoulders (see Dozy, Dictionnaire détaillé des noms des vêtements chez les arabes, p. 278 sqq.). Al-Ṭayālisī was born at Baṣra in 133 (750-751) and died in 203 (818—819). It is also said that he reached the age of 72 years. He has handed down traditions on the authority of S̲h̲uʿba, Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī and other well known tra…

Tayammum

(702 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), the recommendation, or permission to perform the ritual ablution with sand instead of water in certain cases, is based on two passages in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra iv. 46 and v. 9. The latter passage runs as follows: “And if ye be impure, wash yourselves. But if ye be sick, or on a journey or if ye come from the privy or ye have touched women and ye find no water, take fine clean sand and rub your faces and hands with it. Allāh will not put a difficulty upon you but He will make you pure and comple…

Tāzā

(907 words)

Author(s): Marçais, Georges
, a town in eastern Morocco, about 60 miles E.N.E. of Fās, in a great depression, called the “trough of Tāzā” which separates the Rīf from the northern spurs of the Central Atlas. To some authors of the middle ages ( Istibṣār, al-Marrākus̲h̲ī) Tāzā marks the boundary between the extreme and central Mag̲h̲rib. The great importance of the great natural route from the east to west through this depression, the strategic and economic advantages secured by the occupation of the site in part defended by the ravine of a wādī, must have early e…

Taʿzīr

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), punishment, intended to prevent the culprit from relapsing, to reform him ( li ’l-taṭhīr).— The Ḳurʾān does not know this kind of punishment; on the contrary it classifies several transgressions afterwards punished with taʿzīr merely as sins, e. g. slander, for which there is no ḥadd punishment (Sūra iv. 112) and the bearing of false witness (Sūra ii. 283; iv. 134). Tradition has very little to record about it. According to one tradition of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿOmar, in the time of the Prophet, those who bought provisions wholesale without …

Taʿziya

(2,178 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), a. expression of sympathy in general, b. the passion play of the S̲h̲īʿīs. The word, a verbal noun from ʿaziya II, is not found in the Ḳurʾān (but cf. ʿizīn in lxx. 37), but occurs in all schools of fiḳh at the end of the book on public worship in the section, or in the separate book, al-d̲j̲anāʾiz = burial, where sympathy is requested for the relatives. Among the S̲h̲īʿīs it means in the first place the lamentation for the martyred imāms, which is held at their graves and aiso at home. In particular, however, it is mourning for Ḥusain. The tābūt, a copy of the tomb at Kerbelāʾ, in popular…
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