Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Tāʾ

(27 words)

, third letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 400. For palaeographical details see Arabia , i. 382b, 383b and plate I.

Ṭāʾ

(24 words)

, sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 9. For palaeographical details see Arabia , i., plate I.

Taʾabbaṭa S̲h̲arran

(362 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, a nickname of the old Arab poet and Beduin hero, famed in legend, T̲h̲ābit b. Ḏj̲ābir b. Sufyān of the tribe of Fahm. Various explanations of it are given by the sources: “he carried mischief under his arm”, namely a sword, a knife ( ḥamāsa), a ram which proved to be a g̲h̲ūl. or a skin full of poisonous snakes ( Ag̲h̲ānī). His mother was according to one statement (in Fresnel) a negress, according to the Ag̲h̲ānī a woman of the Fahm tribe called Amīna, who afterwards married the Hud̲h̲ailī Abū Kabīr, who sought to take his step-son’s life. Taʿabbaṭa S̲h̲arrān was thro…

Ṭabaḳāt

(922 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, “book of categories”. The word means when used of place: “similar, lying above one another” and with regard to time: “similar, following one another”; e.g. Sūra lxvii. 3; lxxi. 14, of the seven heavens placed one above the other; also the “storey” of a house (glossary to Idrīsī, Description de l’Afrique, ed. Dozy and de Goeje, Leyden 1866, p. 338; Sobernheim, inscr. N°. 41, in M. I. F.A.O., xxv.; Fagnan, Additions, s. v.); ṭabaḳāt al-ʿain “the successive skins of the eye” (Ḵh̲wārizmī, Mafātīḥ, p. 154). With reference to time, it means especially “generation” (the lexicographers give ḳarn

Tabāla

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, a place in the west of northern Yaman, in the interior of ʿAsīr, about seven days’ journey S. E. of Mecca, Its fertility was¶ proverbial among the Arabs. The basin of Tabāla and Taraba is often called ak̲h̲ḍar (“green”; cf. al-Hamdānī, Ḏj̲azira, ed. D. H. Müller, Leiden 1884, p. 165; Yāḳūt Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 164). The itinerary of the pilgrim caravans from Mecca through the frontier lands of the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Y aman to Ṣanʿāʾ given in Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, London 1829, i. 445 was marked on the map as early as Berghaus, Arabien und das Nilland (Gotha 1835, cf. esp. p. 69; …

al-Ṭabarī

(967 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, nisba from Ṭabaristān; most of the bearers of the nisba have come from Āmul, the capital of this province. This nisba is also wrongly referred to Ṭabarīya (Tiberias) in place of the correct al-Ṭabarānī (cf. Samʿānī, Ansāb, fol. 366b; Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, iii. 355). 1. Abu ’l-Ṭaiyib al-Ṭabarī, Ṭāhir b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir, a S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, teacher of Abū Isḥāḳ al-S̲h̲īrāzī and of al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī; al-S̲h̲īrāzī who attended his lectures for over ten years, praises him as his best teacher. Al-Ṭabarī was born in Āmul in the year 348 (959/960). At the age of 14 he began his studies in fiḳh

al-Ṭabarī

(1,496 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Mūḥammad b. Ḏj̲arīr, the Arab historian, was born probably in 839 (end of 224 or beg. 225 a. h.) at Āmul in the province of Ṭabaristān. He began to devote himself to study at a precociously early age, and is said to have known the Ḳurʾān by heart by the time he was seven. After receiving his early education in his native town, he received from his father who was quite well off the necessary means of visiting the centres of the Muslim learned world. He thus visited Raiy and its vicinity, then Bag̲h̲dād…

Ṭabaristān

(962 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Pahlavi inscriptions on coins: Tapūristān, land of the Ταπυροι), the name applied by the Arabs to Māzandarān, a province of Persia, north of mount Alburz; the name is explained by a popular etymology to mean “land of the ṭabar” (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, Geography, text p. 432; Mehren, Cosmography, p. 314) on account of the thick forests which cover the country and the principal industry of the inhabitants (woodcutting). It is bordered on the north by the Caspian Sea, on the south by the chain of the Alburz, on the east by Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān and on the wes…

Ṭabarīya

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Tiberias, a town on the western side of the lake of Tiberias (sea of Galilee) ( Buḥairat Ṭabarīya) through which the Jordan flows to the south; the lake is rich in fishes, is 13 miles long, 6 broad and lies 700 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; the town is long and narrow as it is shut in by the steep hills on the west which come right down to the water, north and south of the town. S.S.W. of the town is the Mount of Herod. Ṭabarīya had probably a predecessor in a little town in this ¶ region mentioned in the Old Testament (on account of the hot springs some identify it with Hammat,…

Tabarka

(876 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a town on the Tunisian coast, 75 miles W.N.W. of Tunis and 10 miles E. of the Algerian frontier. It is built on a sandy bay surrounded by hills at the mouth of a rather narrow fertile valley watered by the Wād al-Kabīr, which descends from the mountains of Ain-Draham (Ḵh̲umiria). Three quarters of a mile from the shore lies a rocky islet, 2,000 yards long and 500 broad. A roadstead lies between this island and the mainland accessible on the east side to ships of medium tonnage but only possibl…

Ṭabas

(298 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in the province of Ḵh̲nrāsān. in reality two towns whence the dual form used by the Arab geographers: Ṭabasāni. The first is called Ṭabas al-ʿUnnāb, “T. of the jujube-trees” (in Persian Ṭabas-Masīnān), and the second Ṭabas al-Tamr, “T. of the date-palms” ( al-sufla, Muḳaddasī), in Persian Ṭabas-Gilakī (Kurī, Kurīn). The first has walls now in ruins and no citadel. The second is commanded by a fortress; it has a small market and a graceful mosque; it gets its water-supply from reservoirs fed by open canals ( ẓāhira). These two towns are under Ḳāin, the capital of th…

Ṭabās̲h̲īr

(107 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, a drug highly esteemed in the east, consisting of pebble-like accretions, which are formed in the nodes of Bambusa arundinaria Wild. The substance is obtained, according to Ḳazwīnī (ii. 82) or Ibn Muhalhil, by burning the reed and from ancient times it has always been a valuable article of commerce which the Greeks called τάβασιΣ. (J. Ruska) Bibliography E. O. von Lippmann, Geschichte des Zuckers, Leipzig 1890, p. 76—80 B. Laufer, Sino-Iranica, Chicago 1919, p. 350—352 E. Wiedemann, Beitr., xl., p. 187 Ibn al-Baiṭār, transl. Leclerc, N. E., xxv. 1, 399—401 Seligmann, Abu Mansur Mwwaff…

Tābiʿ

(265 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), pl. tābiʿūn, follower, follower of a prince, disciple of a teacher, adherent of a doctrine; the verbal form is tābaʿa, e. g. tābaʿa Ḏj̲ālīnūs, he followed Galen (in medicine). The word is of special significance in Tradition where the name tābiʿ is given to those who came after the Companions of the Prophet, the Aṣḥāb. The aṣḥāb are the people who saw and were directly acquainted with the Prophet; the tābiʿūn are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions. The “followers” of the second generation ( tābiʿu…

Ṭabl

(2,246 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, the generic name for any instrument of the drum family. Islāmic tradition attributes its “invention” to Tūbal b. Lamak (Masʿūdī, ed. Paris, viii. 88—89), whilst another piece of gossip says that Ismāʿīl, the founder of the mustaʿriba [q. v.], was the first to sound it (Ewliyā Čelebi, Travels, I/ii. 239). The word may be equated with the Assyrian ṭabbalu and perhaps the Egyptian tabn. According to al-Faiyūmī (1333—1334), the term ṭabl was applied to a drum with a single membrane ( d̲j̲ild) as well as to that with two membranes. This, however, does not include the duff or tambourine [q. v.]…

Ṭabl K̲h̲āna

(4,933 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
(Naḳḳār Ḵh̲āna, Naḳḳāra Ḵh̲āna, Nawba Ḵh̲āna),literally the “Drum House”, “Kettledrum House”, “Military Band House”, is the name given in Islāmic lands to the military band and its quarters in camp or town. These names are derived from the drums ( ṭabl, naḳḳāra) which formed the chief instruments of the military band, and from the name given to the special type of music ( nawba) performed by this band. Originally the naḳḳāra k̲h̲āna or ṭabl k̲h̲āna consisted of drums only, and in some instances of particular kinds of drums. This we know from several authorities. Ibn T…

Tabrīz

(11,636 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, capital of the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān [q. v.]. Geographical position. The town lies in the eastern corner of the alluvial plain (measuring about 30 × 20 miles) sloping slightly towards the north-east bank of Lake Urmiya. The plain is watered by several streams, the chief of which is the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai (“bitter river”) which, rising in the south-west face of Mount Sawalān runs along the Ḳarad̲j̲a-dag̲h̲ which forms a barrier on the south and entering the plain runs around on the northwest suburbs of the town. The left bank tributary ¶ of the Ad̲j̲i̊-čai, Mihrān-rūd (now th…

Tabūk

(299 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the pilgrim road and on the railway from Damascus to Medīna (according to Yāḳūt four days’ journey from al-Ḥid̲j̲r and 12 from Medīna). It lies on a slight undulation of the sandy plain and has a very good well, probably the one mentioned in Arab legend. ¶ The most important building is the pilgrim’s fort built according to the inscription in 1064 (1654), the oldest parts of which can easily be distinguished from the later restorations. Beside it is a modern mosque built of beautifully hewn stones. Euting found the place empty excep…

Tabula Smaragdina

(265 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the revelation of secret alchemistic teaching ascribed to Hermes Trismegistos. Known in a later version in the west since the middle of the xiith century, the origin of the text was until recently an unsolved problem in the history of chemistry. Since R. Steele in his edition of Bacon (1920) showed that the text of the Tabula existed in Arabic and Latin in the Sirr al-Asrār of Pseudo-Aristotle, and E. J. Holmyard in 1923 discovered a more primitive form of the text in the Kitāb al-Uṣṭuḳuss al-t̲h̲ānī of Ḏj̲ābir b. Ḥaiyān, J. Ruska has been able to show that the original source o…

Ṭabūr

(80 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (Eastern Turkī: tapḳūr, a palisade formed of wagons arranged in a circle or square; a body of men sent out to reconnoitre), a battalion, a corps of about a thousand men, commanded by a biñ-bas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). ¶ (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Radlof, Opyt, iii. 953, 978 Pavet de Courteille, Dict. turk-oriental, p. 192 Sulaimān Efendi, Lug̲h̲āt-i Ḏj̲ag̲h̲atai, p. 97 Aḥmad Wafīḳ-Pas̲h̲a, Lehd̲j̲è-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, ii. 739 Barbier de Meynard, Dict. turc-français, ii. 250 Vámbéry, Čag̲h̲ataische Sprachstudien, p. 253.

Tadallīs

(717 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Tedellēs (Dellys), a town on the Algerian coast, 70 miles east of Algiers and 4 miles E. of the mouth of the Sebau, the principal river of Kabylia, from which it is separated by the mountainous mass which ends in Cape Beugut. — It lies in 55° 20′ N. Lat. and 3° 55′ E. Long (Greenwich). — The town consists of two distinct quarters: the native quarter with its narrow streets and the European quarter regularly built on a plateau about 175 feet above sea-level. Below, the harbour, sheltered against…

Tadbīr

(898 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), Maṣdar of the second stem of the root d-b-r. 1. With the meaning of „direction, administration”. The Arabic lexicographers explain dabbara as a verb from the noun dubur “the hindmost, the end” (opposite: ḳubul); thus we read in the Lisān, v. 358: an tanẓura ilā mā taʾūlu ilaihi ʿāḳibatahu, “to heed what one attains at the end of a matter”, or yanẓuru fī ʿawāḳibihi, “to heed the end of a matter”. This verb has now a double application: a. in the sense of government, administration (e. g. in the title of a work by Ibn Abi ’l-Rabīʿ, Sulūk al-Mālik fī Tadbīr ’l-Mamālik [cf. siyāsa]) and b. which c…

Tad̲h̲kira

(172 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), memorial, memorandum, from d̲h̲akara “to record”. The word appears in the titles of many famous works: the Memorandum of Astronomy of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, the Tad̲h̲kirat al-Awliyāʾ, “Memorial of the Saints” of Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, the Tad̲h̲kirat al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ. “memorial of the poets”, a biography of the poets, popular in Persia. In administrative language it means: ticket, memorandum, permit. It is the name given to travellers’ passports, yol tad̲h̲kirèsi, to the custom house office’s exeat: murūr tad̲h̲kirèsi. It is also more especially applied to the diplomas of…

Tād̲j̲

(2,041 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), Crown. A Persian loanword in Arabie going back to the Old Persian * tag; cf. Armenian ʿtag, Aramaic taga. From it are formed in Arabic the broken plural tīd̲j̲ān and the corresponding verb t-w-d̲j̲ II “to crown”, V “to be crowned”, and tāʾid̲j̲, “crowned” (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologic, Strassburg 1893, p. 81; Siddiqi, Studien über die per she hen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch, Göttingen 1919, p. 74, 84; Fraenkel, Die aramāischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, Ley den 1886, p. 62). Like the name, the thing itself comes from old Persia. The form o…

Tād̲j̲īk

(774 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, older form tāzīk or tāžīk (in Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, i., 324: Težik), the name of a people originally used with the meaning “Arab” (later this meaning became confined to the form Tāzī), afterwards “Iranian” in contrast to “Turk”. The word is derived from the Arab tribal name of Ṭaiy. The nearest Arab tribe to the Iranians was the Ṭaiy, hence the name of this tribe came to be applied to the whole Arab people. The Ṭaiy are “mentioned as early as the beginning of the third century by an Edessene along with the Saracens as representatives of all the Beduins” (Cureton, Spicil. Syr., p. 16 ult. in Nö…

Tād̲j̲īkī

(176 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the language of the Tād̲j̲īk [q. v.]. As a literary language Tād̲j̲īkī seems to be “more or less remote from modern Persian according to the degree of education of the person writing or speaking it”. In this sense (aiming at the elegance of the “Persian literati” but without “denying a dialectical colouring”), the Tād̲j̲īkī was the official and business language under the rule of the Özbegs of Buk̲h̲ārā [q. v] and remained so after the revolution of 1920; since 1924 however Tād̲j̲īkī has been …

Tād̲j̲ Maḥall

(734 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, the beautiful mausoleum erected at Āgra by the emperor S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān [q.v.] for his dearly loved wife, Ad̲j̲umand Bānū Begum, of whose title, Mumtāz Maḥall, the name is a corruption. She was the daughter of Āṣaf Ḵh̲ān, brother of the famous Nūr Ḏj̲ahān [q. v.], and was married to S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān on May 10, 1612, at the age of nineteen. She bore him ¶ fourteen children, and died in June, 1631, at Burhānpūr, after giving birth to a daughter. She was buried temporarily at Zainābād, a suburb of Burhānpūr, but her husband, who mourned her deeply, resolved to co…

Tad̲j̲nīs

(1,662 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
or Ḏj̲inās (a.), paronomasia, play upon words, is a figure of rhetoric ( badīʿ) which consists in using in the same phrase two words of a similar or almost similar sound but of different meanings, e. g. amantes sunt amentes. I. 1. The tad̲j̲nīs is complete ( tāmm) when the two words resemble one another in kind, number, vocalisation (or form) and in the order of the consonants. ¶ a. If the two words are of the same kind (e. g. two substantives, two verbs or two particles), it is called identical ( mumāt̲h̲il), e. g. “The day and the Hour ( al-sāʿa) will dawn, the guilty will swear that they have…

Tad̲j̲wīd

(950 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.) is the art of reciting the Ḳurʾān, giving each consonant its full value, as much as it requires to be well pronounced without difficulty or exaggeration: strength, weakness, tonality, softness, emphasis, simplicity ( tarḳīḳ). There are three kinds of tad̲j̲wīd: 1. tartīl, slow recitation; 2. ḥadr, rapid recitation; 3. tadwīr, medium recitation. — Tad̲j̲wīd, “ the adornment of recitation”, has for its object to prevent the tongue making any mistake in the recitation of the divine words. Besides the study of the articulation of consonants it…

Tādlā

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Colin, G. S.
(or Tādilā), the Tedle of Leo Africanus, a district of Morocco comprising the plateaus which stretch to the west of the high valley of ¶ the Wādī Umm al-Rabīʿ, as well as the western slopes of the Central Atlas, from Wādī ’l-ʿAbīd to the sources of the Moluya. The classical ethnic Tādilī is no longer used except for the S̲h̲orfā of the district; the popular ethnic is Tādlāwī. The region of the plateaus is occupied by six semi-nomad tribes of Arab origin: Urdīg̲h̲a, Bnī Ḵh̲īrān. Bnī Zemmūr, Smāʿla, Bnī ʿĀmer, Bnī Mūsā, whose centres are Wād Zem, Bujad (= Bed̲j̲d̲…

Tadlīs

(927 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, according to the Arabic lexicon, means “to conceal a fault or defect in an article of merchandise from the purchaser”, and according to the traditionists, “to conceal the defects of the ḥadīt̲h̲, either in the text, in the chain of narrators or in the source”, i. e. the teacher from whom it is learnt. Tadlīs is of three kinds. They are: 1. tadlīs fi’l-isnād (tadlīs in the chain of narrators); 2. tadlīs fi ’l-matn (tadlīs in the text) and 3. tadlīs fi ’l-s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ (tadlīs in the teacher from whom the tradition is learnt). a. Tadlīs in the chain of narrators. It is classified under sev…

Tafḍīl

(100 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is the nomen actionis of the second formation of faḍala, it “exceeded”, or “was”, or “became redundant”, or “superfluous”. In grammar it is applied to the comparison of adjectives. Ism al-tafḍīl, “the noun of the attribution of excess, or excellence”, is the noun adjective in the comparative and superlative, or, as it is now usually called, the elative degree. This is also called afʿal al-tafḍīl because it is regularly of the measure afʿal. (T. W. Haig) Bibliography The standard Arabic lexica Wright-de Goeje, A Grammar of the Arabic Language, Cambridge 1896—1898, i. 140-141 de Sacy, Gramm…

al-Ṭaff

(233 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the desert region that lies west of Kūfa along the alluvial plain of the Euphrates. It is higher than the low-lying ground by the river and forms the transition to the central Arabian plateau. According to the authorities quoted by Yāḳūt (iii. 359), al-ṭaff means an area raised above the surrounding country; the name is not found after the xiiith century. The district contains a number of springs, the waters of which run southwest (cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh, p. 187). The best known of these wells was al-ʿUd̲h̲air. From its geographical position al-Ṭaff was the …

Tāfīlālt

(290 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, ethnic Fīlālī, the name of a district in S.E. Morocco, formed by the broadening of the valley of the Wādī Zīz. It consists of an alluvial plain 12 miles long and 10 broad, over which are scattered 200 ḳṣūr (or fortified dwellings of clay) surrounded by gardens and cultivated fields. Where irrigation from wells is possible, the soil is wonderfully fertile. The chief product of Tāfīlālt is the palm-tree and the most developed industry is the preparation of goat-skins by the use of the bark of the mimosa which yields a tanning gall. F…

Tafsīr

(663 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), pl. tafāsīr, ex pl a n a t i o n, commentary, verbal form: fassara to explain. The name is applied to commentaries on scientific and philosophical works and is an alternative to s̲h̲arḥ; it is regularly applied to the Greek and Arabic commentaries on Aristotle: the following are examples taken from Ibn al-Ḳifṭī’s History of Scholars: Banas al-Rūmī wrote a Tafsīr on the Al-magesta and another on the tenth book of Euclid; Abu ’l-Wafāʾ al-Buzd̲j̲ānī, the famous astronomer, wrote a tafsīr on the works of Diophantes and of al-Ḵh̲wārizmī on Algebra; Muḥammad b. Zakarīyā al-Rāzī, the …

Tāfta

(81 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. “twisted”), a kind of silk, taffeta. Clavijo, ambassador of Henry III of Castile, found in the markets of Tabrīz, of Sulṭānīya and of Samarḳand, tafetanes woven in the country itself. This material spread more and more in the West towards the end of the Middle Ages. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. Devic, Dict, des mots français aborigine orientale, p. 214 Clavijo, Narrative, p. 109, 114, 190 W. Heyd, Hist. du commerce du Levant, French ed. by Raynaud, Leipzig 1886, Index.

al-Taftāzānī

(2,526 words)

Author(s): Storey, C. A.
(Saʿd al-Dīn Masʿūd b. ʿUmar), a celebrated authority on rhetoric, logic, metaphysics, theology, law and other subjects and the author of several text-books used to this day in the madrasas of the East, was born in Ṣafar 722 (Feb.-March 1322) at Taftāzān, a large village near Nasā in Ḵh̲urāsān. He is said to have been a pupil of ʿAḍud al-Dīn al-Īd̲j̲ī (see above, ii. 447 and Brockelmann, G. A. L., ii. 208) and of Ḳuṭb al-Dīn [al-Rāzī al-Taḥtānī presumably, ¶ see Brockelmann, ii. 209]. Lists of his chief works, giving, with variations, their dates and places of composition, are extant ( Mud̲j̲ma…

Tag̲h̲laḳ

(696 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, or, more properly, Tug̲h̲luḳ, the correct vocalization being given by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, is the name of a dynasty which reigned at Dihlī from 1320 until 1413, and is taken from the personal name of its founder, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲. al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ, a Ḳarawniya Turk, that is to say, the offspring of a Turkish father and an Indian mother. When Mubārak, the last of the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲īs [q.v.], was murdered by his vile favourite, Ḵh̲usraw, Tug̲h̲luḳ, who was employed on the northwestern frontier, where his numerous suc…

Tag̲h̲lib

(5,118 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, along with the Bakr the most important tribe of the Rabīʿa group in early Arabia. The real name of the founder of the tribe is said to have been Dit̲h̲ār; when one day his father wished him success in the words tag̲h̲lib “thou shalt conquer”, this name remained attached to him, but “according to all Semitic analogy” (cf. Yas̲h̲kur, Yad̲h̲kur, Jacob, Isaac etc.) it is not to be interpreted as 2nd pers. masc. but as 3rd pers. fern, imperf. The gender shows that the tribal name is older than the fable about the mythical ancestor; besides the older poets down to al-Farazd…

Tagus

(166 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arabie Wādī Tād̲j̲oh, Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula, rises in the Serrania de Cuenca at about 6,000 ft. Its length to its estuary at Lisbon is 550 miles (of which 190 are in Portuguese terrytory). Among the numerous places on its banks one may mention going down stream: Aranjuez, Algodor, Toledo and Talavera de la Reina, in Spain; Abrantès, Santarem and Lisbon, in Portugal. The Arab geographers describe the Tagus as an important river and mention it especially in their descriptions of Toledo and Lisbon. They …

Ṭā-hā

(288 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L.
, two isolated letters at the head of Sūra xx. in the Ḳurʾān. — It has been proposed to explain them as an abbreviation, either of an imperative (from the root w-ṭ-ʾ; Ḥasan Baṣrī) or from a proper name (Ṭalḥa, Abū Huraira) meaning the ṣaḥābīs, who supplied this Sūra to the first editors of the Ḳurʾān. The important thing to note is that Muslim tradition since the third century has made Ṭā-Hā one of the names of the Prophet and as a result to this day we find boys in Egypt and the ʿIrāḳ given the name “Muḥammad Ṭā-Hā”. From the ¶ ivth century a. h., mystics unanimously see in Ṭā-Hā the purity ( ṭahāra) and r…

Tahad̲j̲d̲j̲ud

(763 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive V from the root h-d̲j̲-d which is one of the roots with opposed meanings ( aḍdād), as it signifies “sleep” and also “to be awake”, “to keep a vigil”, “to perform the night ṣalāt or the nightly recitation of the Ḳurʾān”. The latter two meanings have become the usual ones in Islām. The word occurs only once in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xvii. 81: “And in a part of the night, perform a ṣalāt as a voluntary effort” etc., but the thing itself is often referred to. We are told of the pious (li. 17) that they sl…

Ṭahāra

(539 words)

Author(s): Tritton, A. S.
(a.); grammatically ṭahāra is a maṣdar and means purity; it has also the technical sense of ceremonial, levitical purity and purification. It holds an important place in Islām, ¶ for “purity is half the faith”, a saying attributed to Muḥammad. Theologians divide defilements into material and mental; lawyers divide them into actual ( ḥaḳīḳī) and religious ( ḥukmī). Fiḳh deals with bodily, material impurity only. Sexual intercourse, menstruation, and child-birth are religious impurities. Actual impurities ( nad̲j̲is, q. v.) have a perceptible body. They are wine, pigs and…

Ṭaḥāwī

(1,538 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Salāma b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Azdī al-Ṭaḥāwī al-Had̲j̲rī. His nisba Ṭaḥāwī is derived from the name of a village in Upper Egypt named Ṭaḥā. He is considered the greatest Ḥanafī lawyer which Egypt has produced. His ancestors had settled in Upper Egypt and his grandfather Salāma when the news of the rebellion ¶ of Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī reached Egypt threw off, with others, the allegiance to the caliph al-Maʾmūn. The rebels appointed ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Azdī in place of al-Sarī b. al-Ḥakam, who fled at first, …

Tāhert

(506 words)

Author(s): Marçais, Georges
(we also have tīhkrt), amediaeval town of Algeria, on the eastern border of the present departement of Oran. According to Idrīsī there used to be two large towns of this name: the one, Old Tāhert, an old Roman site, perhaps the capital of a native dynasty, vassals or allies of the Byzantines (Gsell), rose from its ruins in the modern period and became the capital of Tiaret; the other, New Tāhert, lies 6 miles w. s. w. of Tiaret, not far from Tagdempt which was one of the strongholds of the amīr ʿAbd al-Ḳādir [q. v.]. It no longer has more than a few almost obliterated traces of its past grandeur. New Tāh…

Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusain

(468 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, founder of the Ṭāhirid dynasty [q. v.] in Ḵh̲orāsān [q. v.], born in 159 (775—776), died in Ḏj̲umādā I (Ṭabarī, iii. 1065, 13) or Ḏj̲umādā II (Ibn Ḵh̲allikān) 207 (822). Ṭāhir belonged to a family of Persian descent and also to the Arab tribe of Ḵh̲uzāʿa [q. v.]. His ancestor Razīḳ was a client of the governor of Sīstān, Abū Muḥammad Ṭalḥa b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī; Razīḳ’s son Muṣʿab took part in the fighting against the Umaiyads under Abū Muslim as secretary ( kātib) to the general Sulaimān b. Kat̲h̲īr al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī. The town of Būshand̲j̲ [q.v.] in the district of Herāt [q. …

Ṭāhirids

(695 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a dynasty in Ḵh̲orāsān, founded by Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusain [q. v.]. The foundation of the rule of the Ṭāhirids was later considered to date from the appointment of Ṭāhir as commander of the army of the Caliph Maʾmūn in 194 (810) and therefore the duration of their rule was put at 65 years (till the deposition of Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir in 259 [873]; cf. the biography of Faḍl b. Śahl [q.v.] in Ibn Ḵh̲allikān N°. 540, ed. de Slane. p. 577; transl., ii. 473 [where we have wrongly ¶ “six and fifty”]). Ṭāhir was succeeded in Ḵh̲orāsān by his son Ṭalḥa, d. 213 (828); after him reigned ʿAbd Allāh’b…

Ṭāhir Waḥīd

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad, ʿImād al-Dawla, a Persian poet of Ḳazwīn, who was the secretary of the two Prime Ministers Mīrzā Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad and Ḵh̲alīfa Sulṭān; in 1055 (1645—6) appointed historiographer to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās II, he became minister in 1101 (1689—90) in the reign of Sulaimān; afterwards he retired into private life and died most probably in 1110 (1698-99) aged 90. The British Museum has five MSS. of his historical works. The Ātas̲h̲-kedè (Bombay 1277, not paginated) says that his poems were mainly admired because of the rank of the author. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Hammer, Gesch. Redek. …

Tahmān

(667 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. ʿAmr al-Kilābī was a minor Arabic poet whose collected poems have by accident been preserved, while more important collections have been irretrievably lost. The time when he lived is fairly accurately known, as he was captured by the Ḥarūrī leader Nad̲j̲da b. ʿAmr al-Ḥanafī on one of his expeditions and employed as a guide. During the night he tried to escape, took one of the best camels and went away. He was however pursued on horses and recaptured. As a punishment for theft the Ḥarūrī imposed…

Ṭahmāsp I

(941 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, second ruler of Persia of the Safawī dynasty, eldest son of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I born in 919 (1514); he ascended the throne at the age of ten years (930 = 1524) and was of course the plaything of the Ḳi̊zi̊lbash chiefs. He defeated the Uzbegs in 934 (1527) near Turbet-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḏj̲am. Summoned to Bag̲h̲dād by the rebellion of Ḏh̲u ’l-Faḳār of the Kurd tribe of the Mūṣlū, who was supported by the Kalhur Kurds and claimed to be under Turkish suzerainty (936 = 1530), he found him murdered by his b…

Ṭahmūrat̲h̲

(2,545 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the second king of the Pīs̲h̲dādī dynasty in the Persian epic cycle. The name Tak̲h̲mō-urupa ( Avesta), Tak̲h̲mōrup ( Bundahis̲h̲) is compounded of tak̲h̲ma (“strong, courageous”) (cf. Rustam < Rustahm) + urupa (or urupi) (cf. Christensen, p. 140), “a certain animal of the dog family”, cf. Bartholomae, Altir. Wört., p. 1532, who, however, expresses doubts as to the real meaning of the name (Darmesteter, Avesta, ii., p. 583, interprets it “of sturdy shape”; cf. ¶ Sanskrit rūpa?). Later forms are Tak̲h̲mūraf, Tahmūras. The transcription into Arabic characters Ṭahmūrat̲h̲…

Taḥrīf

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), corruption of a document, whereby the original sense is altered. It may happen in various ways, by direct alteration of the written text, by arbitrary alterations in reading aloud the text which is itself correct, by omitting parts of it or by interpolations or by a wrong exposition of the true sense. The Muslims found occasion to deal with this conception in connection with those passages in the Ḳurʾān where Muḥammad accused the Jews of falsifying the books of revelation given them, i. e. the Thora, ḥarrafū [cf. ḳorʾān, vol. ii. 1066a]. This accusation was really the only way of…

Taḥṣīl

(172 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is the nomen actionis of the second formation of the verb ḥaṣala, and signifies originally, “collection”, “obtaining” or “acquiring”. In India the use of the word is restricted to the collection of the revenue, and it is applied, in the United Provinces and Madras to a subdivision of a district (called taʿalluḳa, or, corruptly, ¶ tālūkā, in the Bombay Presidency) with an area of from 400 to 600 square miles, or less in the United Provinces, forming an administrative and fiscal unit. In size the taḥṣīl comes between the pargana and the sarkār of the Mug̲h̲ul empire, and the official in …

Taḥsīn

(622 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusain ʿAtāʾ Ḵh̲ān, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Taḥsīn, also known by the title Muraṣṣaʿ Raḳm; an Indian author, as it seems, from Itāwā, son of Mīr Bāḳir Ḵh̲ān, whose tak̲h̲alluṣ was S̲h̲awk. The son of Taḥsīn, named Ḳāsim ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, was not only an author, but also a musician. The exact dates of Taḥsīn’s birth and death cannot be fixed; the date of the completion of his most important work, the Nawṭarz-i muraṣṣaʿ, is ± 1195 (1780). The author was in the service of General Smith, whom he accompanied from Lakhnaw to Calcutta. Later on, Taḥsīn lived at Patna, …

al-Ṭāʾiʿ

(333 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
li-Amr Allāh (or li ’llāh) ʿAbd al-Karīm b. al-Faḍl, ʿAbbāsid Caliph, born in 317 (929—930). His father was the caliph al-Muṭīʿ after whose deposition on 13th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 363 (Aug. 5, 974) he was proclaimed Commander of the Faithful. His mother, who survived him, was called ʿUtb. As Ibn al-At̲h̲īr justly observes (ix. 56), al-Ṭāʾiʿ during his reign had not sufficient authority to be able to associate himself with any enterprises worthy of mention. He is only mentioned in history, one may safely say, in connection with…

Ṭaiba

(15 words)

[See al-Madīna .]

Ṭāʾif

(1,634 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, a town in Arabia. It lies 75 miles S. E. of Mecca about 5,000 feet above sea level in the mountains of Sarāt. Of the country round with its walled gardens Burckhardt says that it is “the most attractive that he had seen since his departure for Lebanon in Syria”. The Beduins also describe it as a corner of Syria transported and placed under the inclement sky of the Ḥid̲j̲āz and say this marvel is due to the all powerful intercession of Abraham, the friend of Allāh. This healthy and windy site —…

Taimāʾ

(520 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old settlement in a wellwatered oasis in northern Arabia, four days’ journey south of Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; according to Muḳaddasī, three from Ḥid̲j̲r and four from Wādi ’l-Ḳurā. It lies in a depression the length of which Jaussen and Savignac put at 2 miles with a breadth of 500 yards. The subterranean waters collect and burst forth into a well 40—45 feet deep and about 60 feet in diameter, according to the two travellers just named. Taimāʾ is mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions and in th…

Taimallāh

(757 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. T̲h̲aʿlaba, an Arab tribe belonging to the branch of the Rabīʿa b. Nizār (tribes of the ʿAdnān) and forming part of the great ethnical group of the Bakr b. Wāʾil. Genealogy; Taimallāh b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. ʿUkāba b. Ṣaʿb b. ʿAlī b. Bakr b. Wāʾil. We also find it mentioned under the form Taimallāt, which may be the correct name, for a Muslim (or Christian) alteration of the name al-Lāt to that of Allāh is not at all unlikely while the opposite is hardly conceivable. This tribe as usual with so many other tribes of Arabia formed an alliance ( ḥilf) with the sister tribe of the Banū Ḳais b. T̲h̲aʿl…

Taim B. Murra

(311 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, a clan of the Meccan tribe of Ḳurais̲h̲ Its name, which is born by several other Arab tribes, means “servant” and must therefore be an abbreviation of an ancient theophoric name such as we find in Taimallāh-Taimallāt [q. v.] and in the inscriptions, Taim Manāt, Taim Ruḍā, ΘαιμηλοΣ etc. (cf. Wellhausen, Reste 2, p. 7; Lidzbarski, Handbuch d. nordsem. Epigrahik, p. 385). The Taim b. Murra belonged to the Ḳurais̲h̲ al-Baṭāʾiḥ i. e. to the clans which were dominant in Mecca: but in spite of that ¶ they do not seem to have possessed any political influence, while their real relatives…

Ṭaiy

(609 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, a tribe in early Arabia of Yamanite origin. According to the genealogists its ancestor, Ḏj̲ulhuma b. Udad, with the surname of Ṭaiy, was a descendant of Ḳaḥṭān and a brother of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ and Murra, the ancestor of the large tribe of Kinda. Originally they were at home in that part of the South-Arabian Ḏj̲ōf in which Ḥunaka was situated, on the way between Ṣanʿāʾ and Mecca. Ṭaiy, as well as Azd and other South-arabian tribes, joined the migration which tradition connects with the break of th…

Taʿizz

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an important town in South Arabia, formerly the capital of the Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizzīya, which according to the provincial law regarding the general administration of wilāyets Taḳwīm-i Weḳāʾiʿ (March 15, 1913) included the ḳaḍās of ʿUdain, Ibb, Muk̲h̲ā. Ḳamāʿira, Ḳaʿṭaba, Ḥud̲j̲arīya, and, according to R. Manzoni, also Mak̲h̲ādir, Ḏh̲ī Sufāl, Māwiya, i. e. the whole country between al-Ḥudaida and the independent lands northeast of ʿAden. The town, which lies in 44° 6’ 45” East. Long (Greenw.) and 13° 36’ 55” North L…

Takas̲h̲

(549 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish pronunciation: Tekes̲h̲) b. īl-Arslān, king of Ḵh̲warizm [q. v.] 567—596 (1172—1200), of the fourth and most glorious dynasty of Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āhs [q. v.], was, before his accession governor of Ḏj̲and on the lower course of the Si̊r-Daryā [q. v.]; he had to fight for his throne with his younger brother Sulṭān S̲h̲āh, and in the struggle at first Takas̲h̲ and then his brother received the support of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itai [q. v.]. When the fight was finally decided in favour of Takas̲h̲, Sulṭān S̲h̲āh succeeded with the help of the Ḳara Ḵh̲itai in establishing him…

Takbīr

(344 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive II from the root k-b-r in the denominative sense: to pronounce the formula Allāh akbar. It is already used in this sense in the Ḳurʾān (e. g. Sūra lxxiv. 3; xvii., m with Allāh as the object). On the different explanations of the elative akbar in this formula cf. Lisān, s. v. and the Ḳurʾānic elative akram also applied to Allāh (Sūra xcvi. 3) and aʿlā (Sūra xcii. 20; lxxxvii. 1). The formula, as the briefest expression of the absolute superiority of the One God, is used in Muslim life in different circumstances, in which the idea of Allāh, his greatn…

Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲i

(547 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, lit. “woodcutter”, the name of an Anatolian sect with S̲h̲īʿa tendencies. The Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲i, like the Čepni or Četni (cf. F. Babinger in Z. D. M. G., lxxvi [1922], 141 and F. Taeschner, ibid., p. 282 sqq.) who are mentioned as early as the end of the xiv’h century, the Zeibeks [q. v.] and all the sub-sects comprised under the name Ḳi̊zi̊lbas̲h̲, form a separate element in the population of Anatolia, as regards ethnography and religious history, the origin of which has not yet been satisfactorily explained. As to the Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲…

Taḳī Kās̲h̲ī

(96 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ḥusainī Kās̲h̲ānī, a Persian biographer, a native of the town of Kās̲h̲ān, died in 1016 (1607). He wrote in 985 (1577—78) the Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-As̲h̲ʿār wa-Zubdat al-Afkār, and wrote the preface to the Dīwān of Muḥtas̲h̲am, who was a poet of the time of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I and of Tahmāsp I. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Bland, J.R.A.S, ix. 126—134 Sprenger, Catal. Oudh., p. 13—46 Rieu, Catal. of Persian Mss., p. 1046’’ E. G. Browne, Literary History of Persia, ii. 370 W. Ivanow, Descriptive Catal. (Calcutta 1924), p. 298, 305.

Taḳīya

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), caution, fear (see Glossarium to Ṭabarī, s.v. t-ḳ-d) or keitmān, “disguise”, is the technical term for dispensation from the requirements of religion under compulsion or threat of injury. Muḥammad himself avoided suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by docetism (Sūra iv. 156) and in everyday life by the hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in case of need the denial of the faith (Sūra xvi. 108), friendship with unbelievers (iii. 27) and the eating of forbidden foods (vi. 119; v. 5). This point of view is general in Islām. But, as he at the …

Taḳlīd

(2,071 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), “to hang something around the neck or on the shoulders”, used as a technical term in the following three meanings: 1. Taḳlīd is the name of the custom originating in Arab paganism and surviving in the ancient practice of Islām and in Fiḳh, of hanging certain objects around the neck of the animals to be slain ( hady) as a sacrifice in the sacred territory of Mecca ( ḥaram) (as ḳilāda, plur. ḳalāʾid). The ḳalāʾid are mentioned along with the hady in Ḳurʾān v. 2 and 98 among the customs of the pilgrimage instituted by Allāh. The object of this rite was, along with the is̲h̲ʿār (branding by an inc…

Taklīf

(561 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
is imposing a requisition or constraint upon any one; it requires an action in which there is difficulty and trouble (Lane, Suppl., p. 3002 c; Lisān, xi. 218: amarahu bi-mā yas̲h̲uḳḳu ʿalaihi). The verb is used in several forms seven times in the Ḳurʾān (ii. 233, 286; iv. 86; vi. 153; vii. 40; xxiii. 64; lxv. 7) to express that Allāh does not require of any one what is beyond his capacity ( wusʿ). Technically it means the necessity which lies on the creatures of Allāh to believe and act as He has revealed to them. It is therefore denned legally by the majority of canonists as the requiring ( ilzām) of a…

Tākoronnā

(218 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a name given in Muslim Spain to the mountain massif of the south of Andalusia, now called Serrania de Ronda. This is undoubtedly a double of the Berber word which is frequently found in North African names, tākrūna. Different writers have given different vocalisations of Tākoronnā: they may be found collected with references in a valuable note by W. Marçais and Abderrahmân Guîga, Textes arabes de Takroûna [in Tunisia], i., Paris 1925, p. viii., note I. Cf. also Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲ām, s. v. s̲h̲īrāz; Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl, al-Ṣila, ed. Codera, B. a. h., p. 185 and 302; Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī, al-…

Takrīt

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(popular pronunciation Tikrīt, cf. Yāḳūt), a town on the right bank of the Tigris to the north of Sāmarrā (according to Streck the distance is a day’s journey) and at the foot of the range of the Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn. Geographically this is the northern frontier district of the ʿIrāḳ. The land is still somewhat undulating; the old town was built on a group of hills, on one of which beside the river, stands the modern town. To the north is a sandstone cliff 200 feet above the level of the river, on which…

Takrūr

(2,939 words)

Author(s): Delafosse, M.
, Tuculor (French Toucouleur), is the name given to the population of negro stock which inhabits the greater part of the lowlands of Senegalese Fūta and the larger part of Bundu. The first of these countries lying on either side of the river Senegal but more on the left bank, includes from west to east the provinces of Dimār, Tōro, Lāo, Yirlāḅe or Irlāḅe, Bōseya, Ngenār or Ganār and Damga. Bundu lies west of the lower Faleme. Tuculor colonies are also found in different parts of West Africa, especially at Kayes (on the upper Senegal), at Nyōro (in Sudanese Sahel), at Sēgu (on ¶ the Niger), at Pan…

Ṭalāʾiʿ

(606 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. Rūzzīk al-Mālik al-Ṣāliḥ, Fāṭimid wazīr (495—556 = 1101—1161). The events immediately attendant on the treacherous murder of the 12th Fāṭimid caliph al-Ẓāfir (1154) called him forth, at the request of the ladies of the royal household, from his governorship at Us̲h̲mūnain to play the rôle of strong man essential in the circumstances. Success crowned his march on Cairo with his followers from Upper Egypt. Then, following the deposition of ʿAbbās, he was appointed wazīr to the child caliph al-Fāʾiz in 549 (1154) with the title of al-Ṣāliḥ bi ’llāh. His traitorous predecessor in off…

Ṭalāḳ

(4,826 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), repudiation of a wife by a husband, a form of divorce, effected by his pronouncing the words anti ṭāliḳ. The root idea of the verb ṭalaka is: to be freed from a tether etc. (of a camel), to be repudiated by a man (of a wife; in this sense also ṭaluḳa), hence ṭallaḳa, to release (a camel) from a tether, to repudiate (a wife); ṭāliḳ means a camel untethered or a woman repudiated by a man (cf. Lane, Arab. Eyl. Lexicon s. v.). I. The right to a one-sided dissolution of a marriage belonged to the man exclusively, among the pre-Muḥammadan Arabs. Long before Muḥammad this ṭalāḳ was in general use amon…

Ṭālaḳān

(265 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(ṭālḳān; Samʿānī, Ansāb, f. 363b), name of two towns in Persia. 1. A town in Ṭuk̲h̲āristān, between Balk̲h̲ and Merw al-Rūd̲h̲, three days’ march from the latter. Situated in a plain, but quite close to the mountains (an arrow-shot, g̲h̲alwa), it was the largest town of the province and had a large market; it was divided into several parts by two rivers: Ḵh̲uṭṭal-āb (correction of de Goeje) and Bar-āb. It was destroyed in 617 (1220) by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān; ruins near Čāčaktū. 2. A town in Dailam, between Ḳazwīn and Abhar, capital of a district of the same name including several sm…

Talavera

(151 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of several places in Spain; the Arabic form is Ṭalabīra. They are the following: 1. Talavera de la Reina, a town of 10,600 inhabitants, the Caesarobriga of the Romans, on a fertile plain on the banks of the Tagus about 100 miles below Toledo, at the entrance to the Sierra de Gredos: Towers dating from the period of Arab occupations may still be seen there: “the Torres Albarranas”. The Arab geographers boast of the solidity of the ḥiṣn of this town; 2. ca. 20 miles south of the latter: Talavera la Vieja, the ancient Augustobriga; 3. Talavera la Real, a little village ¶ on the south bank o…

Talbiya

(363 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive of form II of the verb labbā, which is formed from the term labbaika to mean “to pronounce the formula labbaika” etc. Labbaika is connected — and probably rightly — by the Arab lexicographers with labb un which means “offering devoted service” as labbaika does “at your service”. According to the native grammarians labbai is a „frequentative” dual. It is difficult to say what is the significance of the element ai in this and similar forms like saʿdaika. The explanation from the Hebrew proposed by Dozy ( De Isrdëliten te Mekka, Haarlem 1864, p. 120) may be said to be now…

Ṭalḥa

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. ʿUbaidallāh, companion of the Prophet, one of the ten mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ara, i. e. those to whom the Prophet had promised Paradise. He belonged to the Ḳurais̲h̲ clan of the Banū Taim b. Murra [q.v.]; his genealogy was: Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbaidallāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAmr b. Kaʿb b. Saʿd b. Taim b. Murra and his kunya, Abū Muḥammad, from his son, celebrated for his piety and one of the first readers of the Ḳurʾān; both father and son were killed in the battle of the camel in 36 a. h. Ṭalḥa was one of the earliest converts to Islām. According to tradition he had suffered along with Abū Bakr the th…

Taʿlīḳ

(7 words)

[See arabia , i. 387a.]

Tali̊s̲h̲

(432 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district and people in the north of the Persian province of Gīlān [q. v.], which since the peace of Gulistān (12/24th Oct. 1813) has belonged to Russia. The name according to Marquart, Osteuropäische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge, Leipzig 1903, p. 278 sq., is first found in the form T’alis̲h̲ in the Armenian translation of the romance of Alexander, Ch. 194 = ii. 19, p. 76 (ed. C. Müller). In the history of the Arab conquest (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 327; al-Ṭabarī, i. 2805) the country is called al-Ṭailasān; according to al-Aṣma…

Talisman

(4 words)

[See Ẓamāʾil.]

Talk̲h̲īṣ

(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)

Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i

(129 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or in the official style, Talk̲h̲īṣī, was the individual appointed to prepare the précis called talk̲h̲īṣ [q. v.] and to take it to the palace where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the grand vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the talk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām was not — at least in the later period — in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first of all through th…

Ṭālūt

(884 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
is the name of king Saul of the Bible in the Ḳurʾān (ii. 248, 250). The name is explained as early as T̲h̲aʿlabī from the height ( ṭūl) of Ṭālūt. Ṭālūt recalls Ḏj̲ālūt (Goliath), an assonance of pairs of names, like Hārūt-Mārūt, Hābil-Ḳābil, Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ (Goldziher). Ḏj̲ālūt itself is explained from the Hebrew (Horovitz). In the Ḳurʾān (ii. 247—253) the following is told of Ṭālūt. After the time of Moses Israel demanded a king. God appointed Ṭālūt king but the people did not find him worthy of the throne. Ṭālūt was distinguished for the…

Tamattuʿ

(6 words)

[See Iḥrām , Mutaʿ.]

Tamgrūt

(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra [q. v.]), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother- zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣirīya [q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet broad but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam = mouth) al-Sūḳ, in the N. E., Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the S. W., Bāb al-Rizḳ and to the east, Fumm al-Sūr. An import…

al-Tamgrūtī

(222 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, a Moroccan writer, a native of Tamgrūt [q. v.], died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 1003 (1594—1595) and was buried in the sanctuary of Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ. He held an official position at the court of the Saʿdian Sulṭān Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī (986—1012 = 1578—1602). He was placed by this ruler in charge of the embassy to Sulṭān Murād III in Constantinople along with another court dignitary Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Fis̲h̲tālī, d. 1021 (1612—1613). Al-Tamgrūtī prepared an account of his journey ( riḥla) which he called al-Nafaḥat al-…

Tamīm

(198 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
b. al-Muʿizz, brother of the fifth Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz, is said to have been born c. 337 (948—949). He was noted in his day for his liberality and interest in belles lettres. A prince of culture and elegance with a reputation amongst his contemporaries as a poet of refinement and skill. He missed nomination as heir apparent, his brother al-ʿAzīz being preferred to him. Al-ʿAzīz seems to have been very fond of him, judging from his grief at the latter’s death, which is stated to have taken place at Cairo in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 3…

Tamīm

(2,604 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. Murr, an Arab tribe; their genealogy (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, K. L.) Tamīm b. Murr b. Udd b. Ṭābik̲h̲a b. al-Yās b. Muḍar, puts them among the Muḍarī tribes where they take first place; indeed their name is often used as a synonym of the whole Muḍarī branch in contrast to the Ḳais and the Rabīʿa. Of the two latter, the Rabīʿa are most closely delated to them, which is not apparent in the systematic genealogies (where on the contrary the Ḳais are descended from the Muḍar while the Rabīʿa are not), but from expressions like the dual al-Ḏj̲uffān (Lisān al-ʿArab, x. 373) meaning the Tamīm…

Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz

(605 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
, fifthrulerofthe Ṣanhād̲j̲a family of the Banū Zīrī, who reigned in eastern Barbary from 454-501 (1062—1108). He was born at Ṣabra—Man-Ṣūrīya near al-Ḳairawān. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī described him as a man of tall stature and handsome appearance, and gives some curious details about his way of living. He was a very highly cultured man and reckoned among the most distinguished poets who have occupied a throne. He was 23 in 445 (1053) when al-Muʿizz, his father, appointed him governor of al-Mahdīya [q. v.]. It was just after the appearance of the Banū Hilāl Arabs, who …

Tamīm al-Dārī

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, a companion of the Prophet. His nisba al-Dārī is said to be derived from the clan of the Banū ’l-Dār (for ʿAbd al-Dār, according to Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, iv. 108, note 4), a section of the tribe of Lak̲h̲m [q.v.]. Al-Nawawī however ( Tahd̲h̲īb al-Asmāʾ, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 178) gives him the nisba of al-Dairī, said to be derived from the convent ( dair) in which he was a monk before his conversion to Islām. His genealogy was: Tamīm b. Aws b. Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲a b. Sawād (var. Sūd) b. Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma b. Darāʿ (var. Ḏh̲irāʿ, Widāʿ) b. ʿAdī b. al-Dār b. Hāni…

Tammūz

(187 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the tenth month in the Syriac calender. Its name is derived from that of the fourth Jewish month with which it roughly coincides. It corresponds to July in the Roman calendar and like it has 31 days. According to al-Bīrūnī, in Tammūz the lunar stations 8 and 9 rise and 22 and 23 set; the days on which one rose and the other, 14 days apart from it, set were the 10th and 23rd. According to al-Ḳazwīnī on the other hand, stations 7 and 8 rise, 21 and 22 set, on the 4th and 17th respectively. In the year 1300 of the Seleucid era (989 a. d.) according to al-Bīrūnī the stars of the stations mentioned by a…
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