Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Rāʾ

(126 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, tenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 200. For its palaeo-graphical evolution see the article arabia, plate i. It belongs to the group of the liquids and is frequently interchanged with l and n. It regularly corresponds to the r of other Semitic languages. It is not guttural but lingual. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Lectures on the. comparative grammar of the Semitic languages, Cambridge 1890, p. 67 H. Zimmern, Vergl. Grammatik der sem. Sprachen, Leipzig 1898, p. 31—32 Brockelmann, Précis de linguistique sémitique, transi, by W. Marçais and M. Cohen, Paris 1910, p. 74 do., Grundriss der vergl. Gramm. d. sem. Sprachen, i. 44, 137—138, 173, 176, 202—203 A. Schaade, Sihawaihi’s Lautlehre, Leyden 1911, index s. v. rāʾ.

Rabāb

(2,647 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, the generic name in Arabic for the viol, or any stringed instrument played with a bow ( ḳaws). The origin of the name has been variously explained : a. from the Hebrew lābab (l land r being interchangeable) ; b. from the Persian rubāb (), which was played with the fingers or plectrum; and c. from the Arabic rabba (to collect, arrange, assemble together). The first derivation is scarcely feasible. The second has a raison d’être, although the mere similarity in name must not be accepted without question. In spite of the oft repeated statement that the Arabs admit that they borrowed the rabāb from …

Rabaḍ

(248 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(a., pl. arbād), district of a town, quarter, situated outside the central part or madīna [q. v.]. The term, which is very frequently found in the Arab historians of the middle ages in east as well as west, is the original of the Spanish word arrabal which means the same. Rabaḍ also means the immediate vicinity of a town. The rabad usually had a name of its own. This is how there have been preserved for the Cordova of the caliphate of the xth century the names of twenty-one of the suburban districts. Rabaḍ S̲h̲aḳunda [q. v.] or al-Rabaḍ (for short) was the southern quarter of …

Rabah

(322 words)

Author(s): Delafosse, Maurice
Zubair-Pas̲h̲a, Egyptian governor of Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl in 1875, being recalled to Cairo left his son Sulaimān in charge. The latter thinking he was threatened by the hostility of Gordon, then Governor-General of the Sūdān, joined Hārūn, the dethroned sulṭān of Dār-Fūr, in order to rebel against Egypt. His chief lieutenant was a certain Rabah, son of a negress who had been his father’s nurse and was therefore his foster-brother. Gessi-Pas̲h̲a sent by Gordon inflicted a severe defeat on Sulaimān a…

Rabat

(2,044 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Ar. Ribāṭ al-Fatḥ, vulg. er-Rbāṭ (ethnic Ribāṭī, vulg. Rbāṭī), a town in Morocco, situated on the south bank at the mouth of the Wādī Abū Raḳrāḳ (Wed Bu Regreg) opposite the town of Sale [cf. salā]. Since the establishment of the French protectorate it has been the administrative capital of the S̲h̲arīfian empire, the usual residence of the sulṭān of Morocco, and the headquarters of the mak̲h̲zen [q. v.] and of the French authorities. The choice of Rabat as the administrative centre of Morocco has brought this town considerable development in place of the som…

Rabb

(163 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), lord, God, master of a slave. Pre-Islāmic Arabia probably applied this term to its gods or to some of them. In this sense the word corresponds to the terms like Baʿal, Adon in the Semitic languages of the north where rabb means “much, great”. — In one of the oldest sūras (cvi. 3) Allāh is called the “lord of the temple”. Similarly al-Lāt bore the epithet al-Rabba, especially at Ṭāʾif where she was worshipped in the image of a stone or of a rock. — In the Ḳurʾān rabb (especially with the po…

Rabīʿ

(165 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), the name of the third and fourth months of the Muslim calendar. The name is an Aramaic loanword and in the Syriac translation of the Bible corresponds to the Hebrew malḳōs̲h̲ (late rain). This and the fact that the two months following Rabīʿ II are called Ḏj̲umādā (month of frost) suggested.to Wellhausen that these four months originally fell in winter and that the old Arab year began with the winter half-year [see al-muḥarram]. Rabīʿ means originally the season in which, as a result of the rains, the earth is covered with green; this later led to the name Rabī…

Rābiʿa al-ʿAdawīya

(1,608 words)

Author(s): Smith, Margaret
, a famous mystic and saint of Baṣra, a freedwoman of the Āl ʿAtīk, a tribe of Ḳais b. ʿAdī, known also as al-Ḳaisīya, born 95 (713—714) or 99, died and was buried at Baṣra in 185 (801). A few verses of hers are recorded : she is mentioned, and her teaching quoted, by most of the Ṣūfī writers and the biographers of the saints. Born into a poor home, she was stolen as a child and sold into slavery, but her sanctity secured her freedom, and she retired to a life of seclusion and celibacy, at first in the desert and then in Baṣra, where she gathered round her ma…

Rabīʿa and Muḍar

(2,520 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H.
, the two largest and most powerful combinations of tribes in ancient Northern Arabia. The name Rabīʿa is a very frequent one in the nomenclature of the Arab tribes. More important tribes of this name within the Muḍar group are the Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, from which came the Kaʿb, Kilāb and Kulaib, then the Rabīʿa b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Kaʿb, Rabīʿa b. Kilāb, Rabīʿa b. al-Aḍbaṭ and Rabīʿa b. Mālik b. Ḏj̲aʿfar; also the Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳail and Rabīʿa b. Ḏj̲aʿda; three branches of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams also bear this nam…

Rabīb al-Dawla

(234 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abū Manṣūr b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusain, a vizier. When the vizier Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī [q. v.] made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 481 (1089) he appointed his son Rabīb al-Dawla and the naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ Ṭirād b. Muḥammad al-Zainabī his deputies and in 507 (1113 — 1114) on the death of Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ahīr [see the article ibn d̲j̲ahīr, 3] Rabīb al-Dawla was appointed vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir [q. v.]. In Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 511 (April 1118) the fourteen year old Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad succee…

al-Rabīʿ b. Yūnus

(606 words)

Author(s): Atiya, A. S.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Farwa (so-called from his entering Medīna with a fleece on his back), emancipated slave of al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Ḥaffār (grave-digger), emancipated slave of ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān. He was really a bastard of obscure origin, a fact which was often brought up against him by his enemies later in his career. Born in slavery at Medīna about 112 (730), he was bought by Ziyād b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī who presented him to his master Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ, the first ʿAbbāsid Caliph. All his lif…

Raḍāʿ

(1,083 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
or Riḍāʿ, also Raḍāʿa (a.), suckling; as a technical term, the suckling which produces the impediment to marriage of foster-kinship. It is to be supposed that the idea of foster-kinship was already prevalent among the ancient Arabs (cf. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia 2, p. 176, 196, note 1); this is evident from, among other things, the way in which the prescription of the Ḳurʾān regarding this is interpreted in Tradition. In Sūra iv. 23, among the female relatives with whom marriage is forbidden are the foster-mother…

Rādhanpūr

(288 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Muslim state in India now included in the Western India States Agency and situated to the south-west of Pālanpūr. The rulers of Rādhanpūr trace their descent from a Muslim adventurer who came to India from Iṣpahān about the middle of the xviith century. His descendants became fawd̲j̲dārs and farmers of revenue in the Mug̲h̲al province of Gud̲j̲arāt [q. v.]. Early in the xviiith century Ḏj̲awān Mard Ḵh̲ān Bābī, the head of the family at that time, received a grant of Rād̲h̲anpūr and other districts ( Mīrʾāt-i Aḥmadī, Ethé, N°. 3599, fol. 742). With the decline of the Mug̲h̲al em…

al-Rāḍī Bi ’llāh

(814 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad (Muḥammad) b. al-Muḳtadir, the twentieth ʿAbbāsid caliph. He was born in Rabīʿ II 297 (Dec. 909); his mother was a slave named Ẓalūm. He was proposed for the caliphate immediately after the assassination of his father al-Muḳtadir [q. v.] but the choice fell upon al-Ḳāhir [q. v.]. The latter had him thrown into prison; after the fall of al-Ḳāhir, he was released and put upon the throne (Ḏj̲umādā I 322 = April 934). As his adviser in this difficult period al-Rāḍī chose al-Muḳtadir’s vizier ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā [see the art. ibn al-d̲j̲arrāḥ, 2] who however asked to be excused …

Rad̲j̲ab

(255 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), the name of the seventh month in the Muslim calendar. In the Ḏj̲āhilīya it introduced the summer half year until, as a result of the abolition of the intercalated months, the months ceased to fall regularly at the same season of the year [see al-muḥarram and nasīʾ]. The month was a sacred one; in it the ʿumra [q. v.], the essentially Meccan part of the pre-Muḥammadan ceremonies of pilgrimage, took place. The peace of Allāh therefore prevailed in it; the forbidden war which was fought in Rad̲j̲ab between Ḳurais̲h̲ and Hawāzin and in which the young Muḥammad took part is called Fid̲j̲ār (per…

Rad̲j̲az

(3,661 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arabic metre. The name is said by the Arabs (see e.g. L.A., vii. 218 middle and Freytag, Darstellung der arabischen Verskunst, p. 135) to mean “trembling” and to have been given to the metre because it can be shortened to two double feet and thus become like a rad̲j̲zāʾ i. e. a she-camel which trembles with weakness when rising up. Other Arab explanations connect the word with rid̲j̲āza “counterpoise” (al-Suhailī on Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 171, 10: ibid., ii. 58 below). Nöldeke’s suggestion ( W.Z.K.M., x., 1896, p. 342) that rad̲j̲az means something like rumbling (na…
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