Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(658 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, the name of a district on the north coast of Atjeh (Sumatra) which according to the prevalent native view stretches from the Ḏj̲ambō-Ajé-river in the east to the other side of the Pasè river in the west. The whole area is divided up into a number of little states each with an ulèïbalang or chief. Pasè at one time was a kingdom known throughout eastern Asia. The north coast of Atjeh was in the middle ages on the trade route by sea from Hindustan to China. Islām followed this route and firmly established itself from India on this coast, the first poi…


(2,748 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(T., from the Pers. pādis̲h̲āh, probably influenced by Turkish basḳaḳ), the highest official title of honour ( ʿunwān or laḳab) in use in Turkey until quite recently and still surviving in certain Muslim countries originally parts of the Turkish empire (Egypt, ʿIrāḳ, Syria). It was always accompanied by the proper name like the titles of nobility in Europe but with this difference from the latter, that it was placed after the name (like the less important titles of bey and efendi). In addition, being neither hereditary nor giving any rank to wives, nor attached to territori…


(109 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(t.), means 1. the office or title of a pas̲h̲a [q. v.]; 2. the territory under the authority of a pas̲h̲a (in the provinces). After some of the governors called sand̲j̲aḳ-beyi (or mīr-liwā) had been raised to the dignity of pas̲h̲a, their territories ( sand̲j̲aḳ or liwā; q. v.) also received the name of pas̲h̲ali̊ḳ. Early in the xixth century of 158 sand̲j̲aḳs 70 were pas̲h̲ali̊ḳs. Of these 25 were pas̲h̲a sand̲j̲ag̲h̲i̊, i. e. sand̲j̲aḳs in which were the capitals of an eyālet, the residence of the governor-general or wālī of a province. For further details, cf. Mouradgea d’Ohsson, Tableau …


(8 words)

[See Afg̲h̲ānistān , i. 149 sq.]


(1,332 words)

Author(s): Nieuwenhuis, A. W.
The sulṭānate of Pasir in S. E. Borneo comprises the valley of the Pasir or Kendilo river, which, rising in the north on the borders of Kutei runs in a southeasterly direction along the eastern borders of the Beratos range and turning east finally reaches the straits of Malacca through a marshy district. The country, about 1,125 sq. km. in area, is still covered by primitive forest, in so far as the scanty population, which is found mainly in Pasir, the residence of the sulṭān, and in Tanah Gro…


(980 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(written cf. Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, ii. 1467) or Pazwant-Og̲h̲lu ( in ʿAbd al-Raḥmān S̲h̲araf, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ii. 280) or, according to the new orthography, Pazvantoǧlu (Hāmit ve Muhsin, Türkiye Tarihi, p. 423) but on his own seal “Pazwand-zāde ʿOt̲h̲mān” (in Orěškow, see Bibl.), the rebel Pas̲h̲a of Vidin (1758—1807). His family originated in Tuzla in Bosnia, but his grandfather Paswan Ag̲h̲a, for his services in the Austrian wars, was, granted two villages near Vidin in Bulgaria about 1739. Ot̲h̲mān’s father ʿOmar Ag̲h̲a Paswan-Og̲h̲lu not only inherited these villages but as bairaktār etc.…


(777 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, an administrative district of Si am in the extreme south of the kingdom on the east coast of the peninsula of Malacca; it is bounded on the south by the Malay states of Kělantan and Kědah, both under British protection. The whole district is made up of seven Malay petty states, each with its own native chief who is assisted by a Siamese official. Malay forms of government are allowed to remain. In the capital of the same name resides the Siamese High Commissioner of the district. His advice has to be obeyed by the rulers of the states. The native inhabitants are Muslims. Friday and other mos…


(8 words)

[See Afg̲h̲ānistān , i. 149 sqq.]


(8 words)

[See Riyāla , See b, 3.]


(21 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, the name given in the Mog̲h̲ul Emperor Akbar’s monetary system to the ¼ dāmpaisā). (J. Allan)


(1,415 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, a people of Turkish stock of the middle ages. Their name occurs in numerous variants (Bad̲j̲nāk, Pačnak, Πατζινακῖται, Πατζινάκαι, Patzinacitae, Patzinacae, Piecinigi, Pincenakiti, Pecenaci etc.; also Bysseni, Bessi, in Hungarian Besenyök, etc.). There is no longer any doubt that they were a branch of the Turkish race. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (xiiith century; see g̲h̲āzān) and Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (1073) number them among the G̲h̲uzz [q. v.] tribes; the latter ( Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk, i. 27; cf. K. Cs. A., i. 36) puts them in the northern group of Turkish peoples, to which th…


(560 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Ibrāhīm, Ottoman historian. Ibrāhīm was born in 982 (1574) in Fünfkirchen (Hungary, Hung. Pécs, Turk. Pečewi, i. e. Pečewili̊) whence his epithet Pečewi (cf. Pečewi, Taʾrīk̲h̲, i. 286 and ii. 433: also J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., iv. 5, note). His ancestors were holders of fiefs in Bosnia and Hungary. Pečewi has not recorded his father’s name (cf. Taʾrīk̲h̲, i. 87); he was in any case already domiciled in Fünfkirchen. His mother was a member of the celebrated family of Sokolović (Ṣoḳolli). Of Pečewi’s early years, we know that at the age of 14 he was taken…


(154 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arab. Bad̲j̲d̲j̲āna, formerly an important town in the south-east of Spain, to the north ofhlmeria [q. v.] (originally Marīyat Bad̲j̲d̲j̲ānd), from which it is about six miles distant. Towards the middle of the ninth century it was the centre of a kind of maritime republic founded by Andalusian sailors, who had also a colony on the Algerian coast at Tenes [q. v.]. It consisted of several quarters separated by gardens; becoming the capital of a kūra of the same name, Pechina was later supplanted by its neighbour Almeria, to which its inhabitants soon migrated. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliogra…


(293 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Muḥammad b. Īldegiz, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. His father Īldegiz [q. v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sulṭān Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.] was Pehlewān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Īldegiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳ Sunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pehlewān played a prominent part [cf. the article marāg̲h̲a]. From his father he inherited in 568 (1172—1173) Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, al-Ḏj̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and al-Raiy with their dependent ter…


(4 words)

[See Constantinople.]


(5 words)

[See Malay Peninsula.]


(638 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an island at the entrance to the Red Sea in 12° 40′ 30″ N. Lat., 41° 3′ E. Long, called Māyūn by the Arabs, an English possession. The island, which belongs to ʿAden, is 96 miles west of ʿAden and two miles from the Arabian coast. The narrow strait which separates it from the mainland of Arabia is called Bāb el-Manhalī. Perīm therefore commands the exit from the Red Sea, but is in turn commanded by the Ḏj̲ebel Manhalī at the port of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Saʿīd, if this — as was done by the Turks in the Wo…


(4 words)

[See Iṣṭak̲h̲r.]
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