Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Pāʾ

(102 words)

Author(s): Levy, R.
( pe); bā’-i fārsī or bāʾ-i ʿad̲j̲amī: the bāʾ with three points subscript, invented for Persian as supplement to the soft Arabic bāʾ and to represent the hard labial. It is sometimes interchangeable with bāʾ (e. g. asp and asb, dabīr and dapīr) and, more frequently, with fāʾ (e. g. sapīd and safīd, Pārs and Fārs). The regular use of the letter in manuscripts is comparatively modern, but it is found in good ones of the viith—xiiith century while at the same time it is often omitted in manuscripts of much later date ( G. I. Ph., 1/iv., p. 74). (R. Levy)

Pādis̲h̲āh

(379 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the name for Muslim rulers, especially emperors. The Persian term pād-i s̲h̲āh, i. e. (according to M. Bittner in E. Oberhummer, Die Türken und das Osmanische Reich, Leipzig 1917, p. 105) “lord who is a royalty” in which the root pad is connected with Sanskrit patis, lord, husband, fem. patni, Greek πότνια δεσ-πότηΣ, Lat. potens (G. Curtius, Griech. Etymol., p. 377), was originally a title reserved exclusively for the sovereign, which in course of time and as a result of the long intercourse of the Ottomans with the states of the west also came to be …

Padri

(2,408 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
“Padries” or „Padaries”, also “Pedaries” is the name given in Dutch literature to the people who wished to carry through by force a reformation of Islām in the early decades of the xixth century in Minangkabau (Central Sumatra). In explanation of this expression it may be said that, according to one opinion, the word is connected with Pedir, a harbour on the north coast of Sumatra, while, according to another, it corresponds to the word padri (Port, padre) used in several Indonesian languages meaning “Christian clergyman”, whether Roman Catholic or Protestant. The first …

Pahang

(5 words)

[See Malay Peninsula.]

Pāʾī

(64 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hind.), anglicé pie, the smallest copper coin of British India = 1/12 of an anna. Originally, in the East India Company’s early experiments for a copper coinage, the pie as its name implies, was the quarter of an anna or pice [cf. paisā]; since the Acts of 1835, 1844 and 1870, however, the pie has been ⅓ of a pice. (J. Allan)

Paisā

(103 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hind.), anglicé pice, a copper coin of British India = 3 pies or ¼ anna. Under the Mog̲h̲uls the name paisā became applied to the older dām, introduced by S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh, 40 of which went to the rupee, as the unit of copper currency; the name found on the coins however is usually simply fulūs or rewānī. Paisā is the general name for the extensive copper coinage coined in the xviiith and xixth centuries by the numerous native states which arose out of the Mog̲h̲ul empire (cf. J. Prinsep, Useful Tables, ed. E. Thomas, London 1858, p. 62 sq.). (J. Allan)

Pākistān

(511 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
means the land of the Pāks. The word Pāk — pure, clean — is not adequately translatable into English It stands for all that is noble and sacred in life for a Muslim. The name Pākistān, which has come to be applied — though not officially — to the five Muslim Provinces in the North-West of the present-day India, is composed of letters taken from the names of its components Pand̲j̲āb, North-West Frontier (of which the inhabitants are mainly Afg̲h̲ān). Kas̲h̲mīr, Sindh, and Balūčistān. These territories we…

Pālāheng

(154 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Pālheng (p.), lit. string, rope, halter, cord, is applied to the cord worn by dervishes around the neck, at the end of which hangs a many-rayed star of carnelian, the size of a crown piece, called teslīm tas̲h̲, which is given to the young dervish at the end of his discipleship. With some, especially the Bektas̲h̲ī dervishes [cf. bektas̲h̲ī], a number of olive-shaped, whitish-grey, transparent stones are strung on the cord; these are found in Mesopotamia and called dürr-i Ned̲j̲ef (“Pearls of Ned̲j̲ef”). The jasper (Turkish yes̲h̲em) from which the teslīm stones of the Bektas̲h̲ī mo…

Pālanpūr

(369 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Muslim state in India now included in the Western India States Agency. The territory incorporated in this agency includes the area formerly known as Kāthiāwār together with the Cutch and Pālanpūr agencies. Its creation in October 1924, marked the end of the political control of the Government of Bombay and the beginning of direct relations with the Government of India. The old Pālanpūr Agency with its headquarters at the town of Pālanpūr was a group of states in Gud̲j̲arāt [q. v.] lying betw…

Palmyra

(1,589 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Tadmur, now Tudmur, theancient Tadmor, called Palmyra by the Greeks (probably a corruption of the older name by a popular etymology; cf. Hommel, in Z.D.M.G., xliv. 547; M. Hartmann, in Z.D.P. V., xx/ii. 128 sqq.) lies northeast of Damascus in the great desert in an oasis watered by two springs. The water is sulphurous but drinkable after it has settled. The climate is unfavourable, having great differences of temperature between day and night and being unbearably hot in summer and sometimes having snow in winter. What it lacked…

Pampeluna

(225 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Sp. Pamplona, Ar. Banbalūna, a town in the north of Spain, capital of the province of Navarre, has at the present day about 30,000 inhabitants. It was conquered by the Arabs in 121 (738) during the rule of the wālī ʿOḳba b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲. But the occupation of the town and its territory was of very short duration. It soon became the capital of the province of Navarre when Garcia Iñigo tried to found a small independent slate; later at the beginning of the tenth century, it was the capital of the first king of Navarre, Sancho Ab…

Pand̲j̲āb

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the land of the five rivers, is a province of modern India which, together with the North-West Frontier Province and Kas̲h̲mīr [q. v.], occupies the extreme north-western corner of the Indian Empire, and, with the exception of ¶ the recently-constituted Delhi province, comprises all of British India north of Sind and Rād̲j̲pūtāna and west of the river Ḏj̲amna. Geographically therefore it includes more than its name implies, for, in addition to the country watered by the Ḏj̲helum, Čināb, Rāwī, Beās, and Satled̲j̲, it embraces the t…

Pand̲j̲dih

(881 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pend̲j̲deh) a village in the Turkoman republic of the U. S. S. R., situated to the east of the Kus̲h̲k river near its junction with the Murg̲h̲āb at Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. The fact that the inhabitants of this area, the Sarik Turkomans, were divided into five sections, the Soktis, Harzagis, Ḵh̲urāsānlis, Bairač, and the ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, has been put forward as a possible explanation of the origin of the name Pend̲j̲deh, but it carries no weight as the Sariks were only nineteenth century immigrants whereas the name was in use in the fifteenth century. This obscure oasis owes a somewhat melancholy…

Pangulu

(1,628 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(Jav.), panghulu (Sund.), pangòlò (Madur.), literally “headman, director” used in the east Indian Archipelago as the name for secular and religious chief administrators, in the islands of Java and Madura the name of a mosque official, namely the chief in his area. The official representatives of religion are organised there on the same scheme as the native administrative officials. Alongside of the regent, the highest ¶ administrative official, is the pangulu of the regency, alongside of the head of the district is the pangulu of the district, called the pangulu naib or briefly naib, an…

Pānīpat

(466 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town and taḥṣīl in the Karnāl district of the Pand̲j̲āb [q. v.]. On three occasions has the fate of Hindustān been decided on the plain of Pānīpat: in 1526, when Bābur [q. v.], the Barlās Turk, defeated Ibrāhīm Lodī; in 1556, when Akbar [q. v.] crushed the forces of Hēmū; and lastly, in 1761, when the Marāṭhās where defeated by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī [q. v.]. The geographical factor combined with internal decay and a weak system of frontier defence has been chiefly responsible for this. From the s…

Pāra

(237 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a Turkish coin, originally a silver piece of 4 aḳčes, first issued early in the xviith century; it soon replaced the aḳče as the monetary unit. The weight, originally 16 grains (1.10 grammes), sank to one quarter of this weight by the beginning of the xixth century and the silver content also depreciated considerably. The multiples of the silver pāra were 5 ( bes̲h̲lik) pāras; 10 ( onlik); 15 ( onbes̲h̲lik); 20 ( yigirmiparalik); 30 ( zolota) and 40 g̲h̲urūs̲h̲ or piastre. Higher denominations: 60 ( altmis̲h̲lik); 80 ( ikilik) and 100 ( yüzlik) pāras were occasionally issued. In the new Med…

Pargana

(617 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the Indian name for an aggregate of villages. The first reference to this term in the chronicles of the Sultanate of Delhi appears to be in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī of S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Indica, 1891, p. 99), for it is not used by Ḥasan al-Niẓāmī in ¶ his Tād̲j̲ al-Maʾāsir or by Minhād̲j̲ al-Dīn in his Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī. Although it first came into prominence in the xivth century partially superseding the term ḳaṣba, it is, in all probability, based on still more ancient divisions in existence before the Muslim conquest. The exact date of its c…

Pārsīs

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Pagliaro, Ant.
Under this name (Pahl. pārsīk, Mod. Pers. pārsī literally “inhabitant of Fārs”) are known the Zoroastrian Īrānians, who, after the Arab conquest, refusing to adopt Islām fled and after various vicissitudes finally settled in India in Gud̲j̲arāt, where they now form an ethnical and religious group of 100,000 persons (101,778 according to the census of 1921). At the present day the name Pārsī is beginning to be used also for the Zoroastrians remaining in Īrān instead of geber, the somewhat contemptuous significance of which [cf. mad̲j̲ūs] is no longer in keeping with the spirit of…

Parwana

(6 words)

[See Muʿīn al-Dīn Sulaimān.]

Pasantren

(1,955 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
Javenese “ santri-place”, seminary for students of theology ( santri) on the islands of Java and Madura, Madur. panjantren, Sund. usually pondok, i.e. the lodgings of the students of the school (“to go to the pondok” = to attend a pasantren). — Elementary education i. e. reciting the Ḳurʾān and the elements of a knowledge of ceremonial law is given in the East Indian Archipelago wherever there are Muḥammadans by teachers, who confine themselves to these subjects, in their own ¶ houses. In the larger villages and towns of Java and Madura there are also teachers who collect p…
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