Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(4 words)

[See S̲h̲arīʿa.]


(1,274 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, toll, customs duty, is a loanword in Arabic and goes back to the Aramaic maksā, cf. Hebrew mekes and Assyr. miksu; from it is formed a verb m-k-s I, II, III and makkās, the collector of customs. According to the Arabic tradition preserved in Ibn Sīda even in the Ḏj̲āhilīya there were market-dues called maks so that the word must have entered Arabic very early. It is found in Arabic papyri towards the end of the first century a. h. Becker has dealt with the history of the maks, especially in Egypt, and we follow him here. The old law books use maks in the sense of ʿus̲h̲r, the tenth levied by the mer…


(3,010 words)

Author(s): Brunot, L.
(a.), literally a “school in which writing is taught” in practice means a Ḳurʾānic school, the Muslims believing that the first thing that should be taught an infant is the Ḳurʾān. The word maktab, plur. makātib belongs to the classical language. It is hardly ever found in the spoken dialects in this form. These prefer the word kuttāb, especially in Cairo and Tunis. Kuttāb is found in the middle ages used by Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ al-ʿAbdarī, a Moroccan author (see Bibliography), but it is not now used any longer in Algeria or Morocco. The Ḳurʾānic school has also other names: msīd in Algiers, Tle…


(3,276 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a k̲h̲ānate in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Mākū occupies the N. W. extremity of Persia and forms an enclave between Turkey (the old sand̲j̲aḳ of Bāyazīd) and Transcaucasia. In the west the frontier with Turkey follows the heights which continue the line of Zagros in the direction of Ararat. The frontier then crosses a plain stretching to the south of this mountain (valley of the Ṣari̊-ṣu) and runs over the saddle between Great and Little Ararat. Down to 1920 Great Ararat formed the fronti…


(2,310 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), at first usually called ḳāṭīg̲h̲ūriyās or the ten words ( alfāẓ), is the name given by the Muslim philosophers to the ten categories of Aristotle. Since Aristotle ¶ κατηγορία and κατηγορεῖν (the latter also occasionally in Plato) have been referred to the kinds (γένη, ad̲j̲nās) or forms (σχήματα, as̲h̲kāl) of predication in the judgment or the sentence, and at the same time, because correct judgment should correspond to being, to the kinds of being ( ad̲j̲nās al-mawd̲j̲ūdāt). The categories therefore have not only a logical but also — perhaps with the exception of …


(726 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), means in the old language possession, property, referring among the Beduins particularly to camels, but also to estates and money, in any case to concrete things. The word is formed from and li and means properly anything that belongs to any one. As a noun it is of course treated as a med. w stem from which a ¶ verb is then formed. In the meaning “money” the word is used in the expression māl ṣāmit “dumb property” in contrast to māl nāṭiḳ “speaking property”, applied to slaves and cattle. There is a full definition of the conception in the introduction to the Is̲h̲āra ilā Maḥāsin al-Tid̲j̲…


(292 words)

, a district of the Madras Presidency in British India, situated on the west coast of the peninsula, between 10° 15′ and 12° 18′ N. latitude and 75° 14′ and 76° 15′ E. longitude, and extending for 150 miles along the shores of the Arabian Sea; on the E. the district is bounded by the Western Ghats, the hills of which attain an average elevation of 5,000 feet, but occasionally rise to 8,000 feet. Out of a total population of 2,039,333 (according to the Census of 1921) there are 1,004,327 Muslims, of whom 93,60 per cent are Sunnis; the greater part of them are Mappillas [q. v.]; ¶ the Labbais [q. v.] f…


(875 words)

Author(s): Blagden, C. O.
(from the Sanskrit amlaka through the Malay mĕlaka, Phyllanthus pectinatus Hook fil., Euphorbiaceae) is the name of a town situated on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula in 2° 11′ 30″ N., 102° 15′ E. (Gr.), of a. river which enters the sea at that spot, and of a territory of about 720 English square miles adjacent to and administered from the town. Formerly the name was often extended to the Malay Peninsula as a whole, but this usage is obsolete in English though still sometimes found in Continental works. The earliest date in the history of Malacca occurs in Book 325 of the Histor…


(1,196 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arabic Mālaḳa (ethnic: Mālaḳī), a large town in Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the same name, has at the present day 133,000 inhabitants. It is built at the centre of a bay commanded by the hill of Gibralfaro (the Ḏj̲abal Fāroh of Idrīsī). The town is traversed from north to south by the “rambla” (i.e. the bed, usually dry [Arabic ramla]) of the Guadalmedina ¶ ( wādi ’l-madīna) which, while very often dried up, sometimes overflows in the rainy season. To the west of the town lies the Vega or Hoya of Malaga where the vegetation is exotic and extremely luxurious. Malaga, the ancient Malaca…


(1,375 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
(a., sing, malḥama) came, after a long and obscure development, to mean “destinies”, either simply al-malāḥim, or kutub al-malāḥim or in the singular. The word was already quite adequately explained by De Sacy in his Chrestomathie arabe 2, ii. 298—302, on the basis of several passages in Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn’s Muḳaddima. There Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn defines al-malāḥim as “numerous books on dynastic changes and events ( ḥidt̲h̲ān al-duwal), written in verse and prose and rad̲j̲az, many of which are spread abroad amongst the people, some dealing with the changes in the Muslim people ( al-milla) as a whole…


(3,019 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
, angels, is the Arabic broken plural of an early Semitic (Canaanite?) word malʾak, meaning “messenger”. The evidence would suggest that it is a loan-word, coming into Arabic from Hebrew: there is no trace of a verb in Hebrew (nor in Phoenician, where the noun occurs in later inscriptions), and in Arabic the root, even, is in the greatest uncertainty, being referred to a dubious ʾ-l-k (Lane, p. 81, b, c; Lisān, xii. 272 sqq.; Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, i. 150) and to a still more dubious l-ʾ-k (Lisān, xii. 370). The singular in Arabic is normally malak without hamza, and so always in the Ḳurʾān; although the L…


(4 words)

[See Malāʾika.]

Māl Amīr

(3,291 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, more accurately Māl-i Amīr, a ruined site in Lūristān. It lies in the centre of a flat plain about 3,100 feet above sea-level, in 49° 45’ East Long, and 31° 50’ N. Lat., 3-4 days’ journey east of S̲h̲ūstar [q. v.] and marks the site of a mediaeval town for which during the caliphate the name Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲ (sometimes vocalized hid̲h̲ad̲j̲) was exclusively used. The modern name Māl-i Amīr seems to be first used in the Mongol period; at least the first known occurrence is in the first half of the xivth century in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (ii. 29) in the Arabic form Māl al-Amīr = “estate of the prince”…


(6,242 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an old city, not far from the upper Euphrates. It lies at the junction of important roads (in antiquity: the Persian royal road and the Euphrates route; in modern times Samsūn-Sīwās-Malaṭya-Diyārbakr and Ḳaisarīya-Albistān-Malaṭya-Ḵh̲arpūt) in a plain, the fertility and richness of which in all kinds of vegetables and fruits was celebrated by the Arab geographers, as in modern times by von Moltke and others, at the northern foot of the Taurus not very far south of Tok̲h̲ma-ṣū (Arab. Naḥr al-Ḳu…

Malay Peninsula

(2,183 words)

Author(s): Blagden, C. O.
is a name sometimes rather loosely applied to the whole tract of land South of the Isthmus of Kra (Lat. 10° N.); but so far as the Northern part of this tract is concerned the name is a misnomer, the bulk of the population there being Siamese and Chinese, not Malay. Excluding from the total Malay population of Siam [q. v.] as a whole some 50,000 Malays scattered in Ayuthia, Bangkok, Chantabun and the rest of the Eastern shore of the Gulf of Siam, the remaining 350,000 are in Southern Siam and m…


(1,398 words)

Author(s): van Ronkel, Ph. S.
People. In this article only the Islāmic features of the Malay nation will be dealt with, so neither ethnographical nor anthropological questions will be discussed. It may be sufficient to say that the Malays originally — we do not venture to say: as autochthons — were established in the middle part of Sumatra, especially in Palembang, and spread over the eastern and northern parts of that huge island, and settled in the Straits, mainly in Malacca [see malay peninsula], and founded colonies in Borneo, along the great rivers, and elsewhere eastward. They belong to the wide…


(1,932 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, district ( Ḳaḍā) and town in Armenia, to the North of the lake of Wan. Of the name, there occur, in old-Armenian, the forms Manavazakert, Manavazkert and Manazkert. The middle-Armenian and Byzantine forms, Mandzgerd and Μαντζικίερτ resp. as well as the Arabian form Manāzd̲j̲ird, point to old-Armenian Manazkert being the original form, Manavaz(a)kert representing a popular etymological formation, from the name of the noble family of the Manavazean’s, which, in olden times, resided in the district.…


(177 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
(properly, Māldah or Māldaha), a district in Eastern Bengal and in the Rād̲j̲s̲h̲āhī Division of the Presidency of Bengal. Area 1,899 sq.m. Pop. in 1911, 1,004, 159, of whom 465,521 were Hindus, and 505,396 Muslims. In old times it was famous for its two capitals of Gaur [q. v.] or Lak̲h̲nawtī. and Pandua, where there are many ruins of the mosques and other buildings of the Muḥammadan kings of Bengal. (H. Beveridge) Bibliography Minhād̲j̲-i Sarād̲j̲, Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī, Raverty’s translation ( Bibl. Ind., 1881) G̲h̲ulām Ḥusain Salīm, Riyāḍ al-Salāṭīn (Bibl. Ind., text and translation) Moh…

Maldive Islands

(346 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a group of coral islets in the Indian Ocean, lying between 7° 6′ N. and 0° 42′ S. lat., and 72° and 74° E. long., and consisting of seventeen atolls with a great number of islands, of which about 300 are inhabited, the population being estimated at 70,000. The Moorish traveller, Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, lived for more ¶ than a year (1343—1344) in the islands, but the first Europeans to visit them were the Portuguese, who established a factory in them in 1518. The Maldives were much harassed by Māppilla (Moplah) pirates from the Malabar Coast and in 1645 the kin…
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