Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Maisūn

(165 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, daughter of the Kalbī chief Baḥdal b. Unaif [q. v.], mother of the Caliph Yazīd I. We do not know if after her marriage with Muʿāwiya she retained the Christian religion which had been that of her family and of her tribe. A few verses axe attributed to her in which she sighs for the desert and shows very slight attachment for her husband. But the attribution to Maisūn of this fragment of poetry, which is in any case old, has been rightly disputed. She took a great interest in the education of …

Maisūr

(195 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
(Mysore) (Skt. mahis̲h̲a-Canūru “buffalo town”), the premier Hindu State in India, is a principality in Southern India under the British protection, having an area of 29,433 square miles, between 11° 36′ and 15° 2′ N. and 74° 38′ and 78° 36′ E. Its Hindu rulers preserved their independence until the middle of the xviiith century when Ḥaidar ʿAlī [q. v.] took possession of the country. It remained in his and his successor, Tīpū Sulṭān’s [q. v.], possession until the capture of Seringapatam by the British in 1214 (1799). Maisūr was then restored by …

Maita

(1,773 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), feminine of mait, dead (used of senseless things); as a substantive it means an animal that has died in any way other than by slaughter. In later terminology the word means firstly an animal that has not been slain in the ritually prescribed fashion, the flesh of which therefore cannot be eaten, and secondly all parts of animals whose flesh cannot be eaten, whether because not properly slaughtered or as a result of a general prohibition against eating them. ¶ In addition to Sūra xxxvi. 33 where maita appears as an adjective, the word occurs in the following passages in the Ḳu…

Maiyāfāriḳīn

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Minoksky, V.
, a town in the northeast of Diyārbakr [q.v.]. The other Muḥammadan forms of the name are Māfārḳīn, Mafārḳīn, Fārḳīn (whence the name of origin al-Fāriḳī) etc. The’town is called in Greek Martyropolis, in Syriac Mīpherḳeṭ, in Armenian Nphrkert (later Muharkin, Muphargin). According to Yāḳūt, iv. 702, the old name of the town was Madūr-ṣālā (read ḳāla < *matur-khalakh in Armenian, “town of the martyrs”). On the identification of Tigranocerta with Maiyāfāriḳīn see below. ¶ Geography. The town lies to the south of the little range of the Ḥazrō which rises like the first t…

Maḳām

(17 words)

(a.), place, place where ṣalat is performed. As to Maḳām Ibrāhīm, see kaʿba i .

Maḳāma

(3,073 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(a.), a variety of Arabic prose of a highly elaborate and artificial nature. Maḳāma in the old language was the name for the assembly of the tribe, synonymous with nadī (e.g. Lebīd, Dīwān, N°. 46, 10; Salāma b. Ḏj̲andal, Dīwān, i. 4 = Mufaḍḍalīyāt, ed. Thorbecke, N°. 20, 50, ed. Lyall, N°. 122, 4; Ḥamāsa, p. 95, v. 1 etc.; so also Hamad̲h̲ānī, Maḳ. 16,5 [Stamb. = 44 u. Bair.]), hence the word was next applied to gatherings at which the Omaiyad and early ʿAbbāsid caliphs received pious men in order to hear edifying discourses from them, as His̲h̲ām for example did with Ḵh̲ālid b. Ṣafwān ( Kitāb al-Ag̲…

Mākān b. Kākī

(643 words)

Author(s): Nazim, M.
, Abū Manṣūr, like his father was a captain in the army of the ʿAlid rulers of Ṭabaristān. Saiyid Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Saiyid Nāṣir, son-in-law of Mākān, who came to the throne after the flight of Saiyid Abū Muḥammad Ḥasan b. Ḳāsim, known as the Dāʿī (“the summoner unto the truth”), appointed Mākān to the governorship of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān. Saiyid Abu ’l-Ḳāsim died in 312 (924) and was succeeded by Saiyid Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Abu ’l-Ḥusain Aḥmad. Mākān deposed him, sent him as a prisoner to ʿAlī b. Ḥ…

Maḳdis̲h̲ū

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Cerulli, Enrico
, a town in East-Africa on the shore of the Indian Ocean, capital of Italian Somaliland. Population: 21,000. Setting aside the question of some ruins perhaps South-Arabic, Maḳdis̲h̲ū arose in the xth century a. d. as an Arabian colony. The immigrations of the Arabs reached Maḳdis̲h̲ū in different times successively, and from different regions of the Arabian peninsula; the most remarkable one came from al-Aḥsā on the Persian Gulf, probably during the struggles of the Caliphate with the Ḳarmaṭians. Perhaps at the same time also Persian groups emigrated to Maḳdishū; and even …

Mak̲h̲dūm al-Mulk

(336 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, whose real name is Mawlānā ʿAbd Allāh, was the son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲ams al-Dīn of Sulṭānpūr. His forefathers immigrated from Multān and settled at Sulṭānpūr near Lāhore. He was the pupil of Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḳādir Sarhindī and became one of the most distinguished scholars and saints of India. He was a bigoted Sunnī and looked upon Abu ’l-Faḍl (d. 1011 = 1602) from the beginning as a dangerous man. Contemporary monarchs had a great regard and respect for him. Emperor Humāyūn (937-963 = 1530-1556) conferred on him the title of S̲h̲aik̲h̲, al-Islām. When the empire of India came into the…

Mak̲h̲lad

(457 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Banū), a family of famous Cordovan jurists who, from father to son, during ten generations, distinguished themselves in the study of Fiḳh. The eponymous ancestor of the family was Mak̲h̲lad b. Yazīd, who was ḳāḍī of the province of Reiyoh (the kūra in the south-west of Spain, the capital of which was Malaga), in the reign of the Emīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān II, in the first half of the third century a. h. His son, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Baḳī b. Mak̲h̲lad, was a great jurist and traditionist. He was born in Ramaḍān 201 (April 817) and after being in Spain the pupil of Mālik b. …

Mak̲h̲zen

(5,425 words)

Author(s): Michaux-Bellaire, Ed. | Buret, M.
(a.), from k̲h̲azana, “to shut up, to preserve, to hoard”. The word is believed to have been first used in North Africa as an official term in the second century a. h. applied to an iron chest in which Ibrāhīm b. al-Ag̲h̲lab, emīr of Ifrīḳiya, kept the sums of money raised by taxation and intended for the ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād. At first this term, which in Morocco is now synonymous with the government, was applied more particularly to the financial department, the Treasury. It may be said that the term mak̲h̲zen meaning the Moroccan government and everything more or less connec…

Mak̲h̲zūm

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
(Banū) along with the Omaiyads, the aristocratic clan of Mecca. This assertion is contrary to the theory popularised by the Sīra in virtue of which the ancestor of the aristocratic families was Ḳuṣaiy [q. v.]. About the middle of the vith century a. d. we find that among the clans of Ḳurais̲h̲ [q. v.] that held in most consideration was the Banū Mak̲h̲zūm, which traced its descent through Yaḳaẓa b. Murra to the legendary Fihr (Ḳurais̲h̲) without going through Ḳuṣaiy. At this period the Mak̲h̲zūm controlled everything at Mecca except the …

al-Makīn

(953 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
b. al-ʿAmīd, Ḏj̲ird̲j̲īs (ʿAbd Allāh) b. Abi ’l-Yāsir b. Abi ’l-Makārim, the Christian author of a world-chronicle in Arabic. His life has been several times treated by western authors in encyclopaedias and other works of reference; but nothing can be learned of their sources from their articles. Even Brockelmann (i. 348) has to be content with giving the traditional biography and relies upon his European predecessors. To avoid repetition ¶ here, we only give the dates of his birth and death, 602(1205) and 672 (1273). The latter dale is given by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲al…

al-Maḳḳarī

(972 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-Tilimsānī al-Mālikī S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn, a Mag̲h̲ribī man of letters and biographer, born at Tilimsān (Tlemcen, q. v.) c. 1000 (1591—92) d. at Cairo in Ḏj̲umādā II 1041 (Jan. 1632). He belonged to a family of scholars, natives of Maḳḳara (about 12 miles S. E. of Msīla, in the present province of Constantine in Algeria). One of his paternal ancestors, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Maḳḳarī, had been chief ḳāḍī of Fās and one of the teachers of the famous Lisān al-Dī…

al-Makkī

(89 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L.
, Abū Ṭālib Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Hārit̲h̲ī, d. in Bag̲h̲dād in 386 (996), an Arab muḥaddit̲h̲ and mystic, head of the theological mad̲h̲hab of the Sālimīya [q. v.] of Baṣra. His principal work is the Ḳūt al-Ḳulūb (Cairo 1310, 2 vols.) whole pages of which have been copied by al-G̲h̲azzālī into his Iḥyāʾ ʿUlūm al-Dīn. (L. Massignon) Bibliography Brockelmann, G.A.L., i. 200 Saiyid Murtaḍā, Itḥāf, ed. Cairo, ii. 67, 69 sq. S̲h̲aʿrāwī, Laṭāʿif ed. Cairo, ii. 28 Ibn ʿAbbād Rundī, Rasāʾil kubrā, lith. Fās 1320, p. 149, 200—201.

Makrān

(415 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, the coastal region of Balūčistān, extending from about 59° to 65° 35′ E. and inland from the coast to the Siyāhān Range, a little beyond 27° north. This tract was known to the Greeks as Gedrosia, and was inhabited by the Ichthyophagi, or fish-eaters, the Persian translation ( Māhī-Ḵh̲urān) of whose name supplies a fanciful derivation for its present name, which is traced, with more probability, to a Dravidian source. In Persian legend Kaik̲h̲usraw of Īrān captured the country from Afrāsiyāb of Tūrān, and both Cyrus and Semiramis marched through it. In 325 b. c. it was traversed by Alexa…

al-Maḳrīzī

(1,384 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḥusainī Taḳī al-Dīn, Arabic historian, b. 766 (1364) at Cairo, grandson of the Ḥanafī Ibn al-Ṣāʾig̲h̲ who educated him according to his school; but on attaining his majority he went over to the S̲h̲āfiʿīs, attacked the Ḥanafīs and even showed Ẓāhirī tendencies. He began his career as deputy ḳāḍī in Cairo and rose to be head of the al-Ḥākimīya mosque and teacher of tradition at the al-Muʾaiyadīya madrasa. In 811 (1408) he was transferred as administrator of the waḳf at the Ḳalānisīya and at the Nūrī hospital and also as teacher at th…
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