Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Purchase Access
Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Maʿād

(4 words)

[See Rud̲j̲ūʿ.]

Maʿadd

(364 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, a collective name for certain Arab tribes, in the traditional usage for those of North Arabian origin (Muḍar and Rabīʿa) in contrast to the Yemen tribes. This contrast said to be inherent in the name Maʿadd seems already to be found frequently in the early poets, always presuming the genuineness of the passages in question. Thus in a verse of Imru ’l-Ḳais (Ahlwardt, N°. 41, l. 5) the term Maʿadd is used apparently in the sense of excluding the ʿIbād, Ṭaiy and Kinda, and in Nābig̲h̲a (Ahlwardt,…

Maʿāfir

(1,728 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the name of a South Arabian tribe, the genealogy of which is given as Yaʿfur b. Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Humaisaʿ b. ʿAmr b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ib b. ʿArīb b. Zaid b. Kahlār b. Sabaʾ; they are included among the Ḥimyar. Their land coincided in the main with the former Turkish ḳaḍā of Taʿizzīya and was divided into Upper and Lower Maʿāfir. Al-Hamdānī, who has the fullest-information about the al-Maʿāfir, gives the following places in their area: 1. al-Ḏj̲uwwa (the modern Sūḳ el-Ḏj̲uʾa between the Ḏj̲ebel Ṣelw and Ḏj̲ebel Bedu) which was ruled by the family of Ḏh̲u ’…

Māʾ al-ʿAinain

(1,741 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-S̲h̲ingīṭī, the name by which the famous agitator in Mauritania [q. v.] at the end of the xixth century and beginning of the xxth century is best known (several explanations of his soubriquet are given; the literal meaning is “the water of the eyes” but the most satisfactory seems to be that which sees in it simply a euphemism, like that in the expression Ḳurrat al-Ain). Muḥammad Muṣṭafā Māʾ al-ʿAinain was the twelfth son of a chief and marabout of great fame in his own country, Muḥammad Fāḍil b. Māʾmīn, born at Walāta at the end of the xviii…

Maʿarrat Maṣrīn or Miṣrīn

(1,199 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, capital of a nāḥiya of Ḥalab. The name is also written Maʿarrat Naṣrīn which has been wrongly taken as an abbrevation of Maʿarrat Ḳinnasrīn (Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, p. 497). In Syriac manuscripts of the eighth century, the town is called Meʿarret Meṣrēn (Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac MSS. in the Brit. Mus., p. 454b, dated 745 a. d.; Agnes Smith Lewis, The Old Syriac Gospels or Evangelion damepharres̲h̲ē, London 1910: a palimpsest under a collection of biographies of holy women, written by a monk Yōḥannan Stylites of Bēt̲h̲ Marī Ḳānūn, a monaste…

Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān

(3,312 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in northern Syria, often called simply al-Maʿarra. It is celebrated as the birthplace of the poet Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad al-Maʿarrī [q. v.]. According to al-Samʿānī ( Kitāb al-Ansāb, reproduced by D. S. Margoliouth, G.M.S., xx., 1912, fol. 536v, l. ¶ 4) the nisba from the place-name was Maʿarnamī to distinguish it from that of Maʿarrat Naṣrīn, Maʿarnasī. The town probably lay on the site of the ancient Arra which is called Κώμη ῎Αῤῥων οἰνοφοροΣ in an inscription. Yaʿḳūbī says that Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān is an old town in ruins. Nāṣir-i …

Maʿbad

(473 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
, Abū ʿAbbād Maʿbad b. Wahb, was one of the great singers and composers of the early Umaiyad period. He belonged to Madīna and was a client of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḳaṭan (cf. Ag̲h̲ānī, i. 19) of the house of Wābiṣa of the Banū Mak̲h̲zūm. He was a half-caste, his father being a negro. In his youth he was an accountant, but having taken music lessons from Sāʾib Ḵh̲āt̲h̲ir, Nas̲h̲īṭ al-Fārisī and Ḏj̲amīla [q. v.] he adopted music as a profession and soon made a name for himself. During the reign of ʿAbd al-Malik (65—86 = 685—705) he …

al-Maʿbarī

(146 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Zain al-Dīn wrote about the year 985 (1577) for Sulṭān ʿAlī ʿĀdū S̲h̲āh of Bīd̲j̲apūr (d. 987=1579) a brief history of the spread of Islām in Malabar, the coming of the Portuguese and their campaigns against the Muslims from 908 to 985 (1498—1578). The work is preserved in Brit. Mus. MS., N°. 94, India Office N°. 714 and 1044, 5 and in Morley, Catalogue of Historical MSS., N°. 13 and is entitled Tuḥfat al-Mud̲j̲āhiaīn; extracts were given by John Briggs in Ferishta, History of the rise of the Mahomedan power in India, London 1829, iv. 531 sqq. and it was translated by M. I. Rowlandson, Tohfut ul-M…

Macassar

(1,720 words)

Author(s): Rassers, W. H.
, an important seaport on the island of Celebes, on the Bay of Macassar; it is the capital of the administrative district of “Celebes en Onderhoorigheden” and also of the division of it of the same name administered by an assistant-resident. By the native population the town which has made very great ¶ progress in the last few years, is still often called by its original name of Ud̲j̲ung-pandang (Ḏj̲umpandang). The Dutch gave it the name Macassar from the kingdom of the same name. The heart of the Macassar country is the former principality of Go…

Madagascar

(11,856 words)

Author(s): Ferrand, Gabriel
With its area of 228,340 sq. m., Madagascar is the third largest island in the world after New Guinea (234,770 sq. m.) and Borneo (284,630 sq. m.). Its area is a little greater than that of France (207,000 sq. m.), Belgium (II)373) rod Holland (12,740) combined. It is oriented from N.N.E. to S.S.W. and measures 1,000 miles in its greatest length and 350 in its greatest breadth with a coast line of 3,000 miles. The latest estimates put the native population at three millions. The island was called al-Ḳomr by the Arabs, Bukini (lit.: where there are ( ni) Buki) by the Banlus of the neighbouring…

al-Madāʾin

(7,000 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, a mediaeval Arab town or rather a group of towns in al-ʿIrāḳ (Babylonia) about 20 miles S. E. of Bag̲h̲dād lying on either side of the Tigris in two almost equal portions. The name al-Madāʾin (plur. of al-Madīna) „the towns” is explained from the fact that the two capitals situated opposite one another, Seleucia on the west, the Greek city founded by Seleucus I between 312 and 301 B. C, and Ctesiphon on the east (the first reference to which is in 221 B. C), the winter residence of the Parthian and Sāsānian kings, with several oth…

al-Madāʾinī

(796 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Saif Abu ’l-Ḥasan, an Arab historian and writer, a client of the Ḳurais̲h̲ family of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf, was born in 135 (752) in Baṣra, where he was a pupil of the theologian Muʿammar b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲, but he became interested in Adab and history; he lived for a time in al-Madāʾin but moved from there to Bag̲h̲dād, where he was closely associated with Isḥāḳ b. Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī in whose house he died in 225 (840), according to the Fihrist in 215 (830), according to others not till 231 (845). His literary activity was very extensi…

Madār

(5 words)

[See g̲h̲āzī mīyān.]

Mādda

(452 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), a philosophical term = hayūlā, Gr. ὕλη is, like its correlative ṣūra, Gr. εἶδοΣ, a word of varied significance. In general it means that which can possibly exist (δυνάμει) but which really is not (has no form) but may become something through the adoption of opposed determinatives (forms). As the realisation of the possible is conceived as advancing by stages, a lower stage of form may again be conceived as material for a higher form of development. The question is further complicated even in Aristotl…

Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲

(180 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, an Arab tribe of Yemen origin, traced by the genealogists to Mālik b. Udad, who is said to be descended in the fourth generation from Ḳaḥtān and to have received his name Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ from a hill of this name on which he and his brother Ṭaiy were born. His sons are said to have been: Saʿd al-ʿAs̲h̲īra, Ḏj̲ald, Yuḥābir called Murād, and Zaid called ʿAnz. The Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ whose tribal lands are said to have lain near Tard̲j̲ “on the road to Yemen” (Yāḳūt, s. v.) and whose brother tribes were Ḵh̲…

Madīd

(97 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the second metre in Arabic prosody, very little used on account of a certain heaviness in its rhythm. In theory it consists of four feet in each hemistich and the prosodists quote in support of this several anonymous verses. In practice there are only three. ¶ There are three ʿarūḍ and six ḍarb: Fāʿilātun may become faʿilālun; it only changes into fāʿilātu (without n) if fāʿilun which follows it retains its long vowel. Fāʿilun, except in the second ʿarūḍ with its third ḍarb, only changes into faʿilun when fāʿilātun preserves its n. (Moh. Ben Cheneb)

al-Madīna

(10,477 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in Arabia, the residence of Muḥammad after the Hid̲j̲ra, and capital of the Arab empire under the first caliphs. The real Arabic name of the town was Yat̲h̲rib, Jathrippa (this is the correct reading) in Ptolemy and Stephan Byzantinus, Jt̲h̲rb in Minaean inscriptions (M. Hartmann, Die arabische Frage, p. 253 sq.). Al-Madīna on the other hand is a descriptive word “the town” and is taken from the Aramaic, in which Medīnta means strictly, “area of jurisdiction” and hence town (of some size). In the Meccan sections of the Ḳurʾān it is found as an appellative with the plural al-Madāʾin, wh…
▲   Back to top   ▲