Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿIbādāt

(361 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a., pl. of ʿibāda), the ordinances of divine worship. The term ʿibāda is already found in the Ḳorʾān in this sense (e.g. Sūrā x. 30; xviii. 110; xix. 66 and passim) but is only very rarely applied to the worship of idols (e.g. Sūra xix. 85; xlvi. 5).— Under this general head is comprised the first part of the works on law in Islām: ṭahāra, ṣalāt, zakāt, ṣawm, ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and sometimes also d̲j̲ihād. According to al-ʿAbbādī ( al-Ḏj̲awhara al-naiyira, Constantinople 1323, i. 146) the mas̲h̲rūʿāt are divided into five groups: 1. the articles of the creed; 2. the ʿibādāt; 3. the muʿāmalāt which inc…

al-Ibāḍīya

(565 words)

, usually called Abāḍīyā in North Africa, are the followers of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ [q. v.]. A few additions may here be made to what has been written in i. p. 3, chiefly with reference to the North African Abāḍīs. The first rising of the Ibāḍīs took place in the last years of the reign of Marwān II, under ʿAbd Allāh b. Yaḥyā Ṭālib al-Ḥaḳḳ and Abū Ḥamza (129 = 747). ʿAbd Allāh had homage paid him in Hadramūt, then conquered Ṣanʿāʾ and sent Abū Ḥamza to Mecca; the latter defeated the Omayyad governor …

Ibb

(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee, ḳāt, indigo and wars. In the vicinity there was at one time a silver mine (photographs in the Islām-Stiftung in Leiden). (A. Grohmann) Bi…

Iblīs

(1,323 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the personal name of the Devil. The word is probably a corruption of διάβλοΣ; the native philologists derive it from the root b-l-s “because Iblīs has nothing to expect ( ublisa) from the mercy of God”. He is also called al-S̲h̲aiṭān (Satan), ʿAduww Allāh (enemy of God) or al-ʿAduww. Al-S̲h̲aiṭān however is not a proper name. In the Ḳurʾān he appears mainly in the early history of the world (ii. 32: vii. 10; xv. 31 sq.; xvii. 63; xviii. 48; xx. 115; xxxviii. 74 sq.) as rebellious at the creation of Adam and as the tempter of Eve in Paradise. After Allāh had formed Adam [q. v.]…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(286 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Abī Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Yaḥyā b. ʿAbbād al-Nafzī al-Ḥimyarī al-Rundī, generally known as Ibn ʿAbbād, a lawyer, mystic poet, and preacher, was born in 733 (1332-3) in Spain at Ronda, where he spent his youth, learned the Ḳurʾān by heart at the age of seven and began to study language and law. He then went to Fās and Tlemcen to complete his studies. He returned to Morocco, settled at Salā where he studied under Aḥmad b. ʿĀs̲h̲i…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(216 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs al-Ṭālaḳānī, vizier of the two Būyids Muʾaiyid al-Dawla and Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326 (September 938). His father had been Rukn al-Dawla’s vizier; he himselff received the name ‘al-Ṣāḥib’ (the companion) on account of his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] or Muʾaiyid al-Dawla, who appointed him his secretary. After the fall of Abu ’l-Fatḥ b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] he was raised to the rank of vizier and when Muʾaiyid al-Dawla died in 373 (984) and the pow…

Ibn al-Abbār

(723 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Ḳuḍāʿī, an Arab historian, a scion of the Ḳūḍāʿī’s settled in Onda, their ancestral estate in Spain, born at Valencia in Rabī II, 595 (Febr. 1199), was a pupil of Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Nūḥ, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḥaṣṣār, Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb b. Wād̲j̲ib, Abu ’l-Ḥasan b. Ḵh̲aira, Abū Sulaimān b. Ḥawṭ, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Azīz b. Saʿāda etc. For over twenty years he was on the closest terms of intercourse with the principal traditionist of Spain, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ b. Sālim, who…

Ibn al-Abbār

(92 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Ḏj̲afar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awlānī, Arab poet, lived at Seville and died in 433 (1041-1042). Besides a Diwān, there should, according to Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, be ascribed to him four works usually attributed to the author of the Takmila and of the Ḥullat al-Siyarāʾ [see next art.]. (Moh. Ben Cheneb) Bibliography Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, Cairo 1310, i. 44 al-Ḍabbī, Bug̲h̲yat al-multamis, p. 152, n°. 352 Codera al-Muʿd̲j̲am (Bibl. arab.-hisp., IV), Introduction, p. XIV Boigues, Ensayo bio-bibliografico, p. 409 Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Lexicon bibliogr., ed. Flügel, N°. 9…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam

(590 words)

Author(s): Torrey, C. C.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḥakam b. Aʿyan, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, the earliest Arab historian of Egypt whose work has survived, was a member of a notable Egyptian family. His father, ʿAbd Allāh (died 214 = 830), was very learned in tradition and jurisprudence, and the author of books in these fields; he was the head of the Mālikite school in Egypt, and was also associated with the Ḳāḍī as censor of witnesses. His four sons were all men of importance: Muḥammad, ¶ widely celebrated as a jurist and author, and his father’s successor as leader of the Mālikites of Egypt; ʿAbd …

Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi

(258 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Abū ʿOmar, a Spanish Arab author, born 10th Ramaḍān 246 = 29th Nov. 860 in Cordova, a freedman of the Umaiyads ruling there, died 18th Ḏj̲umādā I 328 = 3rd March 940. His principal work is the anthology al-ʿIḳd (the addition al-farīd ¶ was made by later copyists); it is divided into 25 books, which are called after jewels; the 13th book is called al-Wāsīṭa and the corresponding pairs on either side of it are called after the same jewels, in the second part with the addition of al-t̲h̲ānīya. The matter is taken from the usual adab books, the ʿUyūn al-Ak̲h̲bār of Ibn Ḳutaiba bein…

Ibn ʿAbdūn

(289 words)

, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd Ibn ʿAbdūn al-Fihrī, a Spanish Arab poet, born in Evora, whose poetical talent early attracted the attention of the governor of Evora, ʿOmar al-Mutawakkil Ibn al-Afṭas, and when the latter became ruler of Badajoz [see i. 178b sq.] he became his secretary in 473 (1080). The fall of the Afṭasid kingdom in 485 (1092) forced him to enter the service of Sīr b. Abī Bakr, leader of the Arab troops. We afterwards find him again as secretary at the court of the Almoravid ʿAlī b. Yūsuf in 500 (1106). He died in his…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir

(624 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū ’l-Faḍl ʿAbd Allāh b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir b. Nis̲h̲wān al-Saʿdī al-Rawḥī, born in Cairo on the 9th Muḥarram 620 = 1223, and died there in 692 = 1292 ( Durrat al-Aslāk fī Dawlat al-Atrāk, Orientalia, ii. 1846, p. 285; Wüstenfeld, Geschichtschreiber, N°. 366). Not much is known about his life but he played an important part under the three Baḥrī Mamlūks al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Baibars, al-Manṣūr Ḳalāʾūn and al-As̲h̲raf Ḵh̲alīl as private secretary, Kātib al-Sirr or Ṣāḥib Dīwān al-Ins̲h̲āʾ (on this office see Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 402; ii. 225 sq.; Quatremè…

Ibn Abī Dīnār

(162 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ruʿainī al-Ḳairawānī, an Arab historian, wrote a history called al-Mūnis fī Ak̲h̲bār Ifrīḳīya wa Tūnis in 1110 (1698) or according to a statement in a manuscript in 1092 (1681). As he mentions in the preface the work falls into eight divisions; the first contains the description of Tunis, the second of Ifrīḳīya, the third of the conquest of Ifrīḳīya by the Muslims, the fourth the history of the ʿUbaidīs, the fifth that of the Ṣinhād̲j̲a, the sixth that of the Banū Ḥafṣ, th…

Ibn Abī Ḥad̲j̲ala

(155 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-Tilimsānī al-Ḥanbalī, an Arab poet, an imitator of ʿOmar b. al-Fāriḍ, born in 725 = 1325 in Tlemcen, settled in Cairo after making the pilgrimage and died of the plague as superior of the Ṣūfī monastery founded by Mand̲j̲ak, on the 20th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 776 = 2rd May 1375. Of his works that have survived (detailed in Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt., ii. 13), the following are printed: 1. Dīwān al-Ṣabāba, a history of celebrated lovers with a selection of erotic poems, Cairo 1279, 1291, 1305 and on the margin of the Tazyīn al-Aswāḳ of Dāʾūd al-An…

Ibn Abi ’l-ʿAwd̲j̲āʾ

(203 words)

, ʿAbd al-Karīm, uncle on his mother’s side of the celebrated Maʿn b. Ṣāʿida, a crypto-Manichaean, who was taken prisoner by Muḥammad b. Sulaimān governor of Kūfa and afterwards put to death in 155 (772) by him without the Caliph’s authority, for which some sources say the governor was dismissed. When he was being led to death he is said to have boasted that he had invented 4000 traditions which were contradictory to the prescriptions and prohibitions of Muslim law. He is said, for example, to hav…

Ibn Abi ’l-Dunyā

(486 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Bakr ʿAbd Allāh (ʿUbaid Allāh) b. Muḥammad al-Ḳurashī, Arab author, born 208 = 823, tutor of the ʿAbbāsid Caliph al-Muḳtafī, died 14th Ḏj̲umādā II 281 = 21st Aug. 894. Of his numerous works which were all devoted to Adab the following have survived: 1) al-Farad̲j̲ baʿd al-S̲h̲idda, modelled on al-Madāʾinī’s work of the same title, in Berlin (see Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der ar. Hdss. der Kgl. Bibl., N°. 8731), Damascus Ẓāhirīya s. Ḥabīb al-Zaiyāt, Ḵh̲azāʾin al-Kutub fī Dimas̲h̲ḳ wa-Ḍawāḥīhā (Cairo 1902), p. 30, N°. 20, 2, printed in India 1323, reprinted Cairo n. d.; al…

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(327 words)

Author(s): Suter, [H.
, whose full name was Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl is the Arab astrologer often quoted in mediaeval Europe under the names Albohazen (also Alboacen) or Abenragel. Whether he belonged to Spain (Cordova) or North Africa is uncertain; we only know ¶ that he spent a portion of his life at the court of the Zīrid Muʿizz b. Bādīs b. al-Manṣūr (406—454 = 1016—1062) in Tunis. It is also probable that he is identical with the Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī, who attended the astronomical observations made in 378 (988) in Bag̲h̲dād by order of …
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