Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Farāʾiḍī Sect

(1,788 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
This sect was founded in Eastern Bengal about the year 1804 by Had̲j̲d̲j̲ī S̲h̲arīʿat Allāh, born of obscure parents, who re sided in a village, Bahādurpūr, in the district of Farīdpūr. When eighteen years of age he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, but instead of returning, as usual, he remained a disciple of al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṭāhir al-Sunbul al-Makkī, the head of the S̲h̲afiʿī sect there in those days. About 1802, after an absence of twenty years, he came back to India, a skilful disputer, and a goo…


(826 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the horse, whether stallion ( faḥl) or mare; as a collective al-k̲h̲ail. The horse is considered the most beautiful and noblest creature next to man. The fine proportions of its limbs, the purity of its colour, its swiftness, its obedience to the rider, whether in battle, in pursuit or in flight, its courage and strength, its intelligence and standard of good manners are renowned. A sign of the latter is the fact that a well-bred horse discharges neither urine or excrement while its rider is on its back. …


(181 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Farsān), a group of islands in the S. W. of Cape Ḏj̲izān, opposite the harbour of Abū ʿArīs̲h̲ in Tihāma. The largest of these islands are Farasān Kabīr with the harbour of Ḵh̲ōr Farasān and Farasān Ṣag̲h̲īr. Muharrak and Seyed are other places worthy of mention besides Ḵh̲ōr. The inhabitants fish for pearls and catch turtles, which brings them great wealth. Ehrenberg, who discovered the islands, saw many date-groves and fields growing durra and melons, Arab antelopes, numerous gazelles and goats there. Hamdānī was acquainted with these islands. Their inhabitants, who take t…


(1,800 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(the “lump of dough”: Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 2), whose real name was Hammām b. G̲h̲ālib b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, was one of the three greatest Arab satirists of the Arab period [cf. d̲j̲arīr and al-ak̲h̲ṭal]. He belonged to the Tamīmi Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿ b. Dārim. He was probably born about the year 20 (640-641) (cf. Naḳāʾid, ed. Bevan, p. xviii.). We know nothing certain about his early life. It may, however, be true that his father sent him to ʿAlī after the Battle of the Camel” ( Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 6, 48), although tradition gives this incident an exaggerated importance in the life of the poet (cf. Naḳāʾiḍ, op. cit., in o…


(173 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; plur. afrād) = single, unique, without an equal etc. The word is a technical term in various branches of knowledge. In theology it designates God as the One, whom there is none like. In the Ḳorʾān and in the sayings of Muḥammad that have been transmitted in tradition al-fard does not appear as an attribute of God. Al-Azharī on this account disapproves of the application of the word to Allāh. But it is possibly simply a paraphrase of the Ḳorʾānic ( huwa Allāhu) aḥad, which has the meaning “unique” in this passage only if at all. In poetry fard means an isolated verse. In Tradition fard is synony…


(180 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
means that which is strictly prescribed and obligatory, the omission of which will be punished while the execution will be rewarded. According to the Ḥanafi school farḍ means that which is regarded as duty on the basis of cogent arguments; wād̲j̲ib (i.e. necessary) on the other hand is that which is considered a duty by the faḳīhs on grounds of probability only. According to the S̲h̲āfiʿīs and other Fiḳh-schools farḍ and wād̲j̲ib are synonyms. The law distinguishes farḍ al-ʿain, to which every one is bound and fard al-kifāya (or: ʿalal-kifāya), in which it is only demanded that a s…


(5,569 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Russ. Ferganskaya oblast, a territory in Russian Turkestan, in the valley of the Sir-Daryā. The name strictly is only applicable to the valley itself, bounded in the north by the Čotkal range, in the east by the mountains of Farg̲h̲āna, in the south by the Alai range; in the west the boundary is less sharply defined by the approach of the mountain chains to the river bank, which causes the river to alter its course, which in Farg̲h̲āna is predominantly southwesterly, first to a western then to a northwestern ¶ direction. Between the mountains and the stream there is here, particular…


(410 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
is the astronomer Alfraganus of the middle ages. His full name was Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Kat̲h̲īr al-Farg̲h̲ānī, i. e. born in Farg̲h̲āna in Transoxania but there is no general agreement as to his name. The Fihrist has only Muḥammad b. Kat̲h̲īr, Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ only Aḥmad b. Kat̲h̲īr, Ibn al-Ḳifṭī distinguishes two persons, Muḥammad and Aḥmad b. Muḥammad, father and son, but it is very probable that all refer to one and the same individual, an astronomer who lived in the reign of the Caliph al-Maʾmūn (died 833) and was …

Farhād u S̲h̲īrīn

(125 words)

, a celebrated pair of Persian lovers; and hence the title of a romantic poem; several poets (cf. Ethé, Grundriss der Iran. Phil., ii. 246 et seq.) have written poems with this title. Farhād the architect was the unfortunate rival of Ḵh̲usraw — there are also several poems called Ḵh̲usraw u S̲h̲īrīn; Niẓāmī [q. v.] was the first to write on this latter subject—, who had almost bored through the mountain Bīsutūn to win the hand of his beloved, when he fell dead on being falsely told that S̲h̲īrīn was dead. Turkish poets, notably Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr have also dealt with the same subject. Bibliography Eth…


(184 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ferheng (Pehl. frahang “education, instruction”) the name given by the Persians to dictionaries of their language. The four principal ones are the Farhang-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī begun in 1005 (1597) by order of Akbar by Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Ḥusain Ind̲j̲ū, an ʿAlid of S̲h̲īrāz, and finished in 1017 (1608) in the reign of Ḏj̲ahāngīr; the Farhang-i Ras̲h̲īdī of ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd, an ʿAlid of Tatta, who was still alive in 1069 (1618); the Farhang-i S̲h̲oʿūrī, printed at Constantinople in 1155 = 1742; the Farkang-i Nāṣirī (And̲j̲umanārāi) of Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān lithographed at Teheran in 1288 = 18…


(1,577 words)

Author(s): Kratschkowsky, Ign.
, Ḏj̲armānūs, Arabic philologist and poet, precursor of the literary renaissance of the xixth century in Arab lands, Maronite archbishop of Aleppo (1725—1732), born there on Nov. 20, 1670 and died on July 10, 1732. This is not the place to discuss his epoch-making work in organising the Maronite church nor the majority of his dogmatic, polemical, educational and historical works; but he must be given a place in the history of Arabic ¶ literature as a lexicographer, grammarian and poet. Aleppo was one of the few Arab cities which retained to some extent their literary traditi…


(16 words)

(A.), Plur. Farāʾiḍ, q. v., p. 56b et seq. and also the article firḍe.

Farīd al-Dīn

(20 words)

, an epithet of ʿAṭṭār [q. v., i. 513b et seq.] and of S̲h̲akar Gand̲j̲ [q. v.] ¶


(138 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
A town and state in the Pand̲j̲āb surrounded almost entirely by the British district of Fērōzpūr. The town was founded about 600 years ago and is named after the saint Bābā Farīd S̲h̲akargand̲j̲, whose shrine is at Pākpattan near by. He died in 664 (1265). A state was founded here by a Sid̲h̲ū Ḏj̲aṭ family in Akbar’s time, and the Rād̲j̲ās adopted the Sikh religion, which is now predominant among the cultivating classes. The Muḥammadan population mainly Rād̲j̲pūts, Ḏj̲aṭs and Arains, is about o…


(107 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
district of India in Eastern Bengal, lying in the delta of the Ganges. Pop. (1911), 2,121,914, of whom 62% arc Muḥammadans. Here was the birthplace of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī S̲h̲arīʿat Allāh, the founder of the reforming sect of Farāʾiḍiya [q. v.] or Farāẓī and of his son Dudū Miyān, who caused some trouble to the British Government in the middle of the 19th cent. The sect is still numerous in Farīdpūr. The town (pop. 11, 649) takes its name from a saint, Farīd S̲h̲āh, who is buried there. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Wise, The Muḥammadans of Eastern Bengal, in yourn. As. Soc. Beng. vol. 63, Part iii. (1894).


(127 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, in Arabic, a “large body of men” also a “section of a caravan”; ihence in Turkish, since the reforms ( Tanẓīmāt), the general of a division in the army and vice-admiral in the fleet. This rank corresponds to that of Istanbolḳādīsi in the hierarchy of the ʿUlemāʾ, Rutbe-i ūlā (Ṣinf-i ewwelī) in the civil service and beylerbey of Rūmīlī in the ancient administrative organisation; there are also Birind̲j̲i Farīḳ (of the first class), whose rank is equal to that of the Bālā civil). The latter have the right to be called ʿOṭūfet-li (gracious) while the former have to be content with the title Seʿādet…


(466 words)

b. Muḥammad Ḥusām al-Dawla, Abu ’l-S̲h̲awk, as he is usually’called, lord of Holwān and other places in the neighbourhood 401—437 (1010—1046). He inherited his power from his father, Abu ’l-Fatḥ Muḥammad b. ʿAnnāz, who had held sway for about twenty years in Daḳūḳāʾ, Ḥolwān, etc. Abu ’l-S̲h̲awk was at war during almost the whole period of his rule with neighbouring rulers and with his own family. His first fight was with al-Mazyadī of al-Ḥilla, but it ended in peace by a marriage between Dubais son o…

Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ

(475 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Aḥmad b. Yūsuf, an Arabic journalist and author, born in Bairūt of Maronite parents, was educated at a Maronite school in Cairo and then for some time collaborated with S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn on the Egyptian official gazette al-Waḳaʾiʿ al-Miṣrīya. He next settled in Malta where he worked as a teacher of Arabic. While here he composed a Ḳaṣīda in praise of the Bey of Tunis (see Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Ges., v. 249 et seq.; Goldziher, Abh. Zur Arab. Phil., i. 172 et seq.) and wrote his Kitāb al-Muḥāwara, Arabic and English grammatical exercises and familiar Dialogues (Malta 1840). He gave a…


(83 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
(dual of farḳad) «the two calves”, is the name given by the Arabs to the two brighter stars β and γ in the quadrilateral of the Little Bear (cf. the article al-dubb, i. 1078a); β is called Anwar al-Farḳadain (the brighter of the two calves) and γ = Ak̲h̲fā al-Farḳadain (the darker of the two calves). (H. Suter) Bibliography al-Ḳazwīnī, Kosmographie (ed. Wüstenfeld), i. 29 L. Ideler, Untersuchungen über den Ursprung u. die Bedeutung der Sternnamen (Berlin 1809), p. 3 and 12.
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