Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(52 words)

, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Muḥammed Ḵh̲ān Bahādur, an Indian scholar who composed an Urdu translation of the Anwār-i Suhaili (lith. Lakhnow 1261 = 1845). Cf. the article kalila wa dimna. This translation was entitled Bustān-i Ḥikmat. Bibliography Garcin de Tassy, Histoire de la Litt. Hindouie et Hindoust., second ed. i. 443.


(568 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
(omen) is not mentioned in the Ḳurʾān, perhaps by accident; there the root Ṭyr takes its place. Its derivation and original meaning are obscure, as also is its relationship to the root Fyl, e. g. to mufāyil in Ṭarafa’s Muʿallaḳa, v. 5 ( Lisān xiv. p. 51; C. J. Lyall’s Ten Poems (Tibrīzī’s commentary), p. 31; Seligsohn’s Dîwân de Tarafa (Aʿlam’s commentary), p. v; contrast Ṣaḥāḥ under Faʾl). But in apparently authentic traditions from Muḥammad faʾl and ṭiyāra both occur, meaning “omen”, although somewhat contradictorily. It is plain that Muḥammad believed in omens and was…


(9 words)

(a.) „Daybreak“, the title of Sūra CXIII.


(144 words)

, Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a, an Egyptian geographer, born in 1220 in the province of al-G̲h̲arbīya, attended school in Alexandrien, then went to the polytechnic (Muhandis Ḵh̲āne) founded by Muḥammed ʿAlī and was next (1851) sent to Paris, where he continued his studies for nine years. His principal work is a map of Egypt, prepared by order of the Ḵh̲edīve Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a. Other words in Arabic and French are detailed by G. Zaidān (see Bibl.). He represented the Egyptian government at the Geographical Congresses in Paris and Venice. He afterwards received the office of vizier, bu…


(649 words)

Author(s): Zambaur, E. v.
(pl. Fulus), the copper coin of early Islām. The name is derived from the late Greek φόλλιΣ (which in its turn comes from the latin follis), the name of the Byzantine copper coin of 40 nummia in the coinage as organised by the Emperor Anastasius I (491—518 a. d.). The Byzantine follis therefore bore the mark of value M = 40 on its reverse. Its weight was originally to have been an ounce (about 30 grammes) but it decreased rapidly; by the time of the ¶ conquest of Syria by the Arabs it had sunk to 6 grammes; the smaller Byzantine copper coins marked Κ (= 20), Ι (= 10) and Ε (= 5 …


(4,628 words)

Author(s): Horten, M.
Falsafa is the term applied to the Muslim philosophy as developed under Greek influence. In addition to it other tendencies have to be considered, which construct a conception of the universe according to the views on scientific methods prevailing in their time or at least concern themselves with general views of the universe and therefore must be considered as philosophical. This is primarily true of the current of speculative theology. Its aim is to raise to a higher intellectual level the dog…


(570 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), an important technical term of Ṣūfism, meaning, “annihilation, dissolution”. The Ṣūfī who attains perfection must be in a kind of state of annihilation. The authors of treatises on Muslim mysticism have often compared the “annihilation” of Ṣūfism with the Buddhist nirvāna; but this comparison is not a particularly fitting one. We now know that the Muslim writers had only a very slight knowledge of Indian philosophy and could not comprehend the notion of nirvāna which presumes a fairly intimate acquaintance with t…


(16 words)

, a South Indian coin. [See Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson 2 , p. 348].


(338 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the name of the Greek quarter of Stambul in which the Oecumenian Patriarch took up his residence after the conquest of the town by Meḥemmed II. Down to 1587 the patriarchate was in the ancient Byzantine church of the Pammakaristos; when this was transformed into a mosque (Fetḥiye) in that year, the Patriarch moved his see to the little church of St. George. At quite an early period there settled round the see, in addition to the ecclesiastical and secular officials of the patriarchate, the few…


(68 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(φανόΣ), a folding lantern, made of wire rings surrounded by waxed cloth with the upper and lower ends of tinned copper. It is carried by night in the hand to light the way for a body of men on the march, a wedding procession or a personage of high rank in the dark streets. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Lane, Modern Egyptians 1, i. 207 (picture on p. 208).


(65 words)

, a telegraph station and Turkish fortress at the mouth of the S̲h̲aṭṭ al-ʿArab on the right bank. The place, which is not mentioned by Niebuhr, is the capital of a nāḥiye which contains about 22 villages with 4000—5000 inhabitants. Bibliography ʿAlī Ḏj̲awād, Ḏj̲ug̲h̲rāfiya Log̲h̲āti etc., 566 Cuinet, Turquie d Asie, iii. 268 et seq. v. Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum pers. Golf, ii. 309.


(618 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Bārāb (e.g. in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, Muḳaddasī and most Persian authorities) and Pārāb (e. g. in the Ḥudūd al-Ālam, cod. Tumanskij, f. 9b; the latter seems to be the original pronunciation), a district (in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and Ibn Ḥawḳal nāḥiya, in Muḳaddasī rustāḳ, in Yāḳūt wilāya) in the valley of the Sir-Daryā, lying on both sides of the main stream, which here receives the waters of the Aris on its right bank. According to Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 391) the district measured less than a day’s journey in length and breadth; the soil was in places marshy and contained salt. According to Masʿūdī ( Tanbīh, p…


(2,090 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Tark̲h̲ān Abū Naṣr, the greatest philosopher of Islām before Avicenna, was born in a Turkish family towards the end of the ixth century a. d. at Wasīd̲j̲, a small fortified town in the district of Fārāb (ʿOtrār) in Transoxiana. His father is said to have been a general. He studied in Bag̲h̲dād under the Christian physician Yoḥannā b. Ḥailān and also worked with Abū Bis̲h̲r Mattā, a Nestorian Christian, celebrated as a translator of Greek works. He then went to Ḥalab to the court of the Ḥamdānid Sai…


(849 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, al-Malik al-Nāṣir Nāṣir al-Dīn, was the son of Sulṭān Barḳūḳ [q. v., i. 662 et seq.]. In S̲h̲awwāl 801 = June 1399 Barḳūḳ on his death-bed had homage paid to his thirteen year old son Farad̲j̲, appointed the Emīr Itmis̲h̲ Atabek and guardian, and the Emir Tag̲h̲rībardī his adviser and the father of the celebrated historian Abu ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf [q. v.] the chief weaponbearer. Itmis̲h̲ lived with the Sulṭān in the citadel and thereby aroused the jealousy of the other great Emirs who incited Farad̲j̲ after a few…


(372 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(al-Farāfira), an oasis in the Lybian desert, belonging to the Egyptian province of Minyā. It lies between the Wāḥāt Baḥrīye and the Wāḥāt Ḳiblīye [see the article baḥrīye, i. 586b et seq.] and is about 8 days journey by camel from Minyā. Among the earlier Arab geographers the name al-Farfarūn appears, for example in al-Bakrī, who mentions its great wealth in date-palms and the numerous villages inhabited by Christian Copts; he also knows of the alum and vitriol found there and mentions the hot springs of the oasis. We have no other direct not…


(208 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
, a town of Afg̲h̲ānistān in the Herāt province situated on the bank of the Farāhrūd river which flows in a south-westerly direction into the Sīstān Hāmūn. Farāh, although decayed, is still a place of some importance, and is the meeting place of several caravan routes and the centre of a fertile district. It was formerly the capital of Drangiana, and was included in the mediaeval province of Sid̲j̲istān, but is not included in modern Sīstān. It has never quite recovered from its devastation by the Mongols under Čingiz Ḵh̲ān. The Farāh-rūd is one of the rivers mentioned in the Vendidād (Fradāth…


(119 words)

, Abū Naṣr Masʿūd b. Abī Bakr b. Ḥusaīn b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, born at Farāh in Sid̲j̲istān, a Persian philologist, who flourished in the beginning of the viith century a. h. He is the author of a versified Arabic-Persian glossary, called Niṣāb al-Ṣibyān, which was much used in the east and is found in almost every library in Europe in several copies. Commentaries have frequently been written on this little book. Cf. Cat. Berl. (Pertsch), N°. 156, 157 (1); Rieu, Cat. Pers. Mss. Brit. Mus., p. 504a; Ethé, Cat. Oxford, col. 980—983. He also versified in Arabic in 617 the celebrated compendium of law al-Ḏj̲ām…


(616 words)

Author(s): Joynboll, Th. W.
is the name given to the expressly called fixed shares in an estate (½, ¼, 1/8, ¶ 2/3, 1/3 and 1/6) in the verses dealing with the law of inheritance in the Ḳorʾān (iv. 12—15 and 175) which fall to the twelve so-called “people of fixed inheritance” ( d̲h̲awu, ’l-farāʾiḍ or aṣḥāb al-farāʾiḍ). As the accurate knowledge of these fixed legacies was the most important part of the aw of inheritance, the latter was called ʿilm al-farāʾiḍ. Although the Ḳorʾān only recognises fixed portions for the daughter, the two parents, the husband and wife, and the brothers and sisters, Mus…
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