Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(62 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the twentieth letter of the Arabic alphabet (numerical value 80; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad i. 68b et seq.). On the evolution of the character see the article arabia, arabic language, i. 383b. Fāʾ is pronounced at the present day as it was, in old Arabic, viz. as a voiceless labiodental aspirate. Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Laullekre, Index. (A. Schaade)


(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Demin. Fudaik), a town in Arabia not far from Ḵh̲aibar [q. v.] and like the latter inhabited by Jews. In the year 6 = 627 Muḥammed sent ʿAlī, afterwards Caliph, against Fadak as he had learned that the people of the latter town were going to support the Jews in Ḵh̲aibar. When Ḵh̲aibar was taken in the following year, the Jews of Fadak also submitted and agreed to give up half of their possessions. Muḥaiyiṣa b. Masʿūd conducted the negotiations between the Prophet and the people of Fadak and was …


(164 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
, Muḥammad b. S̲h̲āfiʿī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, a Cairene S̲h̲aik̲h̲ born at Munyat Faḍāla near Samannud in the Delta ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ d̲j̲adīda, ix. p. 2; xvi. p. 80; Bād̲j̲ūrī, Taḥḳīḳ al-maḳām ʿalā kifāyat al-ʿawāmm, p. 9 of ed. of Cairo, 1315) who died in a. h. 1236 ( Cat. of Ḵh̲ediv. Library, ii. p. 39) = a. d. 1821. He appears to be known only as the author of the Kifāyat al-awāmm mitt ʿilm al-kalām and the teacher of the more fertile Bad̲j̲ūrī [q. v.] who added the gloss, mentioned above, to his master’s work. Text and ḥāshiya seem always to go together in the Mss. and editions. A translation of the…


(266 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), an Arabic word derived from the Aramaic (cf. Fränkel, Die Aram. Fremdwörter, p. 129), properly 3 yoke of oxen for ploughing a piece of ground, an Egyptian measure of area, varying in size with time and place. According to Lane the faddān a few years before his stay in Egypt (1833—1835) measured about 1.1 acres, while during his stay there it was less than an acre. It was divided into 24 ḳīrāṭ and contained 333 1/3 square ḳaṣaba, the ḳaṣaba (rood) being first reckoned at 24 and later at 22 ḳabḍa. In the time of the French expedition there were three different faddān in use: the f…


(16 words)

(a.) “sum, total” from fad̲h̲ālika “and this makes”, at the end of an addition.


(9 words)

(a.) “Daybreak”, the title of Sūra LXXXIX.


(521 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Sahl, al-Maʾmūn’s vizier. Al-Faḍl was a native of Persia and did not adopt Islām till 190 (805-806). His family had been strongly recommended to Hārūn by the Barmecides and al-Faḍl b. al-Rabī, their implacable opponent, therefore became a personal enemy of Ibn Sahl. As the former was of Arab origin, the latter was also opposed to him as the representative of the Iranian element, and just as Ibn al-Rabīʿ controlled the one brother, al-Amīn, the other, al-Maʾmūn, was simply a tool in the hands o…


(200 words)

Author(s): Nazim, M.
b. Aḥmad al-Asfarāʾinī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, the first wazīr of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna, was formerly the Ṣāḥib-i Barīd (Master of the Post) of Marw under the Sāmānids. At the request of Subuktigīn, Amīr Nūḥ b. Manṣūr the Sāmānid sent Faḍl to Nīs̲h̲āpūr in 385 (995) as the wazīr of Maḥmūd who had been appointed to the command of the troops of Ḵh̲urāsān, in the previous year. Faḍl managed the affairs of the expanding empire of Sulṭān Maḥmūd with great tact and ability till 404 (1013), when he was accused of extorting …


(499 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Rabīʿ, al-Amīn’s vizier. A descendant of a Syrian slave manumitted by the Caliph Ot̲h̲mān, al-Faḍl proved himself thoroughly Arab in his attitude and constantly championed the Arab spirit in opposition to the numerous Iranian elements in the ʿAbbāsid empire. His father al-Rabīʿ b. Yūnus had played a part in history as vizier to the two Caliphs al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. When Hārūn on his accession gave the Barmecides preferment, al-Faḍl felt himself slighted and became filled with hatred and j…


(66 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Yaḥyā, a Barmakid, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 148 (February 766), governor of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān, Ṭabarīstān, al-Raiy etc. 176—180(792— 796-797) and of Ḵh̲orāsān 178-179 (794-795— 795-796). On the fall of the Barmakids in 187 (803) he was thrown into prison. He died in confinement in al-Raḳḳa in Ramaḍān 192 or Muḥarram 193 (808). For further details see above i. 665a (article bakmakids). (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Faḍl Allāh

(232 words)

, a family of officials in Cairo under the Mamlūks who traced their descent from the Caliph ʿOmār I. so that the individual members are also known by the nisba al-ʿOmarī. The founder of the family was Faḍl Allāh Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Maʾāt̲h̲ir b. ʿIzz al-Dīn; one of his sons, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAbd āl-Wahhāb (died 717 = 1317), was private secretary under Ḳalāwūn, another son, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Yaḥyā (died 738 = 1337), was likewise private secretary under al-Nāṣir in Damascus, but moved to Cairo in 733(1332-1333). The latter had a…

Faḍl Allāh

(265 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, surnamed Ḥurūfī, founder of the Ḥurūfī sect, born in Astarābād in 740 (1339), was a dervish who shared the religious opinions of the Ḳarmaṭians. He actually seems to ¶ have borrowed the system, which develops a whole theology out of the calculation of the numerical value of the Arabic letters, to which he added the four additional letters of the Persian alphabet [cf. bektās̲h̲, i. 691 et seq.] from the Ismāʿīlis. He was executed in S̲h̲īrwān in 796 (1393) by Mīrāns̲h̲āh, son of Tīmūr. One of his pupils, ʿAlī al-Aʿlā, went to Asia Minor, was received into a Bek…

Faḍl Allāh

(6 words)

[See ras̲h̲īd al-dīn.]


(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west …


(4 words)

[See Ḳirṭās.]


(204 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(avestan bagha-puthra “son of God”) an expression brought to Persia through Farg̲h̲Sna (P. Horn, Asadî’s Lug̲h̲at-i Furs, p. 56) is the designation of the Emperor of China and the translation of the Chinese tien-tsö “Son of heaven” (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, vii. 221, ult.). The Arabs have preserved the form bag̲h̲būr, which is more a western form, but fag̲h̲fūr is also found notably in the Arabic inscription in the cemetery at Zaitnn (Ts’iuan-chou), of the year 723 (1323) which has been discussed by M. van Berchem; in Marco Polo (ed. Yule and Cordier, ii. 145…


(275 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Fiḥl, among the Jews Pḥl, called Pella by the Greeks in allusion to the name of the Macedonian town, at the present day the ruins of Faḥil on the western slopes of the land east of Jordan. It belonged to the Decapolis and is particularly celebrated because the Christians went thither on leaving Jerusalem before its destruction; it afterwards belonged to Falaestina Secunda and was the see of a bishop. About six months after the battle of Ad̲j̲nādain in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda of the year 13 (January 635) the…


(934 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
By this word Muslim scholars in general understand all things which may be taken from the unbelievers “without fighting” and further very often the lands in conquered territories. The name faiʾ is explained from the peculiar expression in the Ḳorʾān, lix, verses 6 and 7. “What God has allowed to return to his apostle” ( mā afāʾa ’llāhu ʿalā rasūlihi). The possessions of the unbelievers which are “returned” to the Muslims form the faiʾ. Verses lix, 6, 8 and 10 of the Ḳorʾān were revealed, according to Muslim tradition, when Muḥammad had resolved not to divide the field…


(1,969 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), effusion, emanation, is much used in the Arabic tradition of neo-Platonism, as a name for the gradual but steadily descending creative development of the world out of God and its maintenance through his providence. No definition ( ḥadd) can be given of God’s being and of his creative activity, but it is possible to describe it in other words ( rasm), e. g. to say: He is the existent one from whom all else emanates ( yafīḍ). For this the philosophers primarily use the expressions of the Ḳurʾān and Tradition ( k̲h̲alḳ, ibdāʿ etc.) interpreted in a spiritual sense ( taʾwīl). At the same time…


(170 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a., properly “agent”), a technical term in Arabic grammar = the subject of the verbal sentence, but only of the active verb (like Zaid un in the sentence d̲j̲āʿa Zaid un = Zaid came), while that of the passive (like Zaid un in ḍuriba Zaid un = Z. was beaten) is called al-mafʿūl allad̲h̲ī lam yusamma fāʿiluhu, = the “patient” whose agent is not mentioned” (in Sībawaihi, Ch. 8 et seq. other expressions are also given). The fāʿil can be a word only, not a sentence (this is given as a teaching of Sībawaihi’s in al-Mubarrad, Kāmil, i. 289, 14—15). It must follow its fiʿl (verb) and is placed by it in …


(333 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I.
, philosopher: he who studies falsa fa [q. v. p. 48 et seq.]; thence frequently used as an epithet for deep thinkers. The Arab philologists know the literal meaning of this word as muḥibb al-ḥihma (lover of wisdom). Al-Kindī [q. v.] was preferably known as the failasūf al-ʿArab (philosopher of the Arabs), presumably because he was a philosopher of genuine Arab origin in contrast to most Muslim philosophers who belonged to non-Arab nations. (Cf. the correct explanation of this name given to al-Kindī by T. J. de Boer in the Archiv. für Gesch. der Philos. [1899], xiii. 154 et seq.). al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ i…


(3,548 words)

Author(s): Moritz, B.
The district of Faiyūm is a depression on the eastern borders of the Libyan desert in the form of an irregular triangle with the apex to the south. It measures about 35 miles from N. to S. and about 49 from E. to W. The depression slopes from S. to N. and N. W., at first gradually to the railway line from Abuksa to Sanūres (30 feet above sea-level), then very rapidly to the Birket Ḳārūn (140 feet below sea-level). This hollow was formed in the Tertiary period through collapses in the earth’s crust (as did the Nile valley also). Traces of human activity in the pre-historic p…


(222 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
bi Naṣr Allāh, a Fāṭimid Caliph. Born in 544 (1149), he was the son of the Caliph ¶ al-Ẓāfir and his real name was Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿĪsā. After the assassination of his father (30th Muḥarram 549 = 16th April 1154) he was carried by the vizier ʿAbbās out on his shoulders and placed on the throne, being then only fine years old. The gruesome scenes of those days, particularly the sight of his uncles Yūsuf and Ḏj̲abrīl slain by the orders of ʿAbbās, are said to have so worked on the mind of the unfortunate boy that he was constantly affli…


(164 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Faiḍābād, the name of two modern towns in Central Asia; on Faizabad in Buk̲h̲ārā cf. the article āmū-daryā, i. 340a and on Faizabad in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān see this article i. 552b et seq. (where it is erroneously called Faid̲h̲ābād). Faizabad in Buk̲h̲ārā, lying in a fertile valley with green pastures throughout the year, is now a town with about 3000 inhabitants, the residence of the tax-collector ( amlākdār) of the Beg of Ḥiṣār; the citadel is in ruins. Faizabad in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān lies on the right bank of the Kokča, which is here crossed by a wooden brid…


(169 words)

(Fyzābād), a t own, division and district in Oudh (British India). The town of Faizābād lies on the left bank of the river Gogra near Ayodhyā, the ancient capital of Oudh, and with this town has a population of 75,085 of whom 17,674 are Muslims (1901). The town was founded by Saʿādat Ḵh̲ān and first received its name Faizābād in the reign of Ṣafdar Ḏj̲ang, but the early Nawwābs only rarely resided in the capital; S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Dawla, son of Ṣafdar Ḏj̲ang (1753—1775), was the first to make it hi…

Faiẓī S̲h̲aik̲h̲

(577 words)

Author(s): Beveridge
His original name was Abu ’l-Faiẓ, and he was the son of Mubārak S̲h̲aik̲h̲, and the elder brother of Abu ’l-Faẓl the historian. He was born at Agra in 1547, during the reign of Selīm S̲h̲āh. He was a poet, and Akbar gave him the title of “King of Poets”. He was ambitious of rivalling Niẓāmī, and wrote five epics in imitation of his Quintet. He appears to have known Sanskrit, as well as Arabic, and he translated the Līlāvatī, a work on Indian arithmetic, and also the Mahābhārata. He likewise wrote a commentary on the Ḳorʾān, in which he affected to use no dotted letters. (Badāʾūnī,…


(346 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
Efendi (al-Saiyid Meḥemmed), son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Meḥemmed. Muftī of Erzerūm, came to Constantinople on the completion of his theological studies, where he married a daughter of the celebrated S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Wānī Efendi. Introduced by his father-in-law to the court of Sulṭān Meḥemmed IV. he was appointed tutor to Prince Muṣṭafā in 1080 and to Prince Aḥmed in 1089 and filled this office till 1097. On the deposition of Meḥemmed IV he became S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām under his successor Suleimān II. on the 12th Rabīʿ I. 1099 (16th January 1688) but was deposed on the 28th Ḏj̲umādā II. (30th April…


(199 words)

, the name of a wādī not far from Mecca, where Ḥusain b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan with many other ʿAlids met their death on the 8th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 169 (11th June 786), wherefore ¶ the day of Fak̲h̲k̲h̲, like that of Kerbelā was observed by the S̲h̲īʿīs as a day of mourning and it was the custom among them to talk of the martyrs of Fak̲h̲k̲h̲. Ḥusain had homage paid to him a short time before in Medīna, collected a few followers and set out for Mecca. In Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ he met the ʿAbbāsid troops, who scattered his little body of follow…


(76 words)

(a.) “glory”, a frequent component of titles of honour: Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla “glory of the dynasty”, the name of a Būyid (see below) and of Ibn Ḏj̲ahīr [q. v.]; Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn “glory of the faith”, a name of al-Rāzī [q. v.] and of the Druze chief mentioned below; Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk “glory of the kingdom”, a name of Ibn ʿAmmār [q. v.], of Muḥammad b. ʿAlī [q. v.] and of Tutus̲h̲’s vizier (see below p. 45b).

Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla

(456 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Rukn al-Dawla, a Būyid governor. After the death of his father in Muḥarram 366 (September 976), Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla, who was then about 25 years old, received the governorship of Media under the suzerainty of his elder brother ʿAḍud al-Dawla with the exception of Iṣfahān and all that went with it, which went to a third brother Muʾaiyid al-Dawla. But while the latter was following out terms of his father’s will, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla wanted to set himself up as an independent ruler and al…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn

(753 words)

b. Ḳorḳmas, the chief of the Druses, called Facardin, Fekkerdin, Fechrrdin, Ficardin etc., by European authors, of the tribe of Banū Maʾn [q. v.], born in 980 (1572), was recognised by the Sublime Porte as Emīr of the Druzes on the death of his father in 994 (1586). In the beginning of his reign the management of affairs was in the hands of his uncle Yūsuf and his mother, called Set neseb (Sitt Nasība?) by Mariti, who as long as she lived — till 1633 — exercised a great influence over her son. As…


(166 words)

Author(s): Jacob, G.
a native of Brusa, the most celebrated silhouette-cutter in Turkey. This art was brought from Persia to Turkey in the xvith century and to the West in the xviith century, where at first, as in the east, light paper on a dark ground was always used. There are specimens of Bursewl Fak̲h̲rī’s work — he cut principally specimens of calligraphy, flowers and gardens — in the album prepared for Murād III, now in the Vienna Hofbibliothek; for Aḥmed I he cut out a Gulistān which did not however survive his criticism; Murād IV on th…


(16 words)

, the title of an Arabie historical work, composed by Ibn al-Tiḳtaḳa [q. v.].


(105 words)

, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammed Iṣpahānī, a Persian philologist. His great work the 4th part of which was published in 1887 by C. Salemann ( Shams i Fachrii Ispahanensis lexicon Persicum id est libri Miʿjâr i Ǵamâli pars quarta quantedidit C. Salemann, Fasc. prior textum et indices continens, Casani 1887) is entitled Miʿyār al-Ḏj̲amālī, because it was dedicated to the last ruler of the Ind̲j̲u dynasty [q. v.], Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammed S̲h̲āh, who ruled in Fars and ʿIrāḳ from 742—754 (1341—1353). According to Salemann he is also the author of a mystic poem Marg̲h̲ūb-i Ḳulūb. Nothing el…

Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk

(264 words)

Author(s): Zetterstěen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Muhẓaffar ʿAlī b. Nīhẓām al-Mulk, a vizier. Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk was the eldest son of the celebrated vizier Niẓām al-Mulk who was assassinated in Ramaḍān 485 (October 1092). After the death of Sulṭān Malik S̲h̲āh in the same year his son Barkiyāruḳ was proclaimed Sulṭān but had to defend his throne and kingdom against his rebellious uncles. Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk was then in Ḵh̲orāsān; but when he tried to go to Barkiyāruḳ to offer him his services, he was attacked by the followers of the latter’s younge…


(222 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
A faḳīh is, in the first instance, one who possesses knowledge of or understanding about a thing (syn. ʿālim, fāhim). Then as fiḳh [q. v.] passed from being synonymous with ʿilm (as in fiḳh al-lug̲h̲a) and became limited to religious knowledge ( ʿilm al-dīn) then to the religious law al-s̲h̲arīʿa) and finally to the derivative details of the last ( al-furūʿ), so faḳīh passed from meaning an intelligent, understanding person to meaning a theologian, then a canon lawyer and finally a casuist ( Lisān, vol. xvii. p. 418). The book ascribed to Abū Ḥanīfa, al-fiḳh al-akbar (“The Greater Fiḳh”, …


(82 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
1. Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammed b. Isḥāḳ b. al-ʿAbbās, an Arab historian, wrote at Mecca in 272 = 885 a chronicle of the city, extracts from which are given by Wüstenfeld in the second volume of his Chroniken der Stadt Metia (Leipzig 1859). 2. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmed al-Mekkī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī al-Naḥwī, born in 899 = 1492, died 972 = 1564, wrote the Ḥudūd al-Naḥw, printed n. d. s. l. (Jos. Baer, Bibl. As., Frankfurt a./M. 1907, ii. 3094). (C. Brockelmann)


(143 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
One who is in need, either physical or spiritual. Thus opposed to g̲h̲anī, one who is independent, rich; and commonly contrasted with miskīn, one who is in a miserable state. A beggar is sāʾil, an asker. Thus in Ḳur. xxxv. 16. “Ye are the needers ( fuḳarāʾ) of Allāh; but Allāh is the Self-sufficient ( g̲h̲anī)”. Faḳīr has in consequence come to indicate need in relation to Allāh and dependence ( tawakkul) of every kind upon Allāh, and is used in Arabic-speaking countries for a mendicant derwlsh (q. v.; cf. also Goldziher, Vorlesungen, p. 154). The saying ascribed to Muḥammed, al-faḳr fak̲h̲rī, …


(52 words)

, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Muḥammed Ḵh̲ān Bahādur, an Indian scholar who composed an Urdu translation of the Anwār-i Suhaili (lith. Lakhnow 1261 = 1845). Cf. the article kalila wa dimna. This translation was entitled Bustān-i Ḥikmat. Bibliography Garcin de Tassy, Histoire de la Litt. Hindouie et Hindoust., second ed. i. 443.


(568 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
(omen) is not mentioned in the Ḳurʾān, perhaps by accident; there the root Ṭyr takes its place. Its derivation and original meaning are obscure, as also is its relationship to the root Fyl, e. g. to mufāyil in Ṭarafa’s Muʿallaḳa, v. 5 ( Lisān xiv. p. 51; C. J. Lyall’s Ten Poems (Tibrīzī’s commentary), p. 31; Seligsohn’s Dîwân de Tarafa (Aʿlam’s commentary), p. v; contrast Ṣaḥāḥ under Faʾl). But in apparently authentic traditions from Muḥammad faʾl and ṭiyāra both occur, meaning “omen”, although somewhat contradictorily. It is plain that Muḥammad believed in omens and was…


(9 words)

(a.) „Daybreak“, the title of Sūra CXIII.


(144 words)

, Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a, an Egyptian geographer, born in 1220 in the province of al-G̲h̲arbīya, attended school in Alexandrien, then went to the polytechnic (Muhandis Ḵh̲āne) founded by Muḥammed ʿAlī and was next (1851) sent to Paris, where he continued his studies for nine years. His principal work is a map of Egypt, prepared by order of the Ḵh̲edīve Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a. Other words in Arabic and French are detailed by G. Zaidān (see Bibl.). He represented the Egyptian government at the Geographical Congresses in Paris and Venice. He afterwards received the office of vizier, bu…


(649 words)

Author(s): Zambaur, E. v.
(pl. Fulus), the copper coin of early Islām. The name is derived from the late Greek φόλλιΣ (which in its turn comes from the latin follis), the name of the Byzantine copper coin of 40 nummia in the coinage as organised by the Emperor Anastasius I (491—518 a. d.). The Byzantine follis therefore bore the mark of value M = 40 on its reverse. Its weight was originally to have been an ounce (about 30 grammes) but it decreased rapidly; by the time of the ¶ conquest of Syria by the Arabs it had sunk to 6 grammes; the smaller Byzantine copper coins marked Κ (= 20), Ι (= 10) and Ε (= 5 …


(4,628 words)

Author(s): Horten, M.
Falsafa is the term applied to the Muslim philosophy as developed under Greek influence. In addition to it other tendencies have to be considered, which construct a conception of the universe according to the views on scientific methods prevailing in their time or at least concern themselves with general views of the universe and therefore must be considered as philosophical. This is primarily true of the current of speculative theology. Its aim is to raise to a higher intellectual level the dog…


(570 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), an important technical term of Ṣūfism, meaning, “annihilation, dissolution”. The Ṣūfī who attains perfection must be in a kind of state of annihilation. The authors of treatises on Muslim mysticism have often compared the “annihilation” of Ṣūfism with the Buddhist nirvāna; but this comparison is not a particularly fitting one. We now know that the Muslim writers had only a very slight knowledge of Indian philosophy and could not comprehend the notion of nirvāna which presumes a fairly intimate acquaintance with t…


(16 words)

, a South Indian coin. [See Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson 2 , p. 348].


(338 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the name of the Greek quarter of Stambul in which the Oecumenian Patriarch took up his residence after the conquest of the town by Meḥemmed II. Down to 1587 the patriarchate was in the ancient Byzantine church of the Pammakaristos; when this was transformed into a mosque (Fetḥiye) in that year, the Patriarch moved his see to the little church of St. George. At quite an early period there settled round the see, in addition to the ecclesiastical and secular officials of the patriarchate, the few…
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