Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(62 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the twentieth letter of the Arabic alphabet (numerical value 80; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad i. 68b et seq.). On the evolution of the character see the article arabia, arabic language, i. 383b. Fāʾ is pronounced at the present day as it was, in old Arabic, viz. as a voiceless labiodental aspirate. Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Laullekre, Index. (A. Schaade)


(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Demin. Fudaik), a town in Arabia not far from Ḵh̲aibar [q. v.] and like the latter inhabited by Jews…


(164 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
, Muḥammad b. S̲h̲āfiʿī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, a Cairene S̲h̲aik̲h̲ born at Munyat Faḍāla near Samannud in the Delta ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ d̲j̲adīda, ix. p. 2; xvi. p. 80; Bād̲j̲ūrī, Taḥḳīḳ al-maḳām ʿalā kifāyat al-ʿawāmm, p. 9 of ed. of Cairo, 1315) who died in a. h. 1236 ( Cat. of Ḵh̲ediv. Library, ii. p. 39) = a. d. 1821. He appears to be known only as the author of the Kifāyat al-awāmm mitt ʿilm al-kalām and the teacher of the more fertile Bad̲j̲ūrī [q. v.] who added the gloss, mentioned above, to his master’s work. Text and ḥāshiya seem always to go together in the Mss. and editions. A translation of the…


(16 words)

(a.) “sum, total” from fad̲h̲ālika “and this makes”, at the end of an addition.


(9 words)

(a.) “Daybreak”, the title of Sūra LXXXIX.


(66 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Yaḥyā, a Barmakid, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 148 (February 766), governor of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān, Ṭabarīstān, al-Raiy etc. 176—180(792— 796-797) and of Ḵh̲orāsān 178-179 (794-795— 795-796). On the fall of the Barmakids in 187 (803) he was thrown into prison. He died in confinement in al-Raḳḳa in Ramaḍān 192 or Muḥarram 193 (808). For further details see above i. 665a (article bakmakids). (K. V. Zetterstéen)


(521 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Sahl, al-Maʾmūn’s vizier. Al-Faḍl was a native of Persia and did not adopt Islām till 190 (805-806). His family had been strongly recommended to Hārūn by the Barmecides and al-Faḍl b. al-Rabī, their im

Faḍl Allāh

(265 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, surnamed Ḥurūfī, founder of the Ḥurūfī sect, born in Astarābād in 740 (1339), was a dervish who shared the religious opinions of the Ḳarmaṭians. He actually seems to ¶ ha…

Faḍl Allāh

(232 words)

, a family of officials in Cairo under the Mamlūks who traced their descent from the Caliph ʿOmār I. so that the individual members are also known by the

Faḍl Allāh

(6 words)

[See ras̲h̲īd al-dīn.]


(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west …


(4 words)

[See Ḳirṭās.]


(204 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(avestan bagha-puthra “son of God”) an expression brought to Persia through Farg̲h̲Sna (P. Horn, Asadî’s Lug̲h̲at-i Furs, p. 56) is the designation of the Emperor of China and the translation of the Chinese tien-tsö “Son of heaven” (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, vii. 221, ult.). The Arabs ha…


(934 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
By this word Muslim scholars in general understand all things which may be taken from the unbelievers “without fighting” and further very often the lands in conquered territories. The name faiʾ is explained from the peculiar expression in the Ḳorʾān, lix, verses 6 and 7. “What God has allowed to return to his apostle” ( mā afāʾa ’llāhu ʿalā rasūlihi). The possessions of the unbelievers which are “returned” to the Muslims form the faiʾ. Verses lix, 6, 8 and 10 of the Ḳorʾān were revealed, according to Muslim tradition, when Muḥammad had resolved not to divide the field…


(1,969 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), effusion, emanation, is much used in the Arabic tradition of neo-Platonism, as a name for the gradual but steadily descending creative development of the world out of God and its maintenance through his providence. No definition (


(170 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a., properly “agent”), a technical term in Arabic grammar = the subject of the verbal sentence, but only of the active verb (like Zaid un in the sentence d̲j̲āʿa Zaid un = Zaid came), while that of the passive (like Zaid un in ḍuriba Zaid un = Z. was beaten) is called al-mafʿūl allad̲h̲ī lam yusamma fāʿiluhu, = the “patient” whose agent is not mentioned” (in Sībawaihi, Ch. 8 et seq. other expressions are also given). The


(333 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I.
, philosopher: he who studies falsa fa [q. v. p. 48 et seq.]; thence frequently used as an epithet for deep thinkers. The Arab philologists know the literal meaning of this word as muḥibb al-ḥihma (lover of wisdom). Al-Kindī [q. v.] was preferably known as the failasūf al-ʿArab (philosopher of the Arabs), presumably because he was a philosopher of genuine Arab origin in contrast to most Muslim philosophers who belonged to non-Arab nations. (Cf. the correct explanation of this name given to al-Kindī by T. J. de Boer in the Archiv. für Gesch. der Philos. [1899], xiii. 154 et seq.). al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ i…


(3,548 words)

Author(s): Moritz, B.
The district of Faiyūm is a depression on the eastern borders of the Libyan desert in the form of an irregular triangle with the apex to the south. It measures about 35 miles from N. to S. and about 49 from E. to W. The depression slopes from S. to N. and N. W., at first gradually to the railway line from Abuksa to Sanūres (30 feet above sea-level), then very rapidly to the Birket Ḳārūn (140 feet below sea-level). This hollow was formed in the Tertiary period through collapses in the earth’s crust (as did the Nile valley also). Traces of human activity in the pre-historic period, su…


(222 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
bi Naṣr Allāh, a Fāṭimid Caliph. Born in 544 (1149), he was the son of the Caliph ¶ al-Ẓāfir and his real name was Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿĪsā. After the assassination of his father (30th Muḥarram 549 = 16th…


(164 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Faiḍābād, the name of two modern towns in Central Asia; on Faizabad in Buk̲h̲ārā cf. the article āmū-daryā, i. 340a and on Faizabad in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān see this article i. 552b et seq.


(169 words)

(Fyzābād), a t own, division and district in Oudh (British India). The town of Faizābād lies on the left bank of the river Gogra near Ayodhyā, the ancient capital of Oudh, and with t…

Faiẓī S̲h̲aik̲h̲

(577 words)

Author(s): Beveridge
His original name was Abu ’l-Faiẓ, and he was the son of Mubārak S̲h̲aik̲h̲, and the elder brother of Abu ’l-Faẓl the historian. He was born at Agra in 1547, during the reign of Selīm S̲h̲āh. He was a poet, and Akbar gave him the title of “King of Poets”. He was ambitious of rivalling Niẓāmī, and wrote five epics in imitation of his Quintet. He appears to have known Sanskrit, as well as Arabic, and he translated the Līlāvatī, a work on Indian arithmetic, and also the Mahābhārata. He likewise wrote a commentary on the Ḳorʾān, in which he affected to use no dotted letters. (Badāʾūnī,…


(346 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
Efendi (al-Saiyid Meḥemmed), son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Meḥemmed. Muftī of Erzerūm, came to Constantinople on the completion of his theological studies, where he married a daughter of the celebrated S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Wānī Efendi. Introduced by his father-in-law to the court of Sulṭān Meḥemmed IV. he was appointed tutor to Prince Muṣṭafā in 1080 and to Prince Aḥmed in 1089 and filled this office till 1097. On the deposition of Meḥemmed IV he became S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām under his successor Suleimān II. on the 12th Rabīʿ I. 1099 (16th January 1688) but was deposed on the 28th Ḏj̲umādā II. (30th April) and banished to Erzerūm. When Muṣṭafā II. came to the throne he recalled his former tutor from exile and appointed him S̲h̲a…


(199 words)

, the name of a wādī not far from Mecca, where Ḥusain b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan with many other ʿAlids met their death on the 8th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 169 (11th June 786), wherefore ¶ the day of Fak̲h̲k̲h̲…


(76 words)

(a.) “glory”, a frequent component of titles of honour: Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla “glory of the dynasty”, the name of a Būyid (see below) and of Ibn Ḏj̲ahīr [q. v.]; Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn “glory of the faith”, a name of al-Rāzī [q. v.] and of the Druze chief mentioned below; Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk “glory of the kingdom”, a name of Ibn ʿAmmār [q. v.], of Muḥammad b. ʿAlī [q. v.] and of Tutus̲h̲’s vizier (see below p. 45b).

Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla

(456 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Rukn al-Dawla, a Būyid governor. After the death of hi…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn

(753 words)

b. Ḳorḳmas, the chief of the Druses, called Facardin, Fekkerdin, Fechrrdin, Ficardin etc., by European authors, of the tribe of Banū Maʾn [q. v.], born in 980 (1572), was recognised by the Sublime Porte as Emīr of the Druzes on the death of his father in 994 (1586). In the beginning of his reign the management of affairs was in the hands of his uncle Yūsuf and his mother, called Set neseb (Sitt Nasība?) by Mariti, who as long as she lived — till 1633 — exercised a great influence over her son. As…


(105 words)

, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammed Iṣpahānī, a Persian philologist. His great work the 4th part of which was published in 1887 by C. Salemann ( Shams i Fachrii Ispahanensis lexicon Persicum id est libri Miʿjâr i Ǵamâli pars quarta quantedidit C. Salemann, Fasc. prior textum et indices continens, Casani 1887) is entitled Miʿyār al-Ḏj̲amālī, because it was dedicated to the last ruler of the Ind̲j̲u dynasty [q. v.], Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammed S̲h̲āh, who ruled in Fars and ʿIrāḳ from 742—754 (1341—1353). According to Salemann he is also the author of a mystic poem Marg̲h̲ūb-i Ḳulūb. Nothing el…


(16 words)

, the title of an Arabie historical work, composed by Ibn al-Tiḳtaḳa [q. v.].


(166 words)

Author(s): Jacob, G.
a native of Brusa, the most celebrated silhouette-cutter in Turkey. This art was brought from Persia to Turkey in the xvith century and to the West in the xviith century, where at first, as in the east, light paper on a dark ground was always used. There are specimens of Bursewl Fak̲h̲rī’s work — he cut principally specimens of calligraphy, flowers and gardens — in the album prepared for Murād III, now in the Vienna Hofbibliothek; for Aḥmed I he cut out a Gulistān which did not however survive his criticism; Murād IV on th…

Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk

(264 words)

Author(s): Zetterstěen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Muhẓaffar ʿAlī b. Nīhẓām al-Mulk, a vizier. Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk was the eldest son of the celebrated vizier Niẓām al-Mulk who was assassinated in Ramaḍān 485 (October 1092). After the death of Sulṭān Malik S̲h̲āh in the same year his son Barkiyāruḳ was proclaimed Sulṭān but had to defend his throne and kingdom against his rebellious uncles. Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk was then in Ḵh̲orāsān; but when he tried to go to Barkiyāruḳ to offer him his services, he was attacked by the followers of the latter’s younge…


(222 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
A faḳīh is, in the first instance, one who possesses knowledge of or understanding about a thing (syn. ʿālim, fāhim). Then as fiḳh [q. v.] passed from being synonymous with ʿilm (as in fiḳh al-lug̲h̲a) and became limited to religious knowledge ( ʿilm al-dīn) then to the religious law al-s̲h̲arīʿa) and finally to the derivative details of the last ( al-furūʿ), so faḳīh passed from meaning an intelligent, understanding person to meaning a theologian, then a canon lawyer and finally a casuist ( Lisān, vol. xvii. p. 418). The book ascribed to Abū Ḥanīfa, al-fiḳh al-akbar (“The Greater Fiḳh”, …


(82 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
1. Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammed b. Isḥāḳ b. al-ʿAbbās, an Arab historian, wrote at Mecca in 272 = 885 a chronicle of the city, extracts from which are given by Wüstenfeld in the second volume of his Chroniken der Stadt Metia (Leipzig 1859). 2. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmed al-Mekkī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī al-Naḥwī, born in 899 = 1492, died 972 = 1564, wrote the Ḥudūd al-Naḥw, printed n. d. s. l. (Jos. Baer, Bibl. As., Frankfurt a./M. 1907, ii. 3094). (C. Brockelmann)


(143 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
One who is in need, either physical or spiritual. Thus opposed to g̲h̲anī, one who is independent, rich; and commonly contrasted with miskīn, one who is in a miserable state. A beggar is sāʾil, an asker. Thus in Ḳur. xxxv. 16. “Ye are the needers ( fuḳarāʾ) of Allāh; but Allāh is the Self-sufficient ( g̲h̲anī)”. Faḳīr has in consequence come to indicate need in relation to Allāh and dependence ( tawakkul) of every kind upon Allāh, and is used in Arabic-speaking countries for a mendicant derwlsh (q. v.; cf. also Goldziher, Vorlesungen, p. 154). The saying ascribed to Muḥammed, al-faḳr fak̲h̲rī, …


(52 words)

, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Muḥammed Ḵh̲ān Bahādur, an Indian scholar who composed an Urdu translation of the Anwār-i Suhaili (lith. Lakhnow 1261 = 1845). Cf. the article kalila wa dimna. This translation was entitled Bustān-i Ḥikmat. Bibliography Garcin de Tassy, Histoire de la Litt. Hindouie et Hindoust., second ed. i. 443.


(568 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
(omen) is not mentioned in the Ḳurʾān, perhaps by accident; there the root Ṭyr takes its place. Its derivation and original meaning are obscure, as also is its relationship to the root Fyl, e. g. to mufāyil in Ṭarafa’s Muʿallaḳa, v. 5 ( Lisān xiv. p. 51; C. J. Lyall’s Ten Poems (Tibrīzī’s commentary), p. 31; Seligsohn’s Dîwân de Tarafa (Aʿlam’s commentary), p. v; contrast Ṣaḥāḥ under Faʾl). But in apparently authentic traditions from Muḥammad faʾl and ṭiyāra both occur, meaning “omen”, although somewhat contradictorily. It is plain that Muḥammad believed in omens and was…


(9 words)

(a.) „Daybreak“, the title of Sūra CXIII.


(144 words)

, Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a, an Egyptian geographer, born in 1220 in the province of al-G̲h̲arbīya, attended school in Alexandrien, then went to the polytechnic (Muhandis Ḵh̲āne) founded by Muḥammed ʿAlī and was next (1851) sent to Paris, where he continued his studies for nine years. His principal work is a map of Egypt, prepared by order of the Ḵh̲edīve Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a. Other words in Arabic and French are detailed by G. Zaidān (see Bibl.). He represented the Egyptian government at the Geographical Congresses in Paris and Venice. He afterwards received the office of vizier, bu…


(649 words)

Author(s): Zambaur, E. v.
(pl. Fulus), the copper coin of early Islām. The name is derived from the late Greek φόλλιΣ (which in its turn comes from the latin follis), the name of the Byzantine copper coin of 40 nummia in the coinage as organised by the Emperor Anastasius I (491—518 a. d.). The Byzantine follis therefore bore the mark of value M = 40 on its reverse. Its weight was originally to have been an ounce (about 30 grammes) but it decreased rapidly; by the time of the ¶ conquest of Syria by the Arabs it had sunk to 6 grammes; the smaller Byzantine copper coins marked Κ (= 20), Ι (= 10) and Ε (= 5 …


(4,628 words)

Author(s): Horten, M.
Falsafa is the term applied to the Muslim philosophy as developed under Greek influence. In addition to it other tendencies have to be considered, which construct a conception of the universe according to the views on scientific methods prevailing in their time or at least concern themselves with general views of the universe and therefore must be considered as philosophical. This is primarily true of the current of speculative theology. Its aim is to raise to a higher intellectual level the dog…


(570 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.), an important technical term of Ṣūfism, meaning, “annihilation, dissolution”. The Ṣūfī who attains perfection must be in a kind of state of annihilation. The authors of treatises on Muslim mysticism have often compared the “annihilation” of Ṣūfism with the Buddhist nirvāna; but this comparison is not a particularly fitting one. We now know that the Muslim writers had only a very slight knowledge of Indian philosophy and could not comprehend the notion of nirvāna which presumes a fairly intimate acquaintance with t…


(16 words)

, a South Indian coin. [See Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson 2 , p. 348].


(338 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the name of the Greek quarter of Stambul in which the Oecumenian Patriarch took up his residence after the conquest of the town by Meḥemmed II. Down to 1587 the patriarchate was in the ancient Byzantine church of the Pammakaristos; when this was transformed into a mosque (Fetḥiye) in that year, the Patriarch moved his see to the little church of St. George. At quite an early period there settled round the see, in addition to the ecclesiastical and secular officials of the patriarchate, the few…
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