Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ḍabba

(457 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
b. Udd b. Ṭābik̲h̲a b. Alyās b. Muḍar was the ancestor of the well known tribe of that name. The name (which means a lizard, lacerta caudiverbera) is borne also by Ḍabba b. ʿAmr of Hud̲h̲ail, Ḍabba b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Ḳurais̲h̲, and others (cf. Ṭabarī, i. 2710—2712; iii. 1359). Ḍabba b. Udd was brother of ʿAbd Manāt and of Muzaina (strictly ʿAmr) and uncle of Tamīm b. Murr. He is sometimes included amongst the Ribāb which strictly denotes the three sons of ʿAbd Manāt only. The pasturing grounds of this tribe lay in al-Yamāma, but included the Wādī ʿAḳūl in Nad̲j̲d (Wüstenfeld, Genealog. Tabellen). …

Dābba

(283 words)

Author(s): Fulton, A. S.
, any animal that walks, creeps or crawls upon the earth. “And God hath created every Dābba of water, and some of them go upon their belly, and some go upon two legs, and some upon four”. (Sūra 24, 44). Here the word is used of both rational and irrational creatures. But Dābba particularly applies to ‘a beast that is ridden’, especially the horse, mule, or ass; it signifies both the male and female. Dābbat al-Arḍ is one of the greater signs of the resurrection. It is said to be a beast 60 cubits high, the parts of whose body belong to different animals, — the head of …

al-Ḍabbī

(19 words)

, Abū ʿIkrima ʿĀmir b. ʿImrān, author of a commentary on the Mufaḍḍalīyāt. [See the article al-mufaḍḍal.]

al-Ḍabbī

(311 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Aḥmad b. ʿAmīra (not al-Ḳurṭubī), a Spanish Arab scholar of the vith (xiith) century, was born at Vélez (Rubio, Blanco) west of Lorca, as appears practically certain from references to himself and his family in his work, and began his studies in the latter town when not yet 10 years of age: except for his journeys to North Africa — Sebta (Ceuta), Marrākus̲h̲, Bid̲j̲āya (Bougie), and Alexandria — he seems to have spent most of his life in Mursiya (Murcia) and to have died at the end…

Dābiḳ

(352 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, a locality in northern Syria, in the district of ʿAzāz (Yāḳūt, ii. 513) on the road from Manbid̲j̲ to Antākiya (Ṭabarī, iii. 1103), on the Nahr Ḳuwaiḳ above Ḥalab (Idrīsī, Zeitschrift des Deutsch. Pal.-Vereins, viii. ). These statements suffice to establish the identity of its site with that of the modern village of Dābiḳ (near it is Duwaibiḳ = Turkish Ṭaipuḳ). Dābiḳ was the headquarters of the army and the base of operations for campaigns of the Marwānids and early ʿAbbāsids against Rūm. The Caliph Sulaimān b. ʿAbd al-Malik in particular spent a good deal of time here. He died in Ṣafar 99= ¶ Se…

Dabīḳ

(333 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
a town in mediaeval Egypt famous for its manufactures of cloth, belonging to the district of Damietta and later to the province of G̲h̲arbīya (Ibn Duḳmāḳ, Kitāb al-Intiṣār, v. 89; Ibn Ḏj̲īʿān, al-Tuḥfa al-Sanīya, p. 76). The name is variously given (cf. Idrīsī, ed. de Goeje and Dozy, p. 156 note r; Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ii., 546, 548). As no exact details of its situation are given and as Dabīḳ is regarded as one of the manufacturing towns belonging to Damietta and Tinnīs, it may perhaps be identified with the modern Dabīd̲j̲ (pronounced Debīg or Dibī…

Dabīr

(49 words)

Author(s): Blumhardt, J. F.
, the poetical name of Mīrzā Salāmat ʿAlī, son of Mīrzā G̲h̲ulām Ḥusain, of Lucknow. He was a pupil of Muẓaffar Ḥusain, called Ḍamīr, and is noted chiefly as a writer of mart̲h̲ias, or elegiac poems on the death of the martyrs of Karbala. (J. F. Blumhardt)

Dabistān

(282 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the title of a Persian work, which describes the various religions with special reference to religious conditions in India in the xith (xviith) century. It is based partly on the sacred books of the various creeds, and partly on oral statements of their adherents or the author’s own observations; the older Muḥammadan literature on the subject has also been used in many chapters. The religion of the Parsis is first discussed with special thoroughness; uext follows that of the Hindus and after very short chapters on t…

Ḍābiṭ

(36 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Arabic “one who holds fast”) is the Turkish name for an officer in the army, and also of a civil officer (as in the expression ḍābiṭān-i ḳalam “higher officials of the government”). (Cl. Huart)

Dābūya

(246 words)

(Dābōë), founder of a Persian dynasty in Gīlān. After the death of his father Gīl Gāwbāra, a descendant of the royal Sāsānid house (the genealogy is Gāwbāra b. Farruk̲h̲ān Gīlān-s̲h̲āh b. Fīrūz b. Narsī b. Ḏj̲āmāsp, who according to Nöldeke, Sasaniden, p. 428, reigned from 496—498), Dābūya became ruler in Gīlān and his brother Pād̲h̲ūspān (Arab. Bādūsapān, really a title not a proper name, see Nöldeke, op. cit., p. 151, note 2) in Rūyān, Dābūya reigned from 660—676; he was followed by his brother Ḵh̲urs̲h̲īd 676—709, who was succeeded by his son Farruk̲h̲ān 709…

Ḍād

(156 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the fifteenth letter of the ordinary Arabic alphabet (as a numeral = 800; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). Ḍād is in form a variant of Ṣād (see the article arabia, arabic writing, p. 383b). In Sībawaihi’s time, Ḍād seems to have been pronounced as a voiced velar spirant, in which the air found an exit on both sides of the back of the tongue while the tip of the tongue lay close to the gum of the upper incisors. There was also a partial variety the so-called “weak Ḍād”. In modern dialects Ḍād is either a voiced velar alveolar explos…

al-Dad̲j̲ād̲j̲a

(382 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the domestic fowl. The chickens are covered with down when they come out of the egg, quick in their movements and able to take care of themselves (autophagous); they follow when called. After a time however they become stupid and ugly and ultimately are ¶ only useful for crowing, laying eggs and eating. They have no fear of beasts of prey; but if they see a jackal they run in front of its feet. They sleep very lightly and like best to perch on a high place such as a wall, a beam, etc. They combine the characters of birds of prey and gram…

al-Dad̲j̲d̲j̲āl

(458 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, a fabulous personage in Muḥammadan eschatology, a kind of Antichrist. According to Arab legend, he dwells in one of the islands of the empire of the Mahārād̲j̲ or the Zābad̲j̲ (Java). The sailors of Sīrāf and of ʿOmān say that, in passing near this island, beautiful music is heard, produced on the lute, the oboe, the tambourine and other instruments, accompanied by dancing and the clapping of hands. This story is widely diffused; it is found in Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih, al-Bīrūnī, Ḳazwīnī, Dimis̲h̲ḳī, Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī, Ibn Iyās, Masʿūdī’s Prairies d’Or (Meynard et de Courteille, i. 343) and Kitāb …

al-Dad̲j̲d̲j̲āl

(822 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
or al-Masīḥ al-Dad̲j̲d̲j̲āl (rarely al-Kad̲h̲d̲h̲āb: Buk̲h̲ārī, Fitan, bāb 26 and al-Masīḥ al-ḍalāl: Ṭayālisī, N°. 2532), the Muslim Antichrist. The word is not found in the Ḳurʾān; it is probably an Aramaic loan-word. In Syriac it is found as an epithet of the Antichrist, e. g. in Matthew xxiv. 24 where the Pes̲h̲itta translates ψευδόχριστον by mes̲h̲īḥē daggālē. We also find in Syriac nebīyā daggālā “pseudo-prophet”, s̲h̲āhedā daggālā “false witness” etc. On the other hand, the existence in Arabic of the verb dad̲j̲ala with the meaning “to deceive”, given in the lexicons w…

Daf

(61 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
, a Balōčī word meaning ‘mouth’, and hence applied in local nomenclature to a gorge or defile. It is used as an equivalent to the Pers. dahāna which is similarly employed, and to which it is etymologically related (c. f. Av. zafan) Example of use: Gandakīn Daf, near the Bolān Pass, often spelt ʿDuff’ in maps. (M. Longworth Dames)

Dāg̲h̲

(291 words)

Author(s): Blumhardt, J. F.
, the poetical name of Nawwāb Mīrzā Ḵh̲ān of Dihlī, one of the most distinguished Urdu poets of modern times. He was the son of Nawwāb S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Ḵh̲ān, and grandson of Nawwāb Aḥmad Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Ḵh̲ān, and was born in a. d. 1831. He obtained an excellent education under Mawlavī G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn, the author of the Kas̲h̲f al-Lug̲h̲āt, and also studied Persian with Nawwāb Yūsuf ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, ruler of Rampur, during his stay at Dihlī. Dāg̲h̲ had a remarkable aptitude for poetical composition, and, under the tutorship of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ibrāhīm Ḏh̲awḳ, he be…

Dāg̲h̲

(4 words)

(t.) “Mountain”.

Dag̲h̲estan

(5,318 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Dāg̲h̲istān (Mountain land; Snouck Hurgronje, Mekka, ii. 245 noted in ¶ Mecca that the name was pronounced Dag̲h̲ustan even by people who belonged to it), a Russian territory ( oblast’) on the west shore of the Caspian Sea between 43° 30’ and 41° N. Lat., has an area of 13 228 square miles and a population of about 700,000. Its boundaries are, in the north the Sulaḳ, in the south the Samur, in the west the watershed between these rivers and the Alazan, a tributary of the Kura; the territory is divided into nine districts ( okrug). Its present boundaries and its constitution as a R…

Dahekan

(17 words)

, Tahegan (Arm.) = Pers. Dahkānī, a gold (and silver) coin = dīnār [q. v.].
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