Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(943 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(rarely also in an older form Cáliz), written Cadix in French, Portugese and German, but pronounced Cádiz, Cadice (whence Cadissen, Spanish Gaditano, German Cadizer) is at the present day the capital of the province of the same name, the most southern of Spain, with 70,000 inhabitants, lying on the Bay and Gulf of Cádiz on the Atlantic Ocean northwest of the straits of Gibraltar. It was founded about 1100 B. C. by Phoenicians from Sidon as a depot for the tin which was brought from the Cassiterides (B…


(906 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, written Ṣag̲h̲āniyān by the Arabs, a district on the upper course of the Oxus; the capital of the district bore the same name, whence the nisbas Čag̲h̲āniyānï and Čag̲h̲ānī; the name of the river Čag̲h̲ānrūd (the modern Surk̲h̲an), which flows through Čag̲h̲āniyān, and the title Čag̲h̲ān-Ḵh̲ud̲h̲āt of the ruler of the land are of course derived from the same root. On the geography, cf. the article āmū-daryā, p. 339. The capital Čag̲h̲āniyān was four days’ journey or 24 farsak̲h̲ from Tirmid̲h̲ and three days’ journey from Kuwādiyān (the modern Kabadian). The town has bee…


(54 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a tributary of the Oxus, now called Surk̲h̲an. The name (apparently of pre-Muḥammadan origin, cf. Čag̲h̲āniyān) is mentioned in the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (Cod. Tumanski, 9a et seq.) written in the year 372 = 982—983, and was still in use in the viiith (xivth) century ( Ẓafar-Nāma, Indian edition, i. 196) (W. Barthold)


(3,487 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Mongol prince, second son of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān and his queen Bürta-Fūd̲j̲īn. Even in his father’s lifetime he was regarded as having the best knowledge of the Yāsā (the tribal laws of the Mongols which had ¶ been codified by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān) and being the greatest authority on all questions of law and custom. Like his brothers, he took part in his father’s campaigns against China (1211—1216) and against the kingdom of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh (1219—1224). The capital of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh, Gurgānd̲j̲ (the modern Kunya-Urgenč) was besieg…

Čag̲h̲rī Beg

(688 words)

b. Mīkāʾīl the Sald̲j̲ūḳ, with the Biblical name of Dāwūd, which is the one Baihaḳī always calls him by, was with his brother Tog̲h̲rulbeg [q. v.] the founder of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ power. A third brother Paig̲h̲u, who always takes the first place in Baihaḳī, was not so prominent afterwards, although the three brothers were the recognised heads of the G̲h̲uzz tribe of Ḳīnāḳ and were held in high esteem among the other G̲h̲uzz also. They first begin to play an important part in the history of Asia, when, after …


(12,244 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
, the chief town and seat of the government in Egypt; it is situated in 30° 6′ N. Lat. and 31° 26′ E. Larg. (Greenw.), about 13 miles south of the head of the Delta at the point where the Muḳaṭṭam range is at its nearest to the Nile. This site is of great strategic importance as it commands the approach to Upper Egypt and was settled and fortified even in ancient times. It was not, however, till after the Arab invasion, that it became of special importance, when the great military camp of Fusṭāṭ…


(588 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Saif al-Dīn, Sulṭān of Egypt, was in his youth enrolled among the Mamlūks of Sulṭān Barḳūḳ. He gradually rose, till under Sulṭān Barsbey he became Chief Chamberlain (President of the Administrative Council), Chief Master of the Horse, and finally Atābeg (Commander-in-Chief). On his deathbed in 842 (1438), Barsbey appointed him regent for his infant son al-Malik al-ʿAzīz Yūsuf. The various divisions of the Mamlūks, originating in the bodyguards of the Sulṭāns Barḳūḳ, Nāṣir Farad̲j…


(563 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Arab. Ḳalʿat Rabāḥ, “Rabāḥ’s citadel”, called after the tābiʿ and dâk̲h̲il ʿAlī b. Rabāḥ al-Lak̲h̲mī (cf. Calatayud (Bilbilis) = Ḳalʿat Aiyūb from the tābiʿ and dāk̲h̲il Aiyūb b. Ḥabīb al-Lak̲h̲mī) was an important bulwark of Arab power (perhaps built on Roman or Iberian ruins?) north-east of the modern Ciudad. Real on the left bank of the upper G u ad i an a just below the union of the three rivers which form it, the Záncara-Gigüela, Guadiana Alto and Bajo-Azuer, one league north of the modern Carrion de Calatrava. Th…


(224 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Kālīkātā, the capital of the province of Bengal, and, till 1911, also that of British India, situated on the right bank of the Hugli, the most eastern mouth of the Ganges, which is here navigable by the largest shipping. Area, 20,547 acres; pop. (1901), 847,796, being 41 persons per acre. If all the suburbs and also Howrah on the opposite side of the river be added, the total would be raised to 1,106,738. Muḥammadans form about 29%, of whom the vast majority returned themselves as S̲h̲aik̲h̲s…


(175 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, a pi ain in Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān east of the Lake of Urmia near Tabrīz. It is famous for the battle fought there on the 23rd August 1514 in which the Ottoman Sulṭān Selīm I defeated the Ṣafawid S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl mainly owing to his superior artillery. S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl had to flee, his camp and harem falling into the hands of Sulṭān Selīm; he was only saved from further disaster by a mutiny of the Janissaries who refused to advance any farther and forced the Sulṭān to return from Tabrīz to Constantinople. As a result of this v…


(168 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Kolikod (“cock-fort”), a seaport on the west coast of India, in the Malabar District, Madras Presidency: pop. (1901), 76,981, of whom 40%0 were Muḥammadans, mostly Māppiḷḷas [q.v.] descended from Hindu mothers by Arab immigrants. From an early date Calicut was a great centre of maritime trade. It was visited by Ibn Baṭūṭa (1345) and by ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ (1442), both of whom speak of the security afforded to commerce by its Hindu ruler, the Zamorin, whose descendant still lives here; and it was the first place in Ind…


(186 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
(Kambāya), a Feudatory State in the western part of the province of Gud̲j̲arāt, India, at the head of the gulf of the same name; area, 350 square miles; population (1901), 75,225, of whom 13% are Muḥammadans. The Nawwāb, a S̲h̲īʿah by sect, traces his descent from Muʾmin Ḵh̲ān, governor of Gud̲j̲arāt, who died in 1742. The town of Cambay (population in 1901, 31,780) was in early times one of the chief ports of Gud̲j̲arāt and at the time of its conquest by the Musulmans in 1298 is said to have been one of the richest towns in India; but the silting up of the harbour at the close of the xvith cent, drove …


(176 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, in Ottoman Turkish Ḳaminča, a circle and chief town of a circle in the Russian administrative district of Podolia. It was formerly a strong fortress of the Poles and the scene of many heroic combats between the Poles and the Turks in the frontier wars. In the year 1672, it was taken by the Grand Vizier Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a Köprülüzāde, in the reign of Sulṭān Muḥammad iv. who took the field in person in Podolia. The Ottoman poet Nābī composed his Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḳaminča (MSS. in London and Vienna, and printed in Constantinople in 1281) in honour of Aḥmad. At the peace of Buczacz (1672)…


(126 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a ruined city of India, in Gud̲j̲arāt, Bombay, lying beneath the hill fort of Pāvāgarh. In 1484, Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh I of Gud̲j̲arāt, after a long siege, captured the hill-fort from its Rād̲j̲pūt chief, and founded the city, which he made his capital, under the name of Maḥmūdābād Čāmpānēr. In 1535, it was pillaged by Humāyūn, and shortly afterwards the capital was transferred back to Aḥmadābād. The Bhādar or citadel and the Ḏj̲āmiʿ Masd̲j̲id, both built by Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh with other buildings, still r…


(103 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a seaport on the west coast of India, in the Malabar district of the Madras Presidency; pop. (1901), 27,811, of whom 46% are Muḥammadans, Māppiḷḷas [q. v.] descended from Hindu mothers by Arab immigrants. It is of historic importance as the capital of the Āli Rād̲j̲ā or “lord of the sea” ( āzhi = ‘sea’ in Malayālam), who traces his descent trom a Hindu converted to Islām about the end of the xith or beginning of the xiith century. The family still resides here, and exercises nominal sovereignty over the Laccadive Islands. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Madras District Gazetteers. Malabar. (Madr…


(698 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the modern name of the ancient Āmul [q. v. p. 343] on the Oxus. The town appears to have received its present name in the time of the Tīmūrids; in his account of the events of the year 903 = 1477-1478, Bābur ( Bābar-Nāma, ed. Beveridge, f. 58) mentions the passage of the river at Čārd̲j̲ū ( Čārd̲j̲ū güzari). In the year 910 (1504) the fortress of Čārd̲j̲ū (in the S̲h̲aibānī-Nāma of Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ ed. Melioranski, p. 197: Čārd̲j̲ū ḳalʿasī, in the Persian S̲h̲aibānī-Nāma of Banāʾī, quoted by Samoilovič: Zapiski vost. old. ark̲h̲. obs̲h̲č., xix. 0173: Ḳalʿa-i Čahārd̲j̲ūi) had to surrender to …


(232 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, in Turkish, Ḳarlofča, a t o w n in Croatia-Slavonia, in the county of Sirmia, with 5490 inhabitants, — almost all Croats and Servs, — on the right bank of the Danube below Peterwardein. It was here that the Peace of Carlowicz was concluded on the 26th January 1699 between Austria, Venice, and Poland on the one side and the Turks on the other. Russia also took part in the negotiations but it was not till 1702 that she concluded a separate treaty of peace. Austria received Hungary — except the Banate of Temes̲h̲var, — Siebenbürgen and Croati…


(316 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, a town in Andalusia, 25 miles east of Seville with a population at the present day of 17,000, is the ancient Roman Carmo (probably previously an ancient Iberian town of the Turdetani, but the name is not to be derived from the Phoenician kerem, vineyard, as some fanciful etymologists have proposed). As a strong fortress on a height commanding wide plains, it played a part on Caesar’s side and afterwards had the right to strike its own coins. In 712 it was taken by Mūsā b. Nuṣair and henceforth bore the Arabic name Ḳarmūna (pronounced Ḳa…


(73 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Karnatak, a term of varied application in Indian geography. As meaning the country where Kanarese is spoken, it seems to have been applied originally to the Hindu kingdom of Vid̲j̲ayanagar. When the Muḥammadans conquered this kingdom in 1565, they extended the name further south, so that the English erroneously applied it to the Nawwāb who ruled at Arcot, where the language is not Kanarese but Tamil. (J. S. Cotton)

Casa Blanca

(6 words)

[See dār al-baiḍā.]


(324 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word signifying, „usher” „doorkeeper”. It was formerly the name of a body of 630 court ushers employed in the various tribunals, who marched at the head of the procession at state ceremonials ( alāi-čaws̲h̲i, dīwān-čaws̲h̲i): ¶ their chief ( čaws̲h̲-bās̲h̲ī) was vice-president of the Grand Vizier’s court, minister of police, grand-master of ceremonies and introduced ambassadors. He also had command of a company of 200 gedikli zaʿīm, who carried orders to the provinces. He also supervised the farming out of taxes during for the lifetime of the purchase…


(2,292 words)

Author(s): Nieuwenhuis, A. W.
, in size the largest of the Great Sunda Islands covering an area of 3258 geographical square miles. Like the island of Halmaheira, it has the peculiar form of a massive nucleus from which four great peninsulas run, north-east, east, south-east and south respectively. The many archipelagoes (768 geogr. sq. miles) surrounding it form continuations of it both geographically and geologically and connecting links with the Philippines, Moluccas and Little Sunda islands. The island is very mountainous…


(1,757 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish word, of the later cultured period, the origin and original meaning of which have not yet been definitely ascertained. Čelebi is probably to be derived from čalab (also written čalāb) “God”; the latter word is at the present day pronounced čalap in Asia Minor and, according to an article by K. Foy ( Mitteil. des Or. Seminars, W estas. Stud., ii, 124), is the only word for “God” among the Yürüks of Asia Minor. In the written ¶ language čalab first appears in the viiith (xivth) century among the Turkī poets of Asia Minor; that, as is sometimes (by K. Foy also, loc. cit.) stated, it is “not…

Čelebi Efendi

(12 words)

; title of Mawlānā Hunkiar Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn [q. v.].

Čelebi Zāde

(146 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, ʿĀṣim Efendi Ismāʿīl, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām and Turkish historian, son of the Raʾīs-Efendi Küčük-Čelebi whence the name by which he is known; he was first of all a judge and teacher of law, was later appointed historiographer to the Ottoman kingdom in place of Ras̲h̲īd (1130 = 1717), became successively Ḳāḍī in Brusa ¶ (1152 = 1739), Medīna (1157 = 1744), and Constantinople (1161 = 1748) and finally S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām (1172 = 1758), which office he held till his death eight months later. His history (printed at Constantinople in 1153 = 1740) cove…


(774 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, the name of a family, five members of which in practically unbroken succession held the office of adviser — or to give its later title, Grand Vizier — to the first Ottoman Sultans. The statement that ʿAlā al-Dīn and Sulaimān, the brother and son respectively of Urk̲h̲ān were the first Grand Viziers, is certainly a later fiction, the object of which is to show that the office of Grand Vizier was already in existence in the earliest period of the Ottoman kingdom. The statements of the older, sti…


(3,505 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, J. H.
The origins of Muslim ceramics are to be sought not in Arabia but in the tradition of the lands first conquered, in which the sociological and political transformation took place: in Syria and Egypt, Mesopotamia and Iran. Parthian ceramic art, which had been partly under the influence of the late classical art and partly under the influence of the ancient east, and especially Sāsānian ceramic art (plate i.) provided the essential stimuli, technical, morphological and iconographical, and provoke…


(35 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, a corruption of čehāryek = 1/4, in Turkish has the special meanings of a quarter of an hour, or a coin, which is also called Bes̲h̲lik [q. v. p. 709]. (F. Giese)


(60 words)

, Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier of Turkey under Murād iv. in 1033-1034 = 1624. He was brought up in the Imperial Seraglio and after being Siliḥdār of the Sulṭān was appointed Governor of Syria. As Grand Vizier he conducted the war against Ābāza Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a [q. v. p. 6] and died, after defeating him, in Tokat 1034 (1624).


(2,370 words)

Author(s): Dirr, A.
(Circassians) is a general name for a group of peoples who formerly inhabited the northwestern Caucasus (the Kuban territority) and a part of the east coast of the Black Sea from the Taman peninsula southwards almost as far as Abk̲h̲āzia. Of these tribes, which were much more numerous before the Russian conquest of this area, only insignificant remnants remain; most of them migrated to Turkey or rather Asia Minor during the war or at the conclusion of it. Like most peoples of the Caucasus, the Čerkesses have been known in Europe by very different names in the course of ce…


(286 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persi an word meaning “source, fountain” which has passed into Turkish with the same sense. It is the name of a market-town in Asia Minor with a wide and safe natural harbour on the Mediterranean coast, at the entrance to the Gulf of the same name, at the north-western extremity of a peninsula opposite the island of Chios. It is the chief town of a ḳaẓā in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Smyrna, Wilāyet Aidin. The town has 5550 inhabitants of whom 4000 are Muḥammadans and 1000 Orthodox Greeks; there are 5 …


(2,399 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, a maritime town in Morocco on the Strait of Gibraltar, 10 miles south of Gibraltar, 40 north-west of Tetwān and 140 north of Fas (Fez), with 9694 inhabitants; Lat. 35° 54′ N. Long. 5° 18′ W. (Greenw.). It is fortified and is the most important of the Spanish presidios. Ceuta is built on a peninsula running from west to east terminating in a rocky mass (Ḏj̲ebel al-Mīna) surmounted by a lighthouse. The peninsula itself is dominated in the centre by the Monte del Hacho which rises to a height of 600 feet. The town is divided into two parts, the …


(841 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T. W.
, an island off the southern extremity of the Indian peninsula, situated between 5° 55′ and 9° 51 N. and between 79° 41′ and 81° 54′ E., with an area of 25,481 square miles. The population in 1911 amounted to 3,592,397 of whom 276,361 were Muḥammadans; of these the majority (266,454) are styled Moors or Moormen, and either claim descent from Arab immigrants who intermarried with the women of the country and made converts from among the inhabitants, or are Indian traders who visit the island from…
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