Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(461 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥusain b. Masʿūd b. Muḥammad al-Farrāʾ, Arab author, S̲h̲āfīʿite Faḳīh, an authority on tradition and interpreter ¶ of the Korʾān, also called Muḥyi ’l-Sunna and Rukn al-Dīn, a native of Bag̲h̲ or Bag̲h̲s̲h̲ūr in Ḵh̲orāsān (Yāḳūt, i. 695). In Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ he studied with the Ḳāḍī Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Marwarrūd̲h̲ī and did not leave this his second home again and died there over, eighty years of age, in the month of S̲h̲awwāl 516 = Dec. 1122, according to others in S̲h̲awwāl 516 = Febr. 1117. Besides a collection of Fatwās, which has not been preser…

Bāg̲h̲če Sarāi

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish “Garden palace”) Russian Bachčisirai, a Tatar town on the Crimean peninsula in the district of Taurus 20 miles from Simferopol, the capital of the district and about the same distance from the sea shore. The town lies in the narrow valley of the Čirik-Ṣu, according to Pallas “Dschuruk Su” = stinking water; the ravine of Salačik runs in an easterly direction to the mountain fortress now called Čufut-Ḳalʿa (“the fort of the Jews”), the oldest settlement in the neighbourhood of Bāg̲h̲če Sarāi. This was the ¶ chief settlement of the Jews (Karaeans) in the Crimea during the T…


(7,607 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, the name of the largest town in the modern ʿIrāḳ (Babylonia); once the brilliant residence of the ʿAbbāsids and the metropolis of the Muḥammadan world and now the chief town of a wilāyet of the same name (formerly a pas̲h̲alik); situated on both banks of the Tigris in 39° 19 N. Lat. and 44° 44 E. L. a. History. The name Bag̲h̲dād, usually now pronounced Bug̲h̲dād, is undoubtedly Iranian and means “given ¶ by God, the gift of God”. In the middle ages a number of variations of this name were in use of which the most frequent was Bag̲h̲dān; cf. M. Streck, Babylonien, i. 49 and de Goeje, Journ. Asiat., Ser…


(152 words)

, Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Ḳāhir b. Ṭāhir, Muḥammadan theologian, came with his father to Nīsāpur and studied various sciences there. Later in life he made himself famous by his skill in arithmetic, on which he wrote a work, but it was theological studies that attracted him most; Abū Isḥāk al-Isfarāʾinī was his teacher in these subjects. After the latter’s death in 418 (1027) he succeeded him until the revolt of the Turkomans forced him to leave the town in 429 (1037). He then betook himself to Isfarāʾin where he died soon after. A work composed by him on the Muḥammadan sects entitled Kitāb al-farḳ ba…


(13 words)

, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿOmar. [See ʿabd al-ḳādir , p. 45.]


(22 words)

, a Persian dirhem [q. v.]. Cf. on the origin of this denomination Vullers, Lex. Pers. Lat., i. 251a, 840b.


(292 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the ancient Pagrae, was an important station on the road from Iskandarūna to Anṭākiya at the south-east end of the Bailān pass the exit from which it commands. Even in the wars of the ʿAbbāsids against the Byzantine Emperors Bag̲h̲rās played a part, sometimes a possession of the Emperors and sometimes of the Caliphs. It was included in the Ḏj̲und al-ʿAwāṣim [q. v.] which was separated from the province of Ḳinnasrin by Hārūn and protected the road to the T̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr. It became still more import…


(2,076 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Baḳīrmī or Bakīrmī), a country in the Central Sudan, to the south of Lake Chad. Bagirmi was for a long time unknown to Europeans. Denham visited the northern part in 1824, being the first European to do so. Barth, setting out from Bornū, reached Massenya and gathered important historical information on his journey (5 March—22 August 1852). Nachtigal, in 1872, ascended the S̲h̲āri as far as Baing̲h̲anné, but could not penetrate into the interior on account of the troubled state of the country. To …

Bahāʾ Allāh

(432 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(“splendour of God”), surname of Mīrzā Ḥusain ʿAlī Nūrī, born at Nūr in Māzāndarān on the 12th November 1817, half-brother ¶ of Mīrzā Yaḥyā surnamed Ṣubḥ-i Azal, was almost thirty years of age when he became a convert to the new doctrine preached by the Bāb [see Bābī]. Without having ever seen him he became one of the Bāb’s chief disciples and was recognised as his successor by the greater part of the Bābīs. After the attempt on the life of the S̲h̲āh he was imprisoned in Teherān: he was then exiled and settled in …

Bahāʾ al-Dawla

(710 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Naṣr Fīrūz, a Būyid. After the death of ʿAḍud al-Dawla in S̲h̲awwāl 372 (March 983) his son Ṣamṣām al-Dawla was appointed Amīr al-Umarāʾ. The latter’s brother S̲h̲araf al-Dawla, however, refused to recognise him and a war broke out in which the third brother, the fifteen-year old Bahāʾ al-Dawla, was also embroiled. In the end Ṣamṣām al-Dawla had to submit and was thrown into prison in Ramaḍān 376 (January 987). The Caliph then appointed S̲h̲araf al-Dawla Amīr al-Umarāʾ; the latter died soon a…

Bahāʾ al-Dīn

(20 words)

, “Ornament of Religion”, a title of honour. [See the articles ibn s̲h̲addād , muktanā and naḳs̲h̲bandī.]

Bahāʾ al-Dīn Zakarīyā

(148 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T. W.
, commonly known as Bahāʾ al-Ḥaḳḳ, a saint of the Suhrawardī order, was born near Multān in 565 (1169—1170); he was one of the greatest pupils of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī [q. v.] in Bag̲h̲dād and became his k̲h̲alīfa (or spiritual successor). He settled in Multān, where he is said to have built his own tomb and died at the age of 100. He has a great reputation in the South-West Pand̲j̲āb and in Sind, and is invoked as their patron saint by the boatmen on the rivers Indus and Čināb. His imposing tomb, surmounted by a hem…


(168 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word of Mongol origin ( bak̲h̲atur, Eastern Turkish bātūr, bātōr) signified originally “brave”, “courageous” and became a title of honour at the court of the Great Mug̲h̲als (cf. bātūr-bāshi, a title in Turkestan: Sulaimān-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āti d̲j̲ag̲h̲atāi, p. 66). The word is met with as early as 927 of our era in the name of the Bulgarian chief Alobogotur, which is explained as Alp bagatūr, “the brave hero” (J. Marquart, Osteur. u. ostasiat. Streifzüge, p. 156). — In the middle of the nineteenth century there was in Persia a regiment, composed of Christians called bahādurān “th…

Bahādur K̲h̲ān

(109 words)

, last king of the Fārūḳī (q. v.) dynasty of Ḵh̲āndes̲h̲; he came to the throne in 1597, after having spent 30 years in prison; he reversed the policy of his father Rād̲j̲ā ʿAlī, who had been a loyal supporter of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (q. v.) and had assisted him in his conquest of the Dakhan and died fighting on his side. Bahādur rejected the friendly advances of Akbar and shut himself up in the fort of Āsīrgarh, but after standing a siege of eleven months, he was obliged to surrender and his territory became part of Akbar’s dominions. Bibliography Elliot-Dowson, History of India, vi. 133—14…

Bahādur S̲h̲āh

(85 words)

, (1595—1600), tenth king of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī (q. v.) dynasty of Aḥmadnagar. In 1595 Sulṭān Murād, son of the Emperor Akbar besieged Aḥmadnagar, but raked the siege on receiving the formal cession of Berār; but on a second attempt being made in 1600, the king was taken prisoner and sent as a captive to the fortress of Gwalior. ¶ Bibliography ʿAlī ibn ʿAzīz Allāh Ṭabāṭabā, Burhān-i Maʾāt̲h̲ir ad fin. Abu’l Faḍl, Akbar-Nāmah, iii. 700, 774 sqq. ( Bibl. Ind.) Firis̲h̲ta, Guls̲h̲an-i Ibrāhīmī, Maḳālah III.

Bahādur S̲h̲āh Gud̲j̲arātī

(454 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, second son of Muẓaffar S̲h̲āh II. Having had a disagreement with his father he went to the court of Ibrāhīm Sulṭān the last king of the Lōdī dynasty. He was present at the battle of Pānīpat, but did not take ¶ part in it. On hearing of the death of his father and of the succession of his elder brother Sikandar S̲h̲āh, he proceeded towards Gud̲j̲arāt, and on the way heard of his brother’s assassination. He became king of Gud̲j̲arāt in August 1526 and avenged his brother in a cruel manner so that he is described by Bābur (ed. Erskine, …

Bahādur S̲h̲āh I

(716 words)

Author(s): Irvine, Willam
(1643—1712) Muḥammad Muʿahẓhẓam was the second son of the Emperor Awrangzēb ʿĀlamgīr by Raḥmat al-Nisāʾ Nawāb-Bāʾī, the daughter of Rād̲j̲ā Rād̲j̲ū of Rad̲j̲auri in Kas̲h̲mīr. He was born at Burhānpur in the Dakhin on the 30 Rad̲j̲ab 1053 (14 Oct. 1643). From S̲h̲aʿbān 1086 (Oct. 1675) he was generally known by the title of S̲h̲āh ʿĀlam, then conferred upon him. In 1657 when his father left the Dakhin to contest the throne with Dārā S̲h̲ukōh, Muḥammad Muʿaẓẓam was left in charge at Awrangābād. He served twice as governor of the Dakhin (1663, 1667), and w…

Bahādur S̲h̲āh II

(284 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, the last king of the Mug̲h̲al (Mog̲h̲ul) dynasty. He was the lineal descendant of Tīmūr, as may be seen from the genealogical table in Blochmann’s translation of the Āʾīn-i Akbar. But there had been no king of Delhi who was possessed of real power since the death of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh in 1748. Bahādur S̲h̲āh’s full name was Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad Bahādur S̲h̲āh, and he was the second son of Akbar S̲h̲āh II. He was born in October 1775 and succeeded to the title of King in September 1837. Bahādur S̲h̲āh, who was then over seventy years of age, joined the Mutineers in 1…

Bahāʾ al-Ḥaḳḳ

(9 words)

(Bahāwal Ḥaḳḳ), see bahāʾ al-dīn zakarīyā.
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