Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(150 words)

, al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Warsand, founder of a sect among the Berbers of Morocco, whose adherents are called Bad̲j̲alīya. Al-Bakrī states that he appeared there before Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲īʿī [q. v.] came to Ifrīḳīya (before 280 — 893). Al-Bad̲j̲alī came from Nafṭa (Nefta) and found many adherents among the Bana Lamās. His teaching agreed with that of the Rawāfiḍ but he asserted that the Imāmate belonged only to the descendants of al-Ḥasan. So al-Bakrī and Ibn Ḥazm state in opposition to Ibn Ḥawḳal (e…


(163 words)

Author(s): Streck
, or Bād̲j̲armaḳ, name of a district east of the Tigris between the lower Zāb in the North and the Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn in the South whose chief town in the middle ages was Kerkūk (Syr. Karkhā de Bēth Slōk̲h̲). During the caliphate it formed a district of the province of Mosul (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲beh, 97, 7). Bād̲j̲armā is an Arabic rendering of the Aramaic Bēth (Be)-Garmai while Bād̲j̲armaḳ goes back to some Middle Persian form of the name of the ¶ district, like Garmakān. The latter word comes from the Gurumu, a nomadic people mentioned ia cuneiform inscriptions, the Γαραμαĩοι of Ptolemy. (Streck) Bi…


(49 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a tract of hilly country on the N. W. frontier of India (estimated area: 5,000 sq. m.; estimated population 100,000). It is occupied by several Paṭhān or Afg̲h̲ān tribes, who recognise the nominal supremacy of the Ḵh̲ān of Nawagai. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Imperial Gazetteer of India.


(148 words)

Author(s): Hell, J.
, an Arabian tribe of Bedouins, which occupied the central part of the Sarāt mountains — at Ṭāʾif — stretching northwards from South Arabia after they had displaced the tribe originally dwelling there, the Banū T̲h̲āʾir. The tribe was gradually broken up through feuds with the neighbouring tribes and the quarrels of the individual clans with one another and even in pre-Muḥammadan times had been for the most part merged in other Arab tribes. A part however survived under the old name and was celebrated in the Umaiyad period by the poet Farazdaḳ. (J. Hell) Bibliography F. Wüstenfeld, Register …


(62 words)

or Bagimzā, a village northeast of Bag̲h̲dād, 2 farsak̲h̲ from Baʿḳūbā, where the caliph al-Muḳtafī bi amr Allāh put to flight the troops of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Muḥammad II under Alp Ḳus̲h̲ Kun-i Ḵh̲ar in 549 (1154). Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 497, 706 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornberg), xi. 129 Recueil de textes relat. à l’hist. des Seldjouc, ii. 237 et seq.


(207 words)

Author(s): Streck
, a township in ʿIrāḳ (Babylonia) according to Yāḳūt east (to be more accurate north-east) of Bag̲h̲dād, 6 parasangs = about 21 miles distant from Ḥulwān. According to Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲beh and Ibn Serapions’s more exact description it was situated on the bank of the great Ḳāṭūl-Nahrawān canal which was led from the Tigris and in the central section of it, the so-called Nahr Tāmarrā, probably very near where a cross-canal called al-Ḵh̲āliṣ left the Tāmarrā to join the Tigris at Baradān [q.v.] above…


(54 words)

The Bād̲j̲ūrān live on the Perso-Turkish frontier (Wilāyet Moṣul) in the villages of ʿOmar Ḳān, Toprāk̲h̲ Ziyāret, Tell Yaʿḳūb, Bas̲h̲pītā amongst others. According to P. Anastase, they speak a mixed dialect and have peculiar religious observances and customs like the S̲h̲abak and the Ṣārlīya [q. v.]. Bibliography P. Anastase in Mas̲h̲riḳ, v. 580.


(457 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(or Baid̲j̲ūrī, Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad), born in the year 1198 (1783) in Bād̲j̲ūr, a village 12 hours journey from Cairo, devoted himself after 1212 (1797) to study at the Azharmosque. After retiring to al-Ḏj̲īze during the French occupation he resumed his studies in Cairo in 1216 (1801). Soon afterwards he began to give lectures in the Azhar and the fame of his learning became so great that hundreds of students used to attend his lectures. He “was undoubtedly the most learned of all the teachers then in the Azhar” says one of his pupils (the S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ al-Ṭanṭāwī in his autobiography: Zeitschr. …


(369 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
(Pīr). Besides Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ā Ḵh̲iḍr, Bengal believes in a greater animistic power in the person of Pīr Badr who shares with the former the dominion of the waters. His spirit is invoked by every sailor and fisherman, when starting on a cruise or while overtaken by a squall or a storm. All Muḥammadans agree that he resided for some time at Čittagong, but his history does not disclose the reason why the attributes of a watergod were conferred on him. The guardians of his shrine, however, say that abou…


(47 words)

(a.), Full moon. As the full moon is the very essence of beauty among Orientals, beautiful young slaves are often called Badr, and Badr is thus a common name not however limited to slaves. The word is frequently combined with Dawla or Dīn, see below.


(193 words)

b. Ḥasanwaih Abū Nad̲j̲m Nāṣir al-Dīn, a Kurdish chief, who was recognised after the death of his father in 369 (679-980) by the Būyid ʿAḍud al-Dawla as ruler of Kurdistān. After the latter’s death in 372 (983) Badr inclined towards Fak̲h̲r-al-Dawla and thereby came into conflict with S̲h̲araf al-Dawla the son of ʿAḍud al-Dawla. In the struggle he was victorious over the troops sent against him under Ḳarategīn in 377 (987) and brought the province of al-Ḏj̲ibāl under his sway. He thereby became one o…


(785 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, also called Badr Ḥunain, a small town southwest of Medīna, a short night’s journey distant from the coast situated at the union of the rood from Medīna and the caravan route from Syria to Mecca. The houses were, when Burckhardt visited it, built partly of clay and partly of stone and surrounded by a wretched mud wall. The inhabitants were, for the most part, Beduins of whom many however had only their booths in the town while they spent the night in their tents on the hills. In the time of Muḥamma…

Badr al-Dawla

(165 words)

, Sulaimān b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār the Urtuḳid governed the town of Ḥalab for his uncle Ilg̲h̲āzī and remained master of it after the latter’s death in 516 (1122) but had to retire soon after, when in the following year he ceded Ḥisn al-At̲h̲ārib to the Crusaders and his valiant nephew Balak b. Bahrām advanced against Ḥaleb in consequence. When in course of time Zangī became lord of Ḥaleb his governor Ḳutlug̲h̲ Abā made himself so hated by the inhabitants that they again called on Sulaimān in 522 (1126)…

Badr al-Dīn

(11 words)

, a title of honour of Luʾluʾ [q.v.].

Badr al-Ḏj̲amālī

(777 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
, a Fāṭimid commander-in-chief and vizier. The once so brilliant Fāṭimid kingdom was on the verge of its downfall under the incapable Caliph Mustanṣir (427— 487 = 1036—1094). The Seld̲j̲uḳs were pressing forward into Syria, in Egypt the Turkish slave-guards were fighting with the negro-corps, a seven years’ famine was exhausting the resources of the country, all state authority had disappeared in the general struggle, hunger and disease carried off the people, license and violence destroyed all …


(147 words)

Author(s): Streck
, a district southwest of Bag̲h̲dād, the land south of the Nahr Ṣarāt, a branch of the Euphrates canal Nahr ʿĪsā [q. v.]. The Ṣarāt separates it from the Ḳaṭrabbul district; the southern part of the western half of Bag̲h̲dād (the so-called town of al-Manṣūr) as well as the suburb of Kark̲h̲ were situated within the bounds of the district of Bādūrayā; the latter formed, like the district of Ḳaṭrabbul, a subdivision of the circle of Astān al-ʿĀlī. (Streck) Bibliography Bibl. Geogr. Arab. (ed. de Goeje), iii. 119, 120 vi. 7, 9, 235, 237 Belād̲h̲orī (éd. de Goeje), p. 250, 254, 265 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am (…


(17 words)

(Pād̲h̲ōspān), founder of a dynasty in Ruyān, Rostemdār, Nūr and Kud̲j̲ūr, cf. the art. dābūya.


(665 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
, Arab tribes in the Eastern-Sūdān. By the Baggāra (i. e. Baḳḳāra, cattleherds) are meant the cattle-rearing Arab or Arabicised nomad or semi-nomad tribes of the Eastern Sūdān, who have received their name in contradistinction to the Abbāla i. e. the camel-breeding Arab tribes of these lands. The distinction is not absolute for the Baḳḳāra also have camels to a certain extent. The keeping of cattle seems to begin south of the sub-tropical border. Various Baḳḳāra tribes, e. g. the Rizēḳāt, have northern rel…


(99 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), “garden”. Bāg̲h̲-i zāg̲h̲ān, “crowgarden” is a district in Herat; we know a bāg̲h̲-i lālezār (“Tulipgarden”) at Teheran and at S̲h̲īrāz the gardens bāg̲h̲-i naw, bāg̲h̲-i s̲h̲aik̲h̲, bāg̲h̲-i tak̲h̲t. A garden divided into four by two alleys crossing one another is called čahār-bāg̲h̲. Bāg̲h̲-i siyāwes̲h̲ān, bāg̲h̲-i s̲h̲īrīn, bāg̲h̲-i shahryār, bāg̲h̲-i ardas̲h̲īr are musical melodies. In Turkish the word has taken the meaning of vineyard. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography A. de Biberstein Kazimirski, Menoutchehri, Paris, 1887, p. 291, p. 309, n. 3 p. 350, n. 4 et 5 Edw. G. Browne, A …
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