Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(2,290 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, frequently written Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, in the spoken language also sometimes called Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānāt, (with Arabic plural ending) a mountainous land on the upper course of the Amū-Daryā or more correctly of the Pand̲j̲, on the left bank of this stream which is the source of the great river; from it comes the adjective Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānī or Badak̲h̲shī. J. Marquart ( Ērāns̲h̲ahr, p. 279) explains the name as “land of Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲sh or Balak̲h̲s̲h̲, a kind of ruby which is said to be found only in Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ān at Kokča”. It is very probable however tha…


(153 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), properly “interchange” as a grammatical term “permutative”. The Badal is one of the five kinds of apposition ( Tābiʿ). By it is understood in the first place a substantive which follows another substantive in the same case in asyndeton but not as an explanation of it like the ʿAṭf al-Bayān [see ʿaṭf] but independent. Thus for example in the phrase d̲j̲āʾanī ak̲h̲ūka Zaidun, Zaidun is a Badal of ak̲h̲ūka if the person addressed had only the one brother, on the other hand it is an ʿAṭf if several brothers might have to be considered (Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲, ed. Jahn, ii. 392, 15). — The different kin…


(342 words)

Author(s): Nicholson, R. A.
(a.), substitute. The terms abdāl (pl. of badal) and budalāʾ (pl. of badīl) are connected with a Ṣūfī doctrine, which goes back to the iiird century a. h., that the cosmic order is preserved by a fixed number of saints, so that whe n a holy man dies his place is immediately filled by a “substitute”. In Persian and Turkish the plural abdāl is often used as a singular. Some writers explain badal as “one who, when he departs from a place, has the power to leave his ‘double’ ( s̲h̲ak̲h̲ṣ rūḥānī) behind him”, or “one who has experienced a spiritual transformation”. There is great discrepan…


(4 words)

[See Ḏj̲ism.]


(250 words)

Author(s): Streck
, a town and district in ʿIrāḳ, east of the Tigris, near the outlying hills of the Zagros Range. The place still exists under the name of Badrē (somewhat above the 33° n. Br. and under 46° E. L. Greenw.). The Arab geographers usually mention Bādarāyā with Bākusāyā and give Bandanīd̲j̲in as the common capital of both districts. Among the articles exported they mention particularly the local highly prized dried reeds. Ḵh̲osraw I Anōs̲h̲arwān settled some of the inhabitants of Antāḳiya when it was destroyed by him (see above p. 359a) in this district. Bādarāyā is also often mentioned in…


(170 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, Budaun or Badāyūn, a town and district of India, in Rohilk̲h̲and, United Provinces. Area of the district: 1,987 sq. m.; population (1901): 1,025,753 of whom 16% are Muḥammadans, mostly Paṭhāns, S̲h̲aik̲h̲s, and Ḏj̲ulāhās. The town has a population (1901) of 39,031, including 21,995 Muḥammadans. It was of importance in early Muḥammadan history, as an outpost among turbulent Rād̲j̲pūt tribes. Two of its governors ¶ in the first half of the: 13th cent., S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Iltutmis̲h̲ and his son Rukn al-Dīn Fīiūz, became emperors of Delhi; and ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, the last of …


(579 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, son of Mulūk S̲h̲āh, born at Basāwar in the sarkār of Sambhal in A. H. 947 or 949 (A. D. 1540-41 or 1542-43). After a studious life as a youth, one of his teachers being S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mubārak, father of Faiḍī and Abu ’l-Faḍl, he entered the service of Ḥusain Ḵh̲ān Ṭukriya (“the Patcher”), but was transferred, as an imām. in April 1574 to the service of Akbar. Abu ’l-Faḍl entered the emperor’s service in the same year. The restraints of the court were irksome to Badāʾūnī and before 1579 be absented himself without leave. In that year he was restored to the service as a muns̲h̲ī or secreta…


(9 words)

, Beduin. [Side arabia , p. 372—377.]


(6 words)

[Side aḥmad al-badawī .]


(13 words)

, a title of ‘the chief Yaʿkūb-Beg of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar [q. v.].


(302 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or Bād̲h̲g̲h̲īs, a district in the north-western part of the modern Afg̲h̲ānistān; the name is explained as being derived from the Persian bādk̲h̲īz (“a place where wind rises”) on account of the strong winds prevailing there. By the geographers of the iv. (x.) century only the district in the north-west of Herat between this town and Sarak̲h̲s is called Bādg̲h̲īs. Later the name was extended to the whole country between the Herīrūd and the Murg̲h̲āb; at any rate it is used in this sense as early as the vii. (xiii.) …


(105 words)

(a.), “Discoverer”, “Creator”, one of the 99 names of God. — In the passive sense badīʿ means ‘discovered’ and is a technical term in Rhetoric for rhetorical figures, metaphors etc. Hence the ʿilm al-badīʿ (science of metaphors) forms a branch of Rhetoric. The first Arab writer on this subject is the poet Ibn al-Mnʿtazz [q. v.], Later poets delighted in using all sorts of figures of speech in one and the same poem. Such poems, called Badīʿīya were composed by Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Ḥillī [q. v.] and Ibn Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a [q. v.] amongst others. Cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa s. v.; v. Mehren, Rhetorik der Araber, …

al-Badīʿ al-Asṭurlābī

(422 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
, Hibatallāh b. al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad (also Yūsuf) Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, a distinguished Arab scholar, physician, philosopher, astroncmer and poet, but especially eminent in the knowledge and construction of the astrolabe and other astronomical instruments. The date of his birth is unknown; in the year 510 (1116-1117) we find him in Iṣfahān on friendly terms with the Christian physician Amīn al-Dawla b. al-Tilmīd̲h̲. Later he lived ŕn Bag̲h̲dād and is said to have made a considerable fortune by his profession under…


(7 words)

(a.), “Equivalent”, “Substitute”. [See abdāl.]


(423 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, M.
b. Ḥabbūs b. Māksin al-Ṣinhād̲j̲ī, called al-Muhẓaffar (the victorious”), a Berber Zīrid, cousin of Bādīs Abū Mennād [q. v.], King of Granada (429—465 = 1038—1073), a bloodthirsty tyrant and drunkard, obtained the sovereignty of Granada by the help of his clever Jewish vizier Samuel Ha-Nagīd (Samuel Ha-Lewi b. Joseph b. Nagdēla, arab. Ismāʿīl b. Nag̲h̲dīla) after the death of his father Ḥabbūs and the voluntary withdrawal of his younger brother Boluggīn ¶ who was preferred by a powerful party in the Kingdom. He at once sought to secure his position by murdering var…


(428 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū Mannad Nāṣir al-Dawla, son and successor of al-Manṣūr, a prince of the Zīrid dynasty, succeeded his father on the 3. Rabīʿ I. 386 (26 March 996), as governor of Ifrīḳīya and Central Mag̲h̲rib. His accession was confirmed by his suzerain al-Ḥākim bi-amriʾllāh the Fāṭimid Caliph of Egypt. He continued the war against the Zanāta and after entrusting the government of Tāhert (Tagdemt) to his uncle Ittūweft he sent against Zīrī b. ʿAṭya, sovereign of Fās, his other uncle Ḥammād who was defeated at …


(512 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, country residence of the Omaiyads. The conquering Arabs, accustomed to the free life and open air of the desert, required some time to become used to the confinement of towns, frequently ravaged by epidemics; whence their saying “Health dwells in the desert”. Some of the Sāsānids even had their heirs brought up in the desert by the Lak̲h̲mids of Ḥīra who resided there periodically. This repugnance to the town explains also why the caliphs, especially Moʿāwiya I and ʿAbd al-Malik, usually lived…

Badīʿ al-Zamān

(19 words)

“wonder of the age”, a title of honour given to the Arab writer al-Hamad̲h̲ānī [q. v.].


(8 words)

(p.), a gift, tax, toll etc.


(120 words)

Author(s): Streck
, in the Arab middle ages, a small strongly fortified town in Mesopotamia, south of Ḥarrān, some distance east of Balīk̲h̲ situated, on the road to Raʾs al-ʿAin, with famous gardens. It appears at the present day to be no longer in existence. The Aramaic name () denotes “house of fortune”; cf. perhaps, an ʿAin-gaddā = “source of fortune” in the Damascene and the Gadda of the Tabula Peutingeriana in Syria. See thereon Nöldeke in the Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch., xxix, 441. (Streck) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am (ed. Wüstenfeld), i. 453 Belād̲h̲orī (ed. de Goeje), p. 174, 72, whe…
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