Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Baihaḳī

(468 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Zaid, also called Ibn Funduḳ, historian. Of his works there has only survived his Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Baihaḳ (Persian), a history of his native district of Baihaḳ in Ḵh̲orāsān which was completed on the 4th (according to Rieu the 5th) S̲h̲awwāl 563 (12th July 1168); cf. Pertsch, Verzeichnis (Berlin), p. 516 (N°. 535); Rieu, Supplement (London), p. 60 et seq.; E. Kahl, Persidskija, arabskija i tureckija rukopisi Turkcstanskoi publiinoi biblioteki, N°. 9a, p. 8 et seq. No manuscripts have as yet been discovered of his work in Arabic on universal history menti…

Baihaḳī

(1,014 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammed b. Ḥusain, Persian historian, author of a history of the G̲h̲aznawids in more than 30 volumes. Of this work only a small part (end of Vols. v.—ix., and the beginning of Vol. x.) containing the history of the Sulṭān Masʿūd i. (421—432 = 1030—1041) has been preserved. The work is usually quoted as the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Baihaḳī and was first edited by Morley under this title in Calcutta (1862) in the Bibliotheca Indica and again in Teheran more recently (lith. 1307 = 1889-1890). Whether the author himself had given a title to the whole work is not known; …

Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb

(519 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia to the north of the country of the Raṣṣāṣ and Upper ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.], the most important of the lands lying between Yaman and Ḥaḍramawt. It was a centre of early Arab culture and has many ruins and numerous inscriptions. The population, the most prominent in all South Arabia, is capable and enterprising, and the ground very fertile because of the numerous springs. Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb is inhabited by a tribe, the Muṣʿabain i. e. the two (sons of) Muṣʿab, Aḥmad and ʿArīf fr…

al-Baihasīya

(20 words)

, name of a branch of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites, called after their founder Abū Baihas [q. v., p. 80].

Baikal

(204 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a large lake in Siberia; it belongs to the watershed of the Yenisei. The lake itself seems to have remained unknown to the Muḥammadan geographers in the Mongol period. ¶ The lands around Baikal are called Barḳūd̲j̲īn or Barḳūd̲j̲īn-Tūkūm and the people who live there, the Barḳūt (the t at the end of this word is the Mongol plural ending) by Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (cf. the Persian text in Berezin’s edition, Trudi Vostočnago Otdeljenija Archcologičeskago Obschčestva, Part xiii. p. 180). The first name is apparently still preserved in the name of a river, the Barguzin, which f…

Bāiḳarā

(360 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a prince of the house of Tīmūr, grandson of its founder. He was 12 years old at the death of his grandfather (S̲h̲aʿbān 807 = February 1405) so he must have been born about 795 (1392-1393) His father ʿOmar S̲h̲aik̲h̲ had predeceased Tīmūr. Baiḳarā is celebrated by Dawlat-S̲h̲āh (ed. Browne, p. 374) for his beauty as a second Joseph and for his courage as a second Rustam; he was prince of Balk̲h̲ for a long period. In the year 817 (1414) he was granted Lūristān, Hamadān, Nihāwand and Burūd̲j̲īr…

al-Bailamān

(34 words)

, the original place of manufacture of the swords known as al-bailamānīya, is sometimes located in India and sometimes in Yaman; cf. Schwarzlose, Die Waffen der alten Araber (Leipzig, 1886), p. 133. ¶

Baina

(235 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), Strictly Ace. constr. of the substantive Bainun interval, then a preposition meaning “between”. — Baina baina ist an adverbial expression, which means “of middle quality, of middle worth”; al-Harnza ’llatī baina baina is “a sound between Hamza and the semi-vowel (i. e. Alif) which corresponds to the vowel following the Hamza” ( Lisān, xvi. 214). According to our method of expression this means: when Hamza is between two vowels, the glottal stop is omitted in certain dialects — among the Ḳorais̲h̲ and particularly among most of the Ḥid̲j̲āz (…

Bairaḳ

(19 words)

(t.) Banner = Arab. liwāʾ — Bairaḳdar = standard-bearer. For Muṣṭafā Bairaḳdār, see the Article Muṣṭafā .

Bairam

(88 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Osmanli-Turkish word which denotes the two great Musulman festivals: Küčük-bairam “the little festival”, also called S̲h̲ekerbairam “feast of sweets” on account of the custom of making presents of sweetmeats then, is the festival on the breaking of the fast ( ʿīd al-fiṭr) which lasts three days. The böyük-bairam, “the great festival”, usually called ḳurbān-bairam, “feast of the sacrifice”, is the ʿīd al-aḍḥā which lasts four days. A rikiāb-i humāyūn, “official reception”, is held at the Imperial Palace on each of these two festivals. (Cl. Huart)

Bairam ʿAlī-k̲h̲ān

(246 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Prince of Merw (1197—1200 = 1782-1783—1785-1786). His father was descended from the ʿIzzaldīnlū branch of the family of Kād̲j̲ār which had ruled in Merw from the time of ʿAbbās I; his mother was of the Turkoman tribe the Salor; he himself enjoyed among the Turkomans the reputation of being a warrior of unparallelled bravery. In the war against Murād-Bī (S̲h̲āh Maʿṣūm) of Buk̲h̲ārā he was led by his fearlessness into an ambush and fell fighting; his head was taken to Buk̲h̲ārā and exhibited on …

Bairamīya

(92 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an order of Dervishes, founded by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bairam of Angora. The founder died there in 833 (1429-1430). His grave adjoins the ruins of the temple of Roma and Augustus, the walls of which bear the famous inscription, the Monumentum Ancyranum. The Bairamī Order is a branch of the Naḳs̲h̲bandīs, which is represented in Turkey in Europe. In Constantinople it has settlements in Stambul, Eiyūb, Skutarī and Ḳāsim-Pas̲h̲ā. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Gibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, i. 299 Anm. Depont et Coppolani, Confréries religieuses, p. 532 Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā, p. 643.

Bairam K̲h̲ān

(933 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, k̲h̲ān-k̲h̲ānān, whose name is also spelt Bairām, was the son of Saif ʿAlī Beg, and the fourth or fifth in descent from ʿAlī S̲h̲ukr Turkaman. ʿAlī S̲h̲ukr (cf. Bābur’s Memoirs, ed. Erskine, p. 30), belonged to the Bahārlū tribe. and held large possessions in Hamadān etc. His son or grandson S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, who seems also to be known as Pīr ʿAlī, was an officer of Ḏj̲ahān S̲h̲āh Barānī of the Black Sheep. When the dynasty of the Black Sheep was overthrown by Uzun Ḥasan, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī entered into the service of Aba Saʿīd, and w…

Bairūt

(636 words)

Author(s): Hell, J.
(also written Beirut, Beyrouth and pronounced Berūt), a town on the Syrian coast, 23° 54′ n. l., lying on the Bay of St. George at the foot of Mount Lebanon of which the town is the natural commercial centre; it does not, however, belong to the autonomous district of Lebanon but is the headquarters of an independent Wilāyet. ¶ Bairūt is an ancient Phoenician town which is mentioned as early as the Tell al-ʿAmarna tablets (cf. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Palästina-Ver. xxx. 1907, p. 13 et seq.). An independent kingdom about 1400 B. C, next belonging to Gebal (Byblos), the town fell in…

Baisān

(452 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
(Hebrew Bēt S̲h̲eʾān, Greek Scythopolis), one of the first towns conquered by the Arabs, in Western Palestine. A system of dams and canals, collecting the waters of several large streams, irrigated and drained the neighbourhood. To defend the town against the invaders, the Byzantine garrison broke through the dams so that vast marshes were formed, which still exist, in which the Arab cavalry were almost engulfed. This obstacle was overcome and Baisān opened its gates. It formed part of the d̲j̲und of Jordan, created by the new masters of Syria. It was the native town of the…

Bāisong̲h̲or

(190 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, second son of Sulṭān Mahmūd of Samarḳand, grandson of Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd [q. v.], born in the year 882 (1477-1478), killed on 10th Muḥarram 905 (17th Aug. 1493). In the lifetime of his father he was prince of Buk̲h̲ārā; on the death of the latter in Rabīʿ II 900 (30th Dec. 1494—27th Jan. 1495) he was summoned to Samarḳand. In 901 (1495-1496) he was deposed for a brief period by his brother Sulṭān ʿAlī and in 903 towards the end of Rabīʿ I (November 1497) finally overthrown by his cousin Bäbar. Bāisong̲h̲or then betook hims’elf to Ḥiṣār where he w…

Bāisong̲h̲or

(277 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn, son of S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ and grandson of Tīmūr was appointed by his father in 820 (1417) to the office of chief judge at the court; in 823 (1420) on the death of Ḳara-Yūsuf, he took possession ot Tabrīz and was appointed governor of Astarābād in Ṣafar 835 (October 1431), but he never ascended the throne; the astrologers having predicted to him that he would not live more than forty years, he gave himself up to dissipation and died at Herāt on Saturday, 7th Ḏj̲umāda I 837 (19th December ¶ 1433) at the age of thirty six. He was buried in the Mausoleum of Princess Gawha…

Bāisong̲h̲or

(41 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, was also the name of a prince of the Aḳ-Ḳuyūnlī in Persia, son and successor of Sulṭān Yaʿḳūb; he only reigned for a short period from 896-897 (= 1490—1492) and was overthrown by his cousin Rustam. (W. Barthold)

Bait

(55 words)

(a.), House, with the Arabic article: al-Bait the House, i. e. the House of Āllāh = the sanctuary at Mecca, also called al-Bait al-ʿatīḳ (the ancient house) or al-Bait al-ḥarām (the holy house). Geographical names compounded with Bait are frequent, some are given below. — In poetry Bait means verse, see Art. ʿarūḍ.
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