Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Baḥr al-ʿUlūm

(242 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, whose real name is Abu ’l-ʿAiyās̲h̲ Muḥammad ʿAbd al-ʿAlī b. Nīhẓām al-Dīn b. Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Sahālī, was born 1144 (1731) in the Firangī Maḥall, Lucknow, which had been given to his father by Awrangzēb. The family had come originally from Herāt and had received grants of land from Akbar. His greatgrandfather settled in the village of Sahāl, near Lucknow. Both his grandfather and father were renowned as scholars and religious teachers. Baḥr al-ʿUlūm was taug̲h̲t by his father and his father’s successor, Mullā Kam…

Baḥr al-Zand̲j̲

(318 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
By the Baḥr al-Zand̲j̲ the Arabs mean the western part of the Indian Ocean, Baḥr al-Hind [q. v.] which washes the East coast of Africa from the Gulf of Aden i. e. the Ḵh̲alīd̲j̲ al-Barbarī to Sofāla and Madagascar which was as far as the scanty knowledge of the Arabs extended. The name is derived from the adjoining coast which is called the Bilād al-Zand̲j̲ or Zanguebar, Land of the Zand̲j̲. The name Zand̲j̲ is applied by the Arabs to the black Bantu negroes who are sharply distinguished from the Berbers ¶ and Abyssinians. The name Zand̲j̲ is very old, even Ptolemy knows Ζήγγισα ’άκρα…


(190 words)

Author(s): de Vaux, Carra
“Baḥt̲h̲ is thorough investigation and examination. In a technical sense the word denotes the process of proving whether two things mutually imply or exclude one another. Al-mabḥat̲h̲ is the object of the positive or negative judgment”. These are the definitions of the Taʿrīfāt. In practise al-baḥt̲h̲ means discussion, the art of controversy and disputation. It is connected in meaning with the word naẓar which means speculation. A good example of the application of these expressions may be found in Masʿūdī, Prairies d’or (vi. 368). There it is said that Yaḥyā, the Barmecide …


(4 words)

[See al-madāʾin.]


(11 words)

, one of the titles of the Sūra ix.


(127 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish word, properly an ad̲j̲ective meaning “rich” (in this sense it appears in the earliest monuments of the Turkish language, the inscriptions of Orchon); as a substantive it means also “landlord, householder”. In Central Asia the word “Bai” is frequently appended to proper names, whereby the bearers of these names are shown to be prosperous, independent people in contrast to the masses. The oldest text, in which the word “Bai” appears with this meaning is the story of Mahmud Bai, Vizier of the prince (Gūṛk̲h̲ān) of the Ḳara Ḵh̲iṭāi in the Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ihān Kus̲h̲āi of Ḏj̲uwainī…


(774 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
, i. e. contract of sale, the sale of goods for money. Some other legal transactions however which have in view the mutual exchange of ¶ goods, are described in the Muslim legal works as different “Kinds of Baiʿ” ( Anwāʿ al-Baiʿ) (cf. e.g. Diction, of Technic. Terms, i., 137, 1. 14— 16; al-Nawawī, Minhād̲j̲ al-Ṭālibīn, ed. v. d. Berg, i., 369). Such legal transactions are, amongst others: the exchange of wares for wares ( Muḳāyada) or of money for money ( Ṣarf) and the socalled Salaf- or Salam-contract (by this the buyer purchases a thing which he has not seen himself but which is …


(192 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, properly means the sealing the contract of sale by clasping the hands ( Lisān, ix. 374), whence it comes to mean the oath of allegiance taken on the hand of the caliph on his ascending the throne. This ceremony consists in placing the hand in the open hand of the prince as a sign of homage. The formula for it was given by ʿOmar on the day of the Saḳīfa (Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 1013) “I said: Open thy hand, o Abū Bakr; he opened his hand and I paid him homage”. This act symbolises the handing over of authority (Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Prolegomena, Vol. i., p. 171). Among the Druses it denotes the oath or pledge…


(313 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, al-Manṣūrī al-Ḵh̲aṭaʾī, (about 645—725), Mamlūk minister and historian. Ḳalāūn, who purchased and manumitted him, promoted him to the governorship of Kerak, whence he was dismissed by the Sulṭān Ḵh̲alīl; on the accession of Nāṣir in 693 he was made chief of the dīwān al-ins̲h̲ā with the title dawādārkabīr, which he retained till 704. In 703 he was employed to repair the ravages caused by the earthquake in Alexandria. He was cashiered in 704 by the viceroy Sallār in consequence of a charge of insolence brought by one of the latter’s secreta…

Baibars I

(1,548 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn al-Ṣāliḥī, the fourth Sulṭān of the Baḥrī Mamlūks [see baḥrī], was born in Kipčak in 620 (1223), later sold into Damascus, and in 644 (1246) was taken to Egypt by Sulṭān al-Ṣāliḥ Aiyūb and appointed commander of a section of his bodyguard. He distinguished himself, even in the lifetime of Ṣāliḥ. After the death of the latter in 647 (1249) his son Tūrān S̲h̲āh aroused such discontent among the Mamlūks that they murdered him. Baibars took part in this conspiracy and was taken ove…

Baibars II

(150 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, Rukn al-Dīn, the Čāshnegīr, Sulṭān of Egypt and Syria, was one of Ḳālāūn’s Mamlūks. During the second reign of Sulṭān al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāūn (698—708 = 1298—1309) Baibars supported by the Burd̲j̲ī [q. v.] Mamlūks, shared the actual power with Sallār. When the Sulṭān escaped from the oppressive tutelage of the two Emirs in 708 ( 1309) by fleeing to al-Karak, Baibars was elected Sulṭān and took the name of al-Malik al-Muẓaffar. As al-Nāṣir again gained the chief power in 709 (1310) Baibars was …

Baibars, The Romance

(683 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
of, is unique among Arabic romances of chivalry as a combination of historic fact, the freest pseudo-historical reconstructions and combinations, purely fantastic imaginations and picaresque adventures. An outline cannot be attempted here, but references will suffice to the descriptions with considerable extracts by Lane in his Modern Egyptians (chap. xxii) and to Ahlwardt’s further details in the Berlin Catalogue (vol. xx. pp. 114—144). It is evident that the life and exploits of Baibars as the grea’ restorer of Islām, a gallant and suggest…


(158 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Asia Minor, the capital of a Ḳaza in the province and Sand̲j̲aḳ of Erzerūm, 60 miles from this town, divided into two parts by the Čuruk-Ṣū; it has about 8000 inhabitants; ancient ruins; manufactures of silver vessels and carpets. — The district of Bāiburt comprises 4 nāḥiyas and 169 villages; total population (including the capital) 58,213 souls. It is a fertile country and has numerous bee-farms and trade in wax with France. — The town was besieged and taken by the Kurd chief Muṣṭa…


(45 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Tatar village on the Crimean peninsula, 18 miles south east of Sebastopol (district of Taurus, province of Yalta), the chief town 01 the Baidar valley (Baidarskaya dolina), famed for its beauty and fertility and often celebrated by Russian poets. (W. Barthold)


(554 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, ʿAbdallāh b. ʿOmar, commentator on the Ḳorʾān, was a son of the chief justice of Fārs under the Atabeg Abū Bakr b. Saʿd(613— 658 = 1226—1260), was a judge in S̲h̲īrāz and finally settled in Tabrīz where he died according to Ṣafadī in 685 = 1282, according to Subkī in 691 = 1291 (see Suyūṭī, loc. cit.) but perhaps not till 216 (1316) (cf. Rieu, Suppl. to the Cat. of Arab MSS. in the British Museum p. 116). His chief work, the Anwar al-Tanzīl wa Asrār al-Taʾwīl, a commentary on the Ḳorʾān, based on ¶ the Kas̲h̲s̲h̲āf of Zamak̲h̲sharī but considerably amplified from other sources. “His comme…


(256 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Mongol prince (Īlk̲h̲ān) of Persia, grandson of Hūlagū, the founder of this dynasty; he reigned only a few months. Gaik̲h̲atū whom he dethroned was strangled on Thursday the 6th Ḏj̲umādā II. 694, (21 April 1295) and he himself was killed on Wednesday the 23rd Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda of the same year (5th October) after the victory of his opponent by G̲h̲āzān. The young and apparently unimportant prince Bāidū, who had been insulted ¶ by his cousin Gaik̲h̲ātū, was recalled by the nobles of the kingdom and raised to the throne. In justification of the deposition and murder of…


(103 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a district ofthe province of Nīsābūr in Ḵh̲orāsān, had at first as its capital, Ḵh̲usiawd̲j̲ird, a farsak̲h̲ (4 miles) from Sabzewār, then Sabzewār itself.. One of the villages attached to it is Bās̲h̲tīn, the native place of the Emīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ, founder of the Sarbadār dynasty. Its inhabitants have always been fanatical S̲h̲īʿites. Formerly marble quarries were worked there. Bās̲h̲tīn was the birthplace of the S̲h̲āfiʿite traditionist Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Barbier de Meynard, Dictionnaire de la Perse, p. 130 Muḥammad Ḥasan-Ḵh̲ān, Mirʾāt…


(54 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad, Arab author, of whose life nothing is known beyond that he belonged to the circle of Ibn al-Muʿtazz and wrote the adab book Kitāb al-Maḥāsin wa ’l-Masāwī, (ed. by F. Schwally, Giessen, 1902; reprinted Cairo, 1906) during the reign of the Caliph al-Muḳtadir (295—320 = 908—932). (C. Brockelmann)


(308 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-Ḵh̲osrūd̲j̲irdī, Arab author, authority on Tradition and S̲h̲āfiʿī Faḳīh born in S̲h̲aʿbān 384 (Sept. 994) at Ḵh̲osrūd̲j̲ird in the district of Baihaḳ, 20 parasangs from Nīsābūr, obtained on his wide travels, a thorough knowledge of Tradition and of Dogmatics after the doctrine of al-As̲h̲ʿarī. Returning home he was soon summoned to Nīsābūr, to expound S̲h̲afiʿī Fiḳh according to his own great Compendium of the legal opinions of the master ( Kitāb Nuṣūṣ al-Imām al-S̲h̲āfiʿī in 10 Vols. cf. Bibliothecae Bodleianae codd. mss. or. cat., i., …


(120 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Bū-d̲j̲aʿfarak, Arab philologist, born in 740 (1077), a pupil of al-Maidānī, lived in strict seclusion in his house and in the old mosque at Nīsābūr, of which he was Imām and died on the 30 Ramaḍān 544 = 31 Jan. 1150. Of his works there has been preserved his dictionary of Arabic infinitives with Persian explanations, the Tād̲j̲ al-Maṣādir, cf. Loth, A Catalogue of the Arab. Mss. in the Library of the India Office, N°. 994—996; Bibliothecae Bodleiajiae cod. mss. or. cat., i. N°. 1089. (C. Brockelmann) Bibliography Yāḳūt, The Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb ilā Maʿrifat al-Adīb (ed. D. S. Ma…
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