Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(16 words)

(a.), also Bawʿ, Būʿ, Plur. Abwāʿ, a linear measure = a fathom (Turkish ḳulad̲j̲).


(88 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the second letter of the Arabic alphabet (apart from Ḵh̲alīl’s arrangement of it; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad), as a numeral = 2. Graphically it is known as al-Bāʾ al-muwaḥḥada. Phonetically Sībawaihī defined it sufficiently according to our ideas as a-voiced, bilabial, explosive sound (ed. Derenbourg ii. 453, x6, ,8, 454, 7), our b. al-Bāʾ is also the name of the Arabic preposition bi (to, in, on; through [instrumental!]). For further information see grammars and dictionaries. [Cf. besides the Artt. Arabia: script and dialects], (A. Schaade)


(1,723 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(Baʿlabekk; called “Heliopolis” by the Greeks) chief town of a district in the province of Damascus, seat of a Ḳāʾimmaḳām, situated in the Syrian plateau of Biḳāʿ, famous for the ruins of the Temple of Jupiter erected by the Emperor Antoninus (138—161) on a broad terrace, the courts and propylaea of which Caracalla added, as well as for its Temple of Bacchus. The etymology of the name Baalbek has not been explained, according to the Greek designation “Heliopolis” it was the site of the cult of a…


(255 words)

Author(s): Hell, J.
(a.) door, gate. Unlike the open tent of the Bedouin the ancient Arab house formed a sort of stronghold which could only be entered by a door, Bāb. As is still often the case the door varied with the style of house and was small and concealed, heavy and barricaded, or high and open. The Bāb always concealed the view into the interior of a dwelling, nothing of the richness and beauty of which could be gathered from thé exterior. The Bāb thus became a symbol of approach and beginning of the means …


(1,589 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic word signifying ”gate”, early ¶ received among the Ṣūfis the meaning of “gate by which one enters, means of communication with that which is within”. Among the Ismaélis, this word is used symbolically for the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ or spiritual leader, who initiates into the mysteries of religion, the Asās (Guyard, Fragments, p. 106); among the Noṣairis, Salmān al-Fārisī, entrusted with the propaganda is the Bāb (R. Dussaud, Noṣairīs, p. 62. n. 4). The Druses call by this name the first spiritual minister, who embodies universal reason ( Mawlāya ʿaḳl “Monseigneur l’esprit”; cf. Sacy, Druz…


(367 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, (Turkish) “father” is also used as a designation of any old man of the people, in East Turkish it also denotes “grandfather” (Vámbéry, Čagat. Sprachstudien, p. 240; Süleimān-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āti d̲j̲ag̲h̲atai, p. 66). This surname is best known from the story in the 1001 Nights of ʿAli Bābā and the Forty Thieves (French Translation by Galland), of which the Arabic original has recently been discovered (Duncan B. Macdonald in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, April 1910). Some holy men have borne the name, like Geikli Bābā and Dog̲h̲li Bābā who accompanied Sultān Or…

Bābā Beg

(627 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, an Uzbeg chief of the family of the Keneges, was till 1870 prince of S̲h̲ahrisabz and had taken part, in the summer of 1868, in the siege of the citadel of Samarḳand then held by the Russians. In the summer of 1870 S̲h̲ahrisabz was conquered by the Russians under General Abromow. Bābā Beg had to flee with a small body of those faithful to him, first to the upper valley of the Zarafs̲h̲ān then to Farg̲h̲āna where he was seized by order of Ḵh̲ān Ḵh̲udāyār and handed over to the Russians. An annu…

Bāb al-Abwāb

(12 words)

, the “Iron Gate” at Derbend. [see the latter.]


(147 words)

Author(s): Hell, J.
(a.) “Parrot”, a name of the Arab poet Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Naṣr of Nisibis, who lived at the court of the prince Saif al-Dawla and after his death in Mosul and Bag̲h̲dād and died in 398 (1007). Standing next to his famous contemporary Mutanabbī in poetic endowments, Babag̲h̲ā enjoyed the reputation of being one of the best intellects and poets of his time. He tried his skill on all kinds of poetry with the greatest success in panegyrics of princes, with less in the domain of love poetry. (J. Hell) Bibliography Ph. Wolff, Carminum Abulfaragii Babbaghae specimen (Lips., 1834) E. G. S…

Bābā Ṭāhir

(3,559 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a mystic and poet who wrote in a Persian dialect. According to Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān (xixth century), who does not give his source, Bābā Ṭāhir lived in the period of Dailamī rule and died in 401 (1010). Among his quatrains there is an enigmatical one: “I am that sea ( baḥr) which entered into a vase; that point which entered into the letter. In each alf (“thousand”, i. e. of years?) arises an alif-ḳadd (a man upright in stature like the letter alif). I am the alif-ḳadd who has come in this alf”. Mahdī Ḵh̲ān in the J. A. S. Bengal has given an extremely curious interpretation of this quatrain: the letters alf-ḳ…


(420 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Chief of the Ḵh̲urrami-sect; the name is the arabicised form of the Iranian Pāpak. He was, it is said, the son of an itinerant oilmerchant, and was engaged in a very humble occupation when Ḏj̲āwīd̲h̲ān b. Sahl, chief of the Ḵh̲urramīs noticed his gifts. On the death of the latter he claimed that his spirit had entered him and began to stir up the population of the district of al-Bad̲h̲d̲h̲ in Arrān (201=816-817). In 204 (819-820) Yaḥyā b. Muʿād̲h̲ attacked him without success. Afterwards in th…


(777 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Zahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad, founder of the Great Mug̲h̲al dynasty in India, eldest son of ʿOmar S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mīrzā, great grandson of Mīrān S̲h̲āh the son of Tīmūr, through his mother Ḳutlūḳ Nigār he was descended from Čagatai, the second son of Chingīz Ḵh̲ān. When only twelve years of age he succeeded his father in Farg̲h̲āna (5 Ramaḍān 899 = 10 June 494); he took Samarḳand (903 = 1497) but could not hold it for more than a hundred days; he then took up a firm position at Ḵh̲od̲j̲and from which he was …


(524 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the designation of the followers of the Bāb who however prefer to call themselves Ahl-i bayān. The preaching of the doctrine began with the sending of missionaries into various Persian provinces [see bāb]; their teaching, which aroused the protestations of the S̲h̲īʿa population brought about persecutions which the Bābīs resisted; in consequence the sect, at first of a purely religious character, became a political party. After a counsel held at Bedes̲h̲t, Mollā Ḥusain of Bus̲h̲rūye set out for Bārfurus̲h̲ at the head of a li…

Bāb-I ʿĀlī

(285 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
, the Sublime Forte. The Turkish wazīrs at one time had their offices in their private houses ( ḳonaḳ). Meḥemmed II built offices for them in 872 (1467—1468) which were called Pas̲h̲a Ḳapusu “Gate of the Pas̲h̲a”, later Bāb-i Āṣafī or Bāb-i ʿĀlī “Sublime Porte”. The Sublime Porte which became from 1654 a government office, was separated only by the street from the old palace of the Sulṭān ( top ḳapu serāyi). After the abolition of the viziers of the dome, the work of the grand vizierate assumed great importance. The grand vizier’s principal assistants were: the deputy ( Kehya Bey) and the chan…


(1,687 words)

Author(s): Herzfeld, Ernst
, the ancient Babylon, situated on the Euphrates in 32° 41′ 30″ North and 44° 23′ 30″ East of Greenwich. The ancient Babylon had even in early times a much greater importance for Islām, as for us, than the town which still existed in the earlier Islāmic period. All that the Muslims know about Bābil, comes from three sources, Jewish Persian or Christian. It is not quite clear whether the information, which can be traced to the Bible, has come through the Jews or the Christians. Even Adam and Ḳābīl and Hābīl are placed in Bābil after the expulsion from Paradise and an equal antiqui…

Bāb al-Mandab

(154 words)

, the strait, 17 miles broad, between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. According to Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 650 ff., Mandab which means the place of calling, or of lament for the dead, is the name of a mountain on the Arabian coast. According to the legend mentioned by him, this mountain was originally joined to the outlying mountains opposite the African coast till a certain king caused it to be cut through. Mandab or Mandam is also however, the name of a harbour, the ’ΟκηλὶΣ ἐμπόριον of Ptolemy, which at the pre…


(490 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
(Bābalyūn), a town in Egypt. The name Babylon of the mediaeval Egyptian town in the neighbourhood of the modern Caïro is according to Casanova the Graëcised form of an ancient Egyptian Pi-Hapi-n-On through assimilation to the Asiatic βαβυλών which was familiar to the Greeks. This etymology is not quite free from objections but there is no doubt that some ancient Egyptian place-name underlies it. By the name is meant the ancient town and fortification of the Greeks which — situated on the borders…


(1,685 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.), appearance; in the dogmatic sense: the intervention of new circumstances which bring about the alteration of an earlier divine determination. (Dozy gives the term too wide a signification Essai sur l’Histoire de l’Islamisme, 223, translating it “mutabilité de Dieu”). Three sorts of Badāʾ are distinguished (S̲h̲āhrastānī, ed. Cureton, p. 110) according as the word refers to the knowledge, the will, or the command of God ( B. fi ’l-ʿilm, fi ’l-irāda, fi ’l-amr). The possibility of Badāʾ is, in opposition to the very divergent orthodox Sunni doctrine, always dealt…


(479 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, at the present day, the fortified capital of the province, the largest in Spain of the same name, the southern half of Spanish Estremadura, on the left shore of the Guadiana before its bend to the South on the Portuguese border (31,000 inhabitants). The identification of the town with and the derivation of the name from Pax (Julia) Augusta or Colonia Pacensis is without foundation and has arisen from an error of local patriotism as the latter certainly is Beja in Portugal (Arab. Bād̲j̲a = Bēd̲…


(2,290 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, frequently written Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, in the spoken language also sometimes called Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānāt, (with Arabic plural ending) a mountainous land on the upper course of the Amū-Daryā or more correctly of the Pand̲j̲, on the left bank of this stream which is the source of the great river; from it comes the adjective Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānī or Badak̲h̲shī. J. Marquart ( Ērāns̲h̲ahr, p. 279) explains the name as “land of Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲sh or Balak̲h̲s̲h̲, a kind of ruby which is said to be found only in Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ān at Kokča”. It is very probable however tha…


(153 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), properly “interchange” as a grammatical term “permutative”. The Badal is one of the five kinds of apposition ( Tābiʿ). By it is understood in the first place a substantive which follows another substantive in the same case in asyndeton but not as an explanation of it like the ʿAṭf al-Bayān [see ʿaṭf] but independent. Thus for example in the phrase d̲j̲āʾanī ak̲h̲ūka Zaidun, Zaidun is a Badal of ak̲h̲ūka if the person addressed had only the one brother, on the other hand it is an ʿAṭf if several brothers might have to be considered (Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲, ed. Jahn, ii. 392, 15). — The different kin…


(342 words)

Author(s): Nicholson, R. A.
(a.), substitute. The terms abdāl (pl. of badal) and budalāʾ (pl. of badīl) are connected with a Ṣūfī doctrine, which goes back to the iiird century a. h., that the cosmic order is preserved by a fixed number of saints, so that whe n a holy man dies his place is immediately filled by a “substitute”. In Persian and Turkish the plural abdāl is often used as a singular. Some writers explain badal as “one who, when he departs from a place, has the power to leave his ‘double’ ( s̲h̲ak̲h̲ṣ rūḥānī) behind him”, or “one who has experienced a spiritual transformation”. There is great discrepan…


(4 words)

[See Ḏj̲ism.]


(250 words)

Author(s): Streck
, a town and district in ʿIrāḳ, east of the Tigris, near the outlying hills of the Zagros Range. The place still exists under the name of Badrē (somewhat above the 33° n. Br. and under 46° E. L. Greenw.). The Arab geographers usually mention Bādarāyā with Bākusāyā and give Bandanīd̲j̲in as the common capital of both districts. Among the articles exported they mention particularly the local highly prized dried reeds. Ḵh̲osraw I Anōs̲h̲arwān settled some of the inhabitants of Antāḳiya when it was destroyed by him (see above p. 359a) in this district. Bādarāyā is also often mentioned in…


(170 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, Budaun or Badāyūn, a town and district of India, in Rohilk̲h̲and, United Provinces. Area of the district: 1,987 sq. m.; population (1901): 1,025,753 of whom 16% are Muḥammadans, mostly Paṭhāns, S̲h̲aik̲h̲s, and Ḏj̲ulāhās. The town has a population (1901) of 39,031, including 21,995 Muḥammadans. It was of importance in early Muḥammadan history, as an outpost among turbulent Rād̲j̲pūt tribes. Two of its governors ¶ in the first half of the: 13th cent., S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Iltutmis̲h̲ and his son Rukn al-Dīn Fīiūz, became emperors of Delhi; and ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, the last of …


(579 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, son of Mulūk S̲h̲āh, born at Basāwar in the sarkār of Sambhal in A. H. 947 or 949 (A. D. 1540-41 or 1542-43). After a studious life as a youth, one of his teachers being S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mubārak, father of Faiḍī and Abu ’l-Faḍl, he entered the service of Ḥusain Ḵh̲ān Ṭukriya (“the Patcher”), but was transferred, as an imām. in April 1574 to the service of Akbar. Abu ’l-Faḍl entered the emperor’s service in the same year. The restraints of the court were irksome to Badāʾūnī and before 1579 be absented himself without leave. In that year he was restored to the service as a muns̲h̲ī or secreta…


(9 words)

, Beduin. [Side arabia , p. 372—377.]


(6 words)

[Side aḥmad al-badawī .]


(13 words)

, a title of ‘the chief Yaʿkūb-Beg of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar [q. v.].


(302 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or Bād̲h̲g̲h̲īs, a district in the north-western part of the modern Afg̲h̲ānistān; the name is explained as being derived from the Persian bādk̲h̲īz (“a place where wind rises”) on account of the strong winds prevailing there. By the geographers of the iv. (x.) century only the district in the north-west of Herat between this town and Sarak̲h̲s is called Bādg̲h̲īs. Later the name was extended to the whole country between the Herīrūd and the Murg̲h̲āb; at any rate it is used in this sense as early as the vii. (xiii.) …


(105 words)

(a.), “Discoverer”, “Creator”, one of the 99 names of God. — In the passive sense badīʿ means ‘discovered’ and is a technical term in Rhetoric for rhetorical figures, metaphors etc. Hence the ʿilm al-badīʿ (science of metaphors) forms a branch of Rhetoric. The first Arab writer on this subject is the poet Ibn al-Mnʿtazz [q. v.], Later poets delighted in using all sorts of figures of speech in one and the same poem. Such poems, called Badīʿīya were composed by Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Ḥillī [q. v.] and Ibn Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a [q. v.] amongst others. Cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa s. v.; v. Mehren, Rhetorik der Araber, …

al-Badīʿ al-Asṭurlābī

(422 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
, Hibatallāh b. al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad (also Yūsuf) Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, a distinguished Arab scholar, physician, philosopher, astroncmer and poet, but especially eminent in the knowledge and construction of the astrolabe and other astronomical instruments. The date of his birth is unknown; in the year 510 (1116-1117) we find him in Iṣfahān on friendly terms with the Christian physician Amīn al-Dawla b. al-Tilmīd̲h̲. Later he lived ŕn Bag̲h̲dād and is said to have made a considerable fortune by his profession under…


(7 words)

(a.), “Equivalent”, “Substitute”. [See abdāl.]


(423 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, M.
b. Ḥabbūs b. Māksin al-Ṣinhād̲j̲ī, called al-Muhẓaffar (the victorious”), a Berber Zīrid, cousin of Bādīs Abū Mennād [q. v.], King of Granada (429—465 = 1038—1073), a bloodthirsty tyrant and drunkard, obtained the sovereignty of Granada by the help of his clever Jewish vizier Samuel Ha-Nagīd (Samuel Ha-Lewi b. Joseph b. Nagdēla, arab. Ismāʿīl b. Nag̲h̲dīla) after the death of his father Ḥabbūs and the voluntary withdrawal of his younger brother Boluggīn ¶ who was preferred by a powerful party in the Kingdom. He at once sought to secure his position by murdering var…


(428 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū Mannad Nāṣir al-Dawla, son and successor of al-Manṣūr, a prince of the Zīrid dynasty, succeeded his father on the 3. Rabīʿ I. 386 (26 March 996), as governor of Ifrīḳīya and Central Mag̲h̲rib. His accession was confirmed by his suzerain al-Ḥākim bi-amriʾllāh the Fāṭimid Caliph of Egypt. He continued the war against the Zanāta and after entrusting the government of Tāhert (Tagdemt) to his uncle Ittūweft he sent against Zīrī b. ʿAṭya, sovereign of Fās, his other uncle Ḥammād who was defeated at …


(512 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
, country residence of the Omaiyads. The conquering Arabs, accustomed to the free life and open air of the desert, required some time to become used to the confinement of towns, frequently ravaged by epidemics; whence their saying “Health dwells in the desert”. Some of the Sāsānids even had their heirs brought up in the desert by the Lak̲h̲mids of Ḥīra who resided there periodically. This repugnance to the town explains also why the caliphs, especially Moʿāwiya I and ʿAbd al-Malik, usually lived…

Badīʿ al-Zamān

(19 words)

“wonder of the age”, a title of honour given to the Arab writer al-Hamad̲h̲ānī [q. v.].


(8 words)

(p.), a gift, tax, toll etc.


(120 words)

Author(s): Streck
, in the Arab middle ages, a small strongly fortified town in Mesopotamia, south of Ḥarrān, some distance east of Balīk̲h̲ situated, on the road to Raʾs al-ʿAin, with famous gardens. It appears at the present day to be no longer in existence. The Aramaic name () denotes “house of fortune”; cf. perhaps, an ʿAin-gaddā = “source of fortune” in the Damascene and the Gadda of the Tabula Peutingeriana in Syria. See thereon Nöldeke in the Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch., xxix, 441. (Streck) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am (ed. Wüstenfeld), i. 453 Belād̲h̲orī (ed. de Goeje), p. 174, 72, whe…


(150 words)

, al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Warsand, founder of a sect among the Berbers of Morocco, whose adherents are called Bad̲j̲alīya. Al-Bakrī states that he appeared there before Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲īʿī [q. v.] came to Ifrīḳīya (before 280 — 893). Al-Bad̲j̲alī came from Nafṭa (Nefta) and found many adherents among the Bana Lamās. His teaching agreed with that of the Rawāfiḍ but he asserted that the Imāmate belonged only to the descendants of al-Ḥasan. So al-Bakrī and Ibn Ḥazm state in opposition to Ibn Ḥawḳal (e…


(163 words)

Author(s): Streck
, or Bād̲j̲armaḳ, name of a district east of the Tigris between the lower Zāb in the North and the Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn in the South whose chief town in the middle ages was Kerkūk (Syr. Karkhā de Bēth Slōk̲h̲). During the caliphate it formed a district of the province of Mosul (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲beh, 97, 7). Bād̲j̲armā is an Arabic rendering of the Aramaic Bēth (Be)-Garmai while Bād̲j̲armaḳ goes back to some Middle Persian form of the name of the ¶ district, like Garmakān. The latter word comes from the Gurumu, a nomadic people mentioned ia cuneiform inscriptions, the Γαραμαĩοι of Ptolemy. (Streck) Bi…


(49 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a tract of hilly country on the N. W. frontier of India (estimated area: 5,000 sq. m.; estimated population 100,000). It is occupied by several Paṭhān or Afg̲h̲ān tribes, who recognise the nominal supremacy of the Ḵh̲ān of Nawagai. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Imperial Gazetteer of India.


(148 words)

Author(s): Hell, J.
, an Arabian tribe of Bedouins, which occupied the central part of the Sarāt mountains — at Ṭāʾif — stretching northwards from South Arabia after they had displaced the tribe originally dwelling there, the Banū T̲h̲āʾir. The tribe was gradually broken up through feuds with the neighbouring tribes and the quarrels of the individual clans with one another and even in pre-Muḥammadan times had been for the most part merged in other Arab tribes. A part however survived under the old name and was celebrated in the Umaiyad period by the poet Farazdaḳ. (J. Hell) Bibliography F. Wüstenfeld, Register …


(62 words)

or Bagimzā, a village northeast of Bag̲h̲dād, 2 farsak̲h̲ from Baʿḳūbā, where the caliph al-Muḳtafī bi amr Allāh put to flight the troops of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Muḥammad II under Alp Ḳus̲h̲ Kun-i Ḵh̲ar in 549 (1154). Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 497, 706 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornberg), xi. 129 Recueil de textes relat. à l’hist. des Seldjouc, ii. 237 et seq.


(207 words)

Author(s): Streck
, a township in ʿIrāḳ (Babylonia) according to Yāḳūt east (to be more accurate north-east) of Bag̲h̲dād, 6 parasangs = about 21 miles distant from Ḥulwān. According to Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲beh and Ibn Serapions’s more exact description it was situated on the bank of the great Ḳāṭūl-Nahrawān canal which was led from the Tigris and in the central section of it, the so-called Nahr Tāmarrā, probably very near where a cross-canal called al-Ḵh̲āliṣ left the Tāmarrā to join the Tigris at Baradān [q.v.] above…


(54 words)

The Bād̲j̲ūrān live on the Perso-Turkish frontier (Wilāyet Moṣul) in the villages of ʿOmar Ḳān, Toprāk̲h̲ Ziyāret, Tell Yaʿḳūb, Bas̲h̲pītā amongst others. According to P. Anastase, they speak a mixed dialect and have peculiar religious observances and customs like the S̲h̲abak and the Ṣārlīya [q. v.]. Bibliography P. Anastase in Mas̲h̲riḳ, v. 580.


(457 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(or Baid̲j̲ūrī, Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad), born in the year 1198 (1783) in Bād̲j̲ūr, a village 12 hours journey from Cairo, devoted himself after 1212 (1797) to study at the Azharmosque. After retiring to al-Ḏj̲īze during the French occupation he resumed his studies in Cairo in 1216 (1801). Soon afterwards he began to give lectures in the Azhar and the fame of his learning became so great that hundreds of students used to attend his lectures. He “was undoubtedly the most learned of all the teachers then in the Azhar” says one of his pupils (the S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ al-Ṭanṭāwī in his autobiography: Zeitschr. …


(369 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
(Pīr). Besides Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ā Ḵh̲iḍr, Bengal believes in a greater animistic power in the person of Pīr Badr who shares with the former the dominion of the waters. His spirit is invoked by every sailor and fisherman, when starting on a cruise or while overtaken by a squall or a storm. All Muḥammadans agree that he resided for some time at Čittagong, but his history does not disclose the reason why the attributes of a watergod were conferred on him. The guardians of his shrine, however, say that abou…
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